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  1. 1. Nano electromechanical systems Presented by SYEDA NASIHA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Nano-Electro-Mechanical systems (NEMS) integrate electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale.  The Nano mechanical components are fabricated using compatible “micromachining” process.
  3. 3.  Nano electro mechanical devices promise to revolutionize measurements of extremely small displacement and extremely weak forces, particularly at the molecular level.  NEMS devices can be so small that hundreds of them can be fit in the same space as one single micro device that performs same function.
  4. 4.  Nano-electronic integrated circuits allow nano systems to sense and control the environment.  In Nems devices the sensors gather the information from surrounding environment through measuring mechanical, chemical, biological, chemical and optical phenomenon.  The electronics then process the information derived form the sensors.  Through some decision making capability direct the actuators to respond by moving, regulating and filtering.
  5. 5.  Electro mechanical systems:  The device illustrates the two principal components common to most electromechanical systems irrespective of scale:  a mechanical element:includes moveable structures such as beams,gears.  transducers.:small motors and integrated circuits.  the output of an electromechanical device is the movement of the mechanical element.
  6. 6. BENEFITS OF NANO MACHINES  The small mass and size of Nano machines gives them a number of unique attributes that offer immense potential for new applications and fundamental measurements.  A second important attribute Nano machines is that they dissipate less energy.
  7. 7.  Nano machines are extremely small .  Nano machines are ultra low power devices.  Fundamental power scale is defined by the thermal energy divided by the response time
  8. 8. fabrication of nems device  There are three Basic building blocks in NEMS technology.  Deposition processes.  Lithography.  Etching processes.
  9. 9. Deposition Process :  Chemical methods used in NEMS deposition process. o Chemical vapour deposition. o Epitaxy.
  10. 10.  Chemical vapour deposition : Fig. 1: Typical hot-wall LPCVD reactor
  11. 11.  Epitaxy : Fig 2: Typical cold-wall vapour phase epitaxial reactor
  12. 12.  Lithography :  Lithography in the NEMS context is typically the transfer of a pattern to a photosensitive material by selective exposure to a radiation source such as light.  A photosensitive material is a material that experiences a change in its physical properties when exposed to a radiation source.
  13. 13.  Pattern Transfer : Fig 3: Transfer of a pattern to a photosensitive material
  14. 14. Figure 4:a) Pattern definition in positive resist, b) Pattern definition in negative resist.
  15. 15. Alignment :  Inorder to make useful devices the patterns for different lithography steps that belongs to a single structure must be aligned to one another.  It is important for each alignment mark on the wafer to be labeled so it may be identified, and for each pattern to specify the alignment mark to which it should be aligned.
  16. 16.  Exposure :  This parameter is required in order to achive accurate pattern transfer from the Mask to the photo sensitive layer.  Different Photo resist exhibit different sensitivity to different wavelengths
  17. 17.  Etching :  It is necessary to etch the thin films previously deposited or the substrate itself.  There are 2 class of etching process.  Wet etching.  Dry etching.
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES o Cost effectiveness. o System integration. o High Precision. o Small size. o High sensitivity
  19. 19. APPLICATIONS OF NEMS  Accelerometer : NEMS accelerometers are quickly replacing conventional accelerometers for crash air-bag deployment systems in automobiles. Figure 6 : Accelerometer(air bags)
  20. 20.  Nano nozzles:  Another wide deployment of NEMS is their use as nano nozzles that direct the ink in inkjet printers.  They are also used to create miniature robots (nano-robots) as well as nano-tweezers.  NEMS have been rigorously tested in harsh environments for defense and aerospace where they are used as navigational gyroscopes.
  21. 21.  NEMS in Wireless :  A 3G “smart” phone will require the functionality of as many as five radios – for TDMA, CDMA, 3G, Bluetooth and GSM operation. A huge increase in component count is required to accomplish this demand.
  22. 22.  Thermal actuator :  Thermal actuator is one of the most important NEMS devices, which is able to deliver a large force with large displacement.
  23. 23.  Thermal actuator :  Thermal actuator is one of the most important NEMS devices, which is able to deliver a large force with large displacement.
  24. 24. DRAWBACKS  NEMS technology is currently used in low- or medium- volume applications. Some of the obstacles preventing its wider adoption are:  Limited Options Packaging Fabrication Knowledge Required
  25. 25. FUTURE OUTLOOK  NEMS offer unprecedented and intriguing opportunities for sensing and fundamental measurements.  In the future, complex molecular-scale mechanical devices will be mass-produced by placing millions of atoms with exquisite precision or by some form of controlled self-assembly. This will be true nanotechnology.
  26. 26.  The focus on the exploration of NEM-physics and the development of NEM-devices can be used as extremely sensitive sensors for force and mass detection down to the single molecule level, as high-frequency resonators up to the GHz range  Typically, high-frequency electrical resonators have Q values less than several hundred.
  27. 27. CONCLUSION  Nano-systems have the enabling capability and potential similar to those of nano-processors .  Since NEMS is a nascent and synergistic technology, many new applications will emerge, expanding the markets beyond that which is currently identified or known.
  28. 28.  NEMS is forecasted to have growth similar to its parent IC technology.  For a great many applications, NEMS is sure to be the technology of the future.
  29. 29. REFERENCES [1] James E.Hughes Jr;Massimiliano Di Ventra;Stephane Evoy(2004).”Introduction to nanoscale science and technology”. [2] Despont M;Brugger,J;DRECHSLER,U;Durig,U;Haberle,W,Lutwyche ,M;Rothuizen,H;Stutz,R,et al(2000).”VLSI-NEMS chip for parallel AFM data storage”. [3] Ke,Changhong;Espinosa,Horacio D(2005).”Numerical analysis of nanotube_based Nems devices_part 1”. [4] “Global Market of NEMS projections”
  30. 30. THANK YOU