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  1. 1. HOLOPROSENCEPHALY 0 Absence of brain tissue in the midline 0 Fusion of lateral ventricles to form a single chamber 0 Eye field area fails to separate
  2. 2. Schizencephaly 0 Formation of clefts in cerebral hemisphere 0 Loss of brain tissue may also occur
  3. 3. Defects in ossification of skull bones 0 Most common is that of sq.part of occipital bone 0 If opening is small, only the herniation of meninges takes place(Meningocele) 0 If large , cranial tissue may also be involved(Meningoencephalocele) 0 If ventricles also involved(Meningohydroencephalocele)
  4. 4. Exencephaly 0 Failure of closure of neural folds in cephalic region 0 Vault of skull is absent 0 Nervous tissue is exposed, degenerates and becomes necrotic---anencephaly 0 Swallowing reflex absent— Hydramnios present
  5. 5. Craniorachischisis 0 If NTD(Failure of closure) extends upto the spinal cord—craniorachischisis----Anencephaly occurs
  6. 6. Hydrocephalus 0 Abn.accumulation of CSF in ventricles 0 Most common cause is the obstruction in aqueduct of Sylvius 0 Pressure on brain and skull bones--- opening/widening of skull---large sized skull 0 Sometimes thinning of brain tissue and bones also occurs
  7. 7. Arnold-Chiari Syndrome 0 Caudal displacement and herniation of cerebellar structures
  8. 8. Microencephaly 0 Underdevelopment of brain and overlying skull 0 CAUSES: 0 Fetal insults by 0 DRUGS 0 RADIATION 0 TERATOGENS 0 INFECTIONS(Rubella,Toxoplasmosis,Cytomegalovirus ) 0 Maternal alcohol abuse
  9. 9. ABSENCE OF CORPUS CALLOSUM 0 Without much functional disturbence
  10. 10. ABSENCE OF CEREBELLUM 0 Only a little difficulty in coordination