Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Hsp biology f4


Published on

form 4 biology syllabus

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Hsp biology f4

  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications BIOLOGY Form 4 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2005
  2. 2. Copyright © 2005 Ministry of Education Malaysia First published 2005 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, and recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Director of Curriculum Development Centre, Level 4-8, Block E9, Government Complex Parcel E, 62604 Putrajaya, Malaysia.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page The National Philosophy v National Philosophy of Education vii National Science Education Philosophy ix Preface xi Introduction 1 Scientific Skills 2 Thinking Skills 4 Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 8 Teaching and Learning Strategies 9 Content Organisation 12 THEME: INTRODUCING BIOLOGY Learning Area : 1. Introduction to Biology 14
  4. 4. THEME: INVESTIGATING THE CELL AS A BASIC UNIT OF LIVING THINGS Learning Area : 1. Cell structure and cell organisation 16 Learning Area : 2. Movement of substances across the plasma membrane 20 Learning Area : 3. Chemical composition of the cell 24 Learning Area : 4. Cell division 28 THEME: INVESTIGATING THE PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVING THINGS Learning Area : 1. Nutrition 32 Learning Area : 2. Respiration 47 THEME: INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIVING THINGS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Learning Area : 1. Dynamic ecosystem 55 Learning Area : 2. Endangered ecosystem 62 Acknowledgements 67 Panel of Writers 68
  5. 5. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY Our nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; to maintaining a democratic way of life; to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared; to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; to building a progressive society which shall be oriented towards modern science and technology; We, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles: BELIEF IN GOD LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION RULE OF LAW GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY v
  6. 6. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the family, society and the nation at large. vii
  7. 7. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a science and technology culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency. ix
  8. 8. PREFACE The aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised society In a recent development, the Government has made a decision to depends on science and technology. It is envisaged that introduce English as the medium of instruction in the teaching success in providing quality science education to Malaysians and learning of science and mathematics. This measure will from an early age will serve to spearhead the nation into enable students to keep abreast of developments in science and becoming a knowledge society and a competitive player in the technology in contemporary society by enhancing their capability global arena. Towards this end, the Malaysian education system and know-how to tap the diverse sources of information on is giving greater emphasis to science and mathematics science written in the English language. At the same time, this education. move would also provide opportunities for students to use the English language and hence, increase their proficiency in the The Biology curriculum has been designed not only to provide language. Thus, in implementing the biology curriculum, attention opportunities for students to acquire science knowledge and is given to developing students’ ability to use English for study skills, develop thinking skills and thinking strategies, and to and communication, especially in the early years of learning. apply this knowledge and skills in everyday life, but also to inculcate in them noble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is The development of this curriculum and the preparation of the hoped that the educational process en route to achieving these corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the work of aims would produce well-balanced citizens capable of many individuals over a period of time. To all those who have contributing to the harmony and prosperity of the nation and its contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on behalf people. of the Ministry of Education, express my sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labour expended. The Biology curriculum aims at producing active learners. To this end, students are given ample opportunities to engage in scientific investigations through hands-on activities and experimentations. The inquiry approach, incorporating thinking skills, thinking strategies and thoughtful learning, should be (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR SMP, AMP) emphasised throughout the teaching-learning process. The Director content and contexts suggested are chosen based on their Curriculum Development Centre relevance and appeal to students so that their interest in the Ministry of Education Malaysia subject is enhanced. xi
  9. 9. designed to produce students who are literate in INTRODUCTION science, innovative, and able to apply scientific knowledge in decision making and problem solving in everyday life. As articulated in the National Education Policy, education in The elective science subjects prepare students who are more Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential scientifically inclined to pursue the study of science at post- of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce secondary level. This group of students would take up careers in individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and the field of science and technology and play a leading role in this physically balanced and harmonious. The primary and field for national development. secondary school science curriculum is developed with the aim of producing such individuals. For every science subject, the curriculum for the year is articulated in two documents: the syllabus and the curriculum As a nation that is progressing towards a developed nation specifications. The syllabus presents the aims, objectives and the status, Malaysia needs to create a society that is scientifically outline of the curriculum content for a period of 2 years for oriented, progressive, knowledgeable, having a high capacity for elective science subjects and 5 years for core science subjects. change, forward-looking, innovative and a contributor to The curriculum specifications provides the details of the scientific and technological developments in the future. In line curriculum which includes the aims and objectives of the with this, there is a need to produce citizens who are creative, curriculum, brief descriptions on thinking skills and thinking critical, inquisitive, open-minded and competent in science and strategies, scientific skills, scientific attitudes and noble values, technology. teaching and learning strategies, and curriculum content. The curriculum content provides the themes, learning areas, learning The Malaysian science curriculum comprises three core science objectives, suggested learning activities, the intended learning subjects and four elective science subjects. The core subjects outcomes, notes and vocabulary. are Science at primary school level, Science at lower secondary level and Science at upper secondary level. Elective science subjects are offered at the upper secondary level and consist of AIMS Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Additional Science. The core science subjects for the primary and lower secondary The aims of the biology curriculum for secondary school are to levels are designed to provide students with basic science provide students with the knowledge and skills in science and knowledge, prepare students to be literate in science, and technology and enable them to solve problems and make enable students to continue their science education at the upper decisions in everyday life based on scientific attitudes and noble secondary level. Core Science at the upper secondary level is values. Students who have followed the biology curriculum will have the foundation in biology to enable them to pursue formal and informal further education in science and technology. 1
  10. 10. The curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, dynamic and 8. Realise the importance of inter-dependence among living progressive society with a science and technology culture that things and the management of nature for survival of values nature and works towards the preservation and mankind. conservation of the environment. 9. Appreciate the contributions of science and technology towards national development and the well-being of OBJECTIVES mankind. 10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result of human The biology curriculum for secondary school enables students endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual and mental to: capabilities to understand natural phenomena for the betterment of mankind. 1. Acquire knowledge in biology and technology in the 11. Be aware of the need to love and care for the context of natural phenomena and everyday life environment and play an active role in its preservation experiences. and conservation. 2. Understand developments in the field of biology and technology. SCIENTIFIC SKILLS 3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills. 4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and critical Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and manner to solve problems and make decisions on problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are biology-related issues. utilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation such as conducting experiments and carrying out 5. Apply knowledge of biology to improve one’ health and s projects. well-being, and face challenges in the scientific and technological world and be willing to contribute towards Scientific skills encompass science process skills and the development of science and technology. manipulative skills. 6. Evaluate science and technology-related information Science Process Skills wisely and effectively. Science process skills enable students to formulate their 7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and good questions and find out the answers systematically. moral values. 2
  11. 11. Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: Controlling Identifying the fixed variables, manipulated Variables variable, and responding variable in an Observing Using the sense of hearing, touch, smell, investigation. The manipulated variable is taste and sight to collect information about an changed to observe its relationship with the object or a phenomenon. responding variable. At the same time, the fixed variables are kept constant. Classifying Using observations to group objects or events according to similarities or differences. Hypothesising Making a general statement about the relationship between a manipulated variable Measuring and Making quantitative observations using and a responding variable in order to explain Using numbers and tools with standardised units. an event or observation. This statement can Numbers Measuring makes observation more accurate. be tested to determine its validity. Inferring Using past experiences or previously Experimenting Planning and conducting activities to test a collected data to draw conclusions and certain hypothesis. These activities include explain events. collecting, analysing and interpreting data and making conclusions. Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through Manipulative Skills experiences or collected data. Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor Communicating Using words or graphic symbols such as skills that enable students to: tables, graphs, figures or models to describe an action, object or event. ? use and handle science apparatus and laboratory substances Using Space- Describing changes in parameter with time. correctly, Time Relationship Examples of parameters are location, ? handle specimens correctly and carefully, direction, shape, size, volume, weight and ? draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory substances mass. accurately, ? clean science apparatus correctly, and Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations about an object, ? store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly event or pattern derived from collected data. and safely. Defining Defining concepts by describing what must be Operationally done and what should be observed. 3
  12. 12. THINKING SKILLS Critical Thinking Skills A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to integrate knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand Attributing Identifying characteristics, features, the environment. qualities and elements of a concept or an One of the objectives of the national education system is to object. enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be Comparing and Finding similarities and differences based achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful Contrasting on criteria such as characteristics, llearning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills features, qualities and elements of a is a foundation for thoughtful learning. concept or event. Grouping and Separating objects or phenomena into Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved Classifying categories based on certain criteria such in the teaching and learning process. Activities should be as common characteristics or features. organised to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in conceptualisation, problem solving and decision-making. Sequencing Arranging objects and information in order based on the quality or quantity of common Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills and characteristics or features such as size, creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always time, shape or number. evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A Prioritising Arranging objects and information in order person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is based on their importance or priority. able to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas Analysing Examining information in detail by breaking and products. it down into smaller parts to find implicit meanings and relationships. Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that iinvolve various steps. Each step involves various critical and Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions that have the creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking tendency to support or oppose something strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in in an unfair or misleading way. the teaching and learning process. Evaluating Making judgements on the quality or value of something based on valid reasons or evidence. Making Conclusions Making a statement about the outcome of an investigation that is based on a hypothesis. 4
  13. 13. Creative Thinking Skills Making Analogies Understanding abstract or complex concepts by relating them to simpler or A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: concrete concepts with similar characteristics. Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a discussion. Inventing Producing something new or adapting Relating Making connections in a certain situation something already in existence to to determine a structure or pattern of overcome problems in a systematic relationship. manner. Making Inferences Using past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions and Thinking Strategy explain events. Description of each thinking strategy is as follows: Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through Conceptualising Making generalisations based on inter- experiences or collected data. related and common characteristics in order to construct meaning, concept or Making Making a general conclusion about a model. Generalisations group based on observations on, or information from, samples of the group. Making Decisions Selecting the best solution from various alternatives based on specific criteria to Visualising Recalling or forming mental images about achieve a specific aim. a particular idea, concept, situation or vision. Problem Solving Finding solutions to challenging or unfamiliar situations or unanticipated Synthesising Combining separate elements or parts to difficulties in a systematic manner. form a general picture in various forms such as writing, drawing or artefact. Besides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies, another skill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skill Making Hypotheses Making general statement about the used in making logical, just and rational judgements. relationship between manipulated Mastering of critical and creative thinking skills and thinking variables and responding variables to strategies is made simpler if an individual is able to reason in explain observations or events. The an inductive and deductive manner. Figure 1 gives a general statements can be tested to determine picture of thinking skills and thinking strategies. validity. 5
  14. 14. Figure 1: TSTS Model in Science Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS) through the teaching and learning of science can be developed through the following phases: Thinking Skills 1. Introducing TSTS. 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’ guidance. s 3. Practising TSTS without teacher’ guidance. s 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’ s guidance. 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish Critical Creative thinking tasks. ? Attributing ? Generating ideas Further information about phases of implementing TSTS can ? Comparing and ? Relating be found in the guidebook “ Buku Panduan Penerapan contrasting ? Making inferences Kemahiran Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran ? Grouping and ? Predicting dan Pembelajaran Sains” (Curriculum Development Centre, classifying Reasoning ? Making 1999). ? Sequencing hypotheses ? Prioritising ? Synthesising Relationship between Thinking Skills and Science Process ? Analysing ? Making Skills ? Detecting bias generalisations ? Evaluating ? Visualising Science process skills are skills that are required in the ? Making ? Making analogies process of finding solutions to a problem or making decisions conclusions ? Inventing in a systematic manner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process skills and the possession of suitable attitudes and knowledge enable students to think effectively. The mastering of science process skills involves the Thinking mastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills Strategies that are related to a particular science process skill are as follows: ? Conceptualising ? Making decisions ? Problem solving 6
  15. 15. Science Process Skills Thinking Skills Science Process Skills Thinking Skills Observing Attributing Controlling variables Attributing Comparing and contrasting Comparing and contrasting Relating Relating Analysing Classifying Attributing Comparing and contrasting Making hypotheses Attributing Grouping and classifying Relating Comparing and contrasting Measuring and Using Relating Generating ideas Numbers Comparing and contrasting Making hypotheses Making Inferences Relating Predicting Comparing and contrasting Synthesising Analysing Experimenting All thinking skills Making inferences Predicting Relating Communicating All thinking skills Visualising Using Space-Time Sequencing Teaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills and Relationship Prioritising Scientific Skills Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting This biology curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning based on Analysing thinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of thinking skills and Detecting bias scientific skills are integrated with the acquisition of knowledge in Making conclusions the intended learning outcomes. Thus, in teaching and learning, Generalising teachers need to emphasise the mastery of skills together with Evaluating the acquisition of knowledge and the inculcation of noble values and scientific attitudes. Defining operationally Relating Making analogy The following is an example and explanation of a learning Visualising outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Analysing 7
  16. 16. Example: ? Being respectful and well-mannered. ? Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. ? Being thankful to God. Learning Outcome: Compare and contrast animal cell and ? Having critical and analytical thinking. plant cell based on the structure and ? Being flexible and open-minded. organelles ? Being kind-hearted and caring. ? Being objective. Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting ? Being systematic. ? Being cooperative. Explanation: ? Being fair and just. ? Daring to try. To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge on the ? Thinking rationally. structure and organelles in animal and plant cells are learned ? Being confident and independent. through comparing and contrasting. The mastery of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important as the acquisition of The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally knowledge on animal and plant cells. This would enable occurs through the following stages: students to understand topics on mitosis and meiosis. ? Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. ? Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values. ? Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble values. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers need to give due consideration to the above stages to ensure the Science learning experiences can be used as a means to continuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students. These values. For example, during science practical work, the teacher attitudes and values encompass the following: should remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments in a careful, cooperative and honest manner. ? Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. ? Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of scientific ? Being diligent and persevering. attitudes and noble values during science lessons. Before the ? Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers should the environment. examine all related learning outcomes and suggested teaching- ? Realising that science is a means to understand nature. learning activities that provide opportunities for the inculcation of ? Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. scientific attitudes and noble values. ? Appreciating the balance of nature. 8
  17. 17. The following is an example of a learning outcome pertaining to the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. Appreciating the balance of nature. Example: Being systematic. Level: Form Four Being cooperative. Learning Area: 2.0 Endangered Ecosystem Inculcating Patriotism Learning Objective: 2.3 Realising the importance of The biology curriculum provides an opportunity for the proper management of development and strengthening of patriotism among students. development activities and the For example, in learning about the process of colonization and ecosystem. succession in an ecosystem, students will learn about the rich biodiversity in the country, they will appreciate the diversity and uniqueness of this natural resource of the country and deepen Learning Outcome: Explain measures taken in the their love for the country. management of development activities and the ecosystem to ensure a balance of nature is TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES maintained. Teaching and learning strategies in the biology curriculum Suggested Learning Carry out small group discussion emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process Activities and present the findings, based on that helps students acquire knowledge and master skills that will the following: help them develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful a) implementation of laws, learning can occur through various learning approaches such as b) education on the management inquiry, constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning. of resources, include the Learning activities should therefore be geared towards activating reduce, reuse, and recycle of students’critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined resources, to routine or rote learning. Students should be made aware of the thinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in their Scientific attitudes and Love and respect for the learning. They should be challenged with higher order questions noble values environment. and problems and be required to solve problems utilising their creativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learning process Being responsible for the safety of should enable students to acquire knowledge, master skills and oneself, others and the develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated environment. manner. 9
  18. 18. Teaching and Learning Approaches in Science learning approaches such as contextual learning and Science, Technology and Society (STS). Inquiry-Discovery Learning themes and learning objectives that carry elements of Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through experiences. STS are incorporated into the curriculum. STS approach Inquiry generally means to find information, to question and to suggests that science learning takes place through investigation investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment. and discussion based on science and technology issues in Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. Learning through society. In the STS approach, knowledge in science and discovery occurs when the main concepts and principles of technology is to be learned with the application of the principles science are investigated and discovered by students of science and technology and their impact on society. themselves. Through activities such as experiments, students investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves. Contextual Learning Teachers then lead students to understand the science concepts through the results of the inquiry. Thinking skills and scientific Contextual learning is an approach that associates learning with skills are thus developed further during the inquiry process. daily experiences of students. In this way, students are able to However, the inquiry approach may not be suitable for all appreciate the relevance of science learning to their lives. In teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it may be more contextual learning, students learn through investigations as in appropriate for teachers to present concepts and principles the inquiry-discovery approach. directly to students. Mastery Learning Constructivism Mastery learning is an approach that ensures all students are Constructivism suggests that students learn about something able to acquire and master the intended learning objectives. This when they construct their own understanding. The important approach is based on the principle that students are able to learn attributes of constructivism are as follows: if they are given adequate opportunities. Students should be allowed to learn at their own pace, with the incorporation of ? Taking into account students’prior knowledge. remedial and enrichment activities as part of the teaching- ? Learning occurring as a result of students’own effort. learning process. ? Learning occurring when students restructure their existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones. Teaching and Learning Methods ? Providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas and experiences, and reflecting on their learning. Teaching and learning approaches can be implemented through various methods such as experiments, discussions, simulations, projects, and visits. In this curriculum, the teaching-learning Science, Technology and Society methods suggested are stated under the column “ Suggested Learning Activities.” However, teachers can modify the Meaningful learning occurs if students can relate their learning suggested activities when the need arises. with their daily experiences. Meaningful learning occurs in 10
  19. 19. ? Collecting data. The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods can ? Analysing data. enhance students’interest in science. Science lessons that are ? Interpreting data. not interesting will not motivate students to learn and subsequently will affect their performances. The choice ? Making conclusions. of teaching methods should be based on the curriculum content, ? Writing a report. students’ abilities, students’ repertoire of intelligences, and the availability of resources and infrastructure. Besides playing the In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding students role of knowledge presenters and experts, teachers need to act to do an experiment, where appropriate, teachers should provide as facilitators in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers students with the opportunities to design their own experiments. need to be aware of the multiple intelligences that exist among This involves students drawing up plans as to how to conduct students. Different teaching and learning activities should be experiments, how to measure and analyse data, and how to planned to cater for students with different learning styles and present the outcomes of their experiment. intelligences. Discussion The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and learning methods. A discussion is an activity in which students exchange questions and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can be Experiment conducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers should play the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. questions that stimulate thinking and getting students to express In experiments, students test hypotheses through investigations themselves. to discover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting an experiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and Simulation manipulative skills. In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is Usually, an experiment involves the following steps: carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and the ? Identifying a problem. use of models. In role-play, students play out a particular role based on certain pre-determined conditions. Games require ? Making a hypothesis. procedures that need to be followed. Students play games in ? Planning the experiment order to learn a particular principle or to understand the process - controlling variables. of decision-making. Models are used to represent objects or - determining the equipment and materials needed. actual situations so that students can visualise the said objects or situations and thus understand the concepts and principles to be - determining the procedure of the experiment and the learned. method of data collection and analysis. ? Conducting the experiment. 11
  20. 20. Project spreadsheet are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation of data. A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by an individual or a group of students to achieve a certain learning The use of other tools such as data loggers and computer objective. A project generally requires several lessons to interfacing in experiments and projects also enhance the complete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a effectiveness of teaching and learning of science. report, an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to the teacher and other students. Project work promotes the development of problem-solving skills, time management skills, CONTENT ORGANISATION and independent learning. Visits and Use of External Resources The biology curriculum is organised around themes. Each theme consists of various learning areas, each of which consists of a The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in number of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or the school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced more learning outcomes. through the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, science centres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and Learning outcomes are written based on the hierarchy of the factories. Visits to these places make the learning of science cognitive and affective domains. Levels in the cognitive domain more interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learning are: knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis opportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students may and evaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to be aware be involved in the planning process and specific educational of, to be in awe, to be appreciative, to be thankful, to love, to tasks should be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is practise, and to internalise. Where possible, learning outcomes complete without a post-visit discussion. relating to the affective domain are explicitly stated. The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values should be Use of Technology integrated into every learning activity. This ensures a more spontaneous and natural inculcation of attitudes and values. Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential in Learning areas in the psychomotor domain are implicit in the enhancing the learning of science. Through the use of learning activities. technology such as television, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching and learning of science can be made more Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurable interesting and effective. behavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for a particular learning objective are organised in order of complexity. Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for the However, in the process of teaching and learning, learning teaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. activities should be planned in a holistic and integrated manner Computer simulation and animation can be presented through that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomes courseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word according to needs and context. Teachers should avoid processor, graphic presentation software and electronic 12
  21. 21. employing a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning outcome separately according to the order stated in the curriculum specifications. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activities stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are given with the intention of providing some guidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity may cover one or more learning outcomes. At the same time, more than one activity may be suggested for a particular learning outcome. Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit the ability and style of learning of their students. Teachers are encouraged to design other innovative and effective learning activities to enhance the learning of biology. 13
  22. 22. THEME: INTRODUCING BIOLOGY LEARNING AREA: 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 1.1 Carry out small group discussion A student is able to: Understanding on the following and present the the study of findings: Biology a) what is the study of Biology? ? state what the study of Biology b) the importance of Biology with is, respect to the study of living things, environment, interaction ? explain the importance of between living things and the Biology, environment. Construct a concept map based on ? list the different fields of study fields – bidang information gathered on the in Biology, different fields of study and careers related to Biology. ? list the careers related to career – kerjaya Biology, Small group discussion on the ? state various ways of studying importance of the following: Biology, a) acquiring scientific skills, b) scientific method, c) practising scientific attitudes and noble values. 14
  23. 23. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 1.2 Observe a situation and identify all A student is able to: Applying the variables. Suggest a question This activity helps scientific investigation – scientific that is suitable for a scientific ? identify variables in a given the teacher to penyiasatan saintifik investigation investigation. Discuss to: situation, assess students’ a) form a hypothesis, capabilities to carry b) plan the method of investigation ? identify the relationship between out a scientific including selection of apparatus two variables to form a investigation. and work procedures. hypothesis, Carry out an experiment: a) to collect and tabulate data, ? design and carry out a simple b) present data in a suitable form, experiment to test the c) interpret the data and draw hypothesis, conclusion, d) write a complete report. ? record and present data in a suitable form, Carry out an experiment on the making of bread using yeast in the ? interpret data to draw absence and presence of sugar. conclusions, Record the time taken for the dough to double its size. For further ? write a report on an experiment, investigations, salt is used. These attitudes and During investigation, highlight the ? practise scientific attitudes and values should be scientific attitudes – sikap need to practise scientific attitudes noble values. observed in all saintifik and noble values such as honesty investigations in noble values – nilai murni and accuracy in recording and other learning verifying data. areas. 15
  24. 24. THEME: INVESTIGATING THE CELL AS A BASIC UNIT OF LIVING THINGS LEARNING AREA: 1.0 CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL ORGANISATION Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 1.1 Prepare and study slides to A student is able to: Understanding compare the epidermal cells of cell structure onion or cells of Hydrilla leaf with ? draw and label an animal cell, and function human cheek cells. Observe, draw and label diagrams of an animal cell and a plant cell as seen ? draw and label a plant cell, through a light microscope. Study electron micrographs of animal cells and plant cells to identify cellular components of cell: The structure of the cellular components – a) plasma membrane and cell ? identify the cellular components organelles is not komponen-komponen sel wall, of an animal cell, required. b) cytoplasm, c) organelles: ? identify the cellular components (i) nucleus: nucleolus, of a plant cell, chromosomes, nucleoplasm and nuclear membrane, (ii) rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, (iii) mitochondria, (iv) Golgi apparatus, (v) lysosomes, (vi) ribosomes, (vii) chloroplasts, (viii) centrioles, (ix) vacuoles. 16
  25. 25. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Work in small groups to match ? state the functions of the cellular relate – mengiatkan cellular components to their components in an animal cell, functions. ? state the functions of the cellular density - ketumpatan components in a plant cell, Students present a comparison ? compare and contrast an animal between the structure of an animal cell and a plant cell, cell and a plant cell. Discuss the relationship between ? relate the density of certain the density of certain organelles organelles with the functions of with the function of specific cells: specific cells. a) mitochondria with the function of sperm cells, flight muscle cells in insects and birds, cells in the meristems, b) chloroplasts with the function of palisade cells. 17
  26. 26. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 1.2 Observe the living processes of A student is able to: Understanding unicellular organisms such as ? state the necessity for cell living processes – proses - cell feeding, locomotion and specialisation in multicellular proses kehidupan organisation reproduction through computerised organism as compared to animation / video / mircoscope. unicellular organism, cell specialisation – pengkhususan sel Carry out small group discussion on the following and present the findings: a) cell specialisation in ? describe cell specialisation in multicellular organisms, multicellular organisms, b) the necessity for cell specialization in multicellular organisms c) cell organisation in the ? describe cell organisation in the formation of tissues, organs formation of tissues, organs and and systems in humans, systems in multicellular animals and plants. organisms, Construct models of tissues, organs and systems in human, animals and plants. 18
  27. 27. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Conduct a discussion on the ? state the meaning of internal A simple following: environment, explanation. a) the meaning of internal ? identify factors affecting the environment, internal environment, b) factors affecting the internal environment including temperature, pH, osmotic ? explain the necessity to maintain pressure and glucose level. optimal internal environment, c) it is important that the organism’ cells always s experience conditions which ? describe the involvement of permit efficient functioning, the various systems in maintaining involvement of various systems optimal internal environment. in maintaining optimal internal environment. 1.3 Discuss and predict the cell A student is able to: Appreciating condition without a particular ? predict the state of certain cells uniqueness – keunikan the uniqueness cellular component. without a particular cellular of the cell component, Conduct a role-play activity to show ? illustrate that most cells are that cells become adapted for specialised for the job that they different functions. perform. 19
  28. 28. LEARNING AREA: 2.0 MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 2.1 Discuss the following: A student is able to: Analysing the a) substances that are required by ? state the substances required by of movement of cells, living cells, substances b) substances to be eliminated ? state the substances that have across the from cells, to be eliminated from cells, plasma c) the necessity for movement of ? explain the necessity for membrane substances across the plasma movement of substances across membrane. the plasma membrane, Discuss the structure of the plasma ? describe the structure of the Only a brief account membrane as comprising the plasma membrane, of the structure of phospholipid bilayer, carrier protein the plasma and pores. membrane is required. Conduct an experiment, using starch suspension and glucose solution, to study the movement of substances across egg membrane or Visking tubing. permeability - ketelapan Discuss the properties of the ? describe the permeability of the plasma membrane as a semi - plasma membrane, simple diffusion – resapan permeable membrane. ringkas Discuss the movement of soluble ? explain the movement of soluble facilitated diffusion – substances across the plasma substances across the plasma resapan berbantu membrane through simple diffusion membrane through the process and facilitated diffusion. of passive transport, passive transport – pengangkutan pasif Carry out an activity to show ? explain the movement of water active transport - osmosis using a simple molecules across the plasma pengangkutan aktif osmometer. membrane by osmosis, 20
  29. 29. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Discuss the movement of ? explain the movement of Only a basic substances across the plasma substances across the plasma explanation of the membrane through active membrane through the process active transport transport. of active transport, process is required. Conduct a simulation activity to show the movement of substances across the plasma membrane through passive transport and active transport. Use computer simulation to show the movement of substances across the plasma membrane. Discuss the processes of passive ? explain the process of passive transport and active transport in transport in living organisms living organisms: using examples, a) gaseous exchange in the alveoli and blood capillaries (simple ? explain the process of active diffusion), transport in living organisms b) absorption of digested food in using examples, the villus (facilitated diffusion), c) absorption of water by root hairs of a plant (osmosis), d) ion intake by root hairs of a plant (active transport). 21
  30. 30. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Construct a concept map on the ? compare and contrast passive movement of substances across transport and active transport. the plasma membrane. Use a graphic organiser to compare and contrast passive transport and active transport. 2.2 Carry out activities to study the A student is able to: Understanding effects of hypotonic and hypertonic the movement solutions on plant and animal cells: ? explain what hypotonic, The use of human of substances a) plasmolysis and deplasmolysis hypertonic and isotonic solutions blood is across the in plant cells, are, discouraged. plasma b) haemolysis and crenation in red ? explain the effects of hypotonic, effects - kesan membrane in blood cells. hypertonic and isotonic solutions everyday life on plant cell and animal cell, Discuss the following: ? explain plasmolysis, a) hypotonic, hypertonic and deplasmolysis, haemolysis and isotonic solutions, crenation, b) plasmolysis, deplasmolysis, haemolysis and crenation, c) flaccidity and turgidity of plant turgidity - kesegahan cells. Carry out an investigation using ? design an experiment to The concentration of various concentrations of salt or determine the concentration of the external solution sugar solutions to determine the external solution which is which is isotonic to concentration of external solution isotonic to cell sap, the cell sap is which is isotonic to the cell sap of determined from the plant tissues. plotted graph. 22
  31. 31. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Discuss and make an inference on ? make an inference on the Discussion should wilting – layu the concentration of cell sap in concentration of cell sap in plant be based on the plant tissues which is equivalent to tissues, concepts of osmosis the concentration of isotonic and plasmolysis. preservation - pengawetan solution. Discuss and correlate the ? relate the movement of movement of substances across substances across plasma the plasma membrane w ith the membrane with concentration difference in concentration of the gradient, external solution and that of the cell sap. Discuss the following: ? explain the phenomenon of a) wilting of plants caused by the wilting in plants using examples, excessive use of chemical fertilisers, ? explain the preservation of food b) preservation of food using salt using examples. or sugar. 2.3 Compose poems to appreciate the A student is able to: Appreciating movement of substances across ? explain the necessity of the movement the plasma membrane. movement of substances across of substances the plasma membrane which across the occurs in a continuous and plasma controlled manner for survival of membrane a cell. 23
  32. 32. LEARNING AREA: 3.0 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 3.1 Carry out small group discussion A student is able to: Chemical Understanding on the following and present the compounds in the organic compounds – the chemical findings: ? state the elements in the cell, cell are limited to sebatian organik composition of a) elements in the cell, including carbohydrates, the cell carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, ? list the chemical compounds in lipids, proteins, nitrogen sulphur, phosphorus, the cell, nucleic acids and calcium, potassium, water only. magnesium, chlorine, sodium and ferum, ? explain the importance of A brief account on b) the presence and importance of organic compounds in the cell, the importance of chemical compounds in the carbohydrates, cell. ? explain the importance of water lipids, proteins and in the cell. nucleic acids is required. 3.2 Carry out small group discussion A student is able to: Understanding on the following and present the A detailed molecular carbohydrates findings: ? state the elements in structure is not a) elements in carbohydrates, carbohydrates, required. b) types of carbohydrates, i.e. ? state the types of monosaccharides, carbohydrates, disaccharides and polysaccharides, using A brief account of examples, ? explain the formation and condensation and formation – pembentukan c) the formation and breakdown of breakdown of disaccharides and hydrolysis reactions disaccharides, such as polysaccharides. is required. breakdown - penguraian maltose, sucrose and lactose, d) the formation and breakdown of reducing sugar – gula polysaccharides, such as penurun starch, glycogen and cellulose. Conduct an activity to differentiate non-reducing sugar – gula between reducing and non- bukan penurun reducing sugars. 24
  33. 33. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 3.3 Carry out small group discussion A student is able to: Understanding on the following and present the proteins findings: a) elements in protein, such as ? state the elements in proteins, A detailed molecular carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, structure is not sulphur, nitrogen and required. phosphorus, b) dipeptides and polypeptides, ? state the various structures of A brief account of c) the formation and breakdown of proteins, condensation and dipeptides and polypeptides, ? explain the formation and hydrolysis reactions d) essential amino acids and non- breakdown of dipeptides and is required. essential amino acids. polypeptides, ? explain the meaning of essential Use charts to illustrate the various amino acids and non-essential protein structures, i.e. primary, amino acids. secondary, tertiary and quartenary. 3.4 List the main types of lipids: A student is able to: Understanding a) fat, lipids b) oil, ? state the elements in lipids, c) wax, d) phospholipids, ? state the main types of lipids, A detailed molecular e) steroids, such as cholesterol, structure is not testosterone, oestrogen, and required. progesterone. 25
  34. 34. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Carry out small group discussion ? state the components of fats A brief account of saturated fats – lemak tepu on the following and present the and oils. condensation and findings: ? explain the formation and hydrolysis reactions unsaturated fats – lemak a) elements in lipids, breakdown of fats and oils, is required. tak tepu b) components of fats and oils, c) formation and breakdown of fats and oils. ? compare and contrast saturated fats and unsaturated fats. Use a graphic organiser to compare saturated fats and unsaturated fats. 3.5 Discuss on the following: A student is able to: Understanding a) what enzymes are, ? state what enzymes are, enzymes b) enzyme requirement in the ? explain why enzymes are living process, needed in life processes, c) general characteristics of ? list the general characteristics of enzyme, enzymes, d) naming of enzyme based on ? relate the name of enzyme to the substrate, substrate, e) sites of enzyme synthesis, ? state sites where enzymes are f) intracellular and extracellular synthesised, intracellular enzyme – enzymes and examples. ? state the meaning of intracellular enzim intrasel enzymes and extracellular Conduct a role-play activity to show enzymes, extracellular enzyme – the involvement of ribosomes, ? explain the involvement of enzim luar sel endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi specific organelles in the body in the production of production of extracellular extracellular enzyme. enzymes, 26
  35. 35. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Conduct experiments to study the ? explain the effects of pH, concentration - kepekatan effects of pH and temperature on temperature, enzyme the activities of amylase and concentration, and substrate substrates – substrat pepsin. concentration on enzyme activity, Discuss the effects of enzyme concentration and substrate concentration on enzyme activity. Discuss the mechanism of enzyme ? explain the mechanism of action using the ‘ lock and key’ enzyme action, hypothesis. Discuss and correlate pH, ? relate the mechanism of enzyme temperature, enzyme concentration action with pH, temperature, and substrate concentration on enzyme concentration and enzyme activity using the ‘ lock and substrate concentration, key ‘hypothesis. Gather information from the Internet and other sources on the uses of enzymes in: ? explain the uses of enzymes in a) daily life, e.g. tenderising meat daily life and industry using b) industry e.g. food processing examples. and detergent manufacturing. 3.6 Realising the Conduct a role play or story telling ? predict the consequences of deficiency - kekurangan importance of session to predict the deficiency in carbohydrates, the chemical consequences of deficiency in one protein, lipids or enzymes in the composition in of the chemical components in the cell. cells cell. 27
  36. 36. LEARNING AREA: 4.0 CELL DIVISION Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 4.1 Understanding Conduct a brainstorming session A student is able to: mitosis on the following: ? state the necessity for the a) the need for production of new production of new cells in cells in organisms, organisms, b) the need for production of new ? explain the necessity for the identical - seiras cells identical to parent cells. production of new cells identical to parent cells, significance - kepentingan Derive the meaning and ? state the significance of mitosis, significance of mitosis from the brainstorming session. Study charts to identify the various ? identify the phases in the cell phases of the cell cycle. cycle, Make models to demonstrate ? explain the process of mitosis mitosis and cytokinesis. and cytokinesis, Prepare and observe a slide of ? arrange the various stages of onion root tip to identify different mitosis in the correct sequence, stages of mitosis. Study the process of controlled and ? compare and contrast mitosis uncontrolled mitosis and and cytokinesis in animal cell cytokinesis through simulation, and plant cell, computerised animation or video. 28
  37. 37. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Conduct a brainstorming session to ? explain the importance of Techniques of controlled mitosis – mitosis come up with examples on mitosis controlled mitosis, cloning include terkawal as a controlled process for the tissue culture. perpetuity of living things such as regeneration – regeneration of lizard tail, certain pertumbuhan / penjanaan plant parts and the healing of skin. semula Gather information on diseases, ? explain the effects of uncontrolled mitosis – including cancer or tumour, caused uncontrolled mitosis in living mitosis luar kawal by uncontrolled mitosis in living things, things. ? describe the application of Make a trip to a research institute knowledge on mitosis in to study tissue culture technique. cloning, Conduct a debate or forum on ? explain the advantages and cloning issues. disadvantages of cloning. 29
  38. 38. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 4.2 Discuss the following: A student is able to: Understanding a) trait inheritance in offsprings, trait inheritance – meiosis b) the need to maintain diploid ? state the necessity of trait pewarisan ciri chromosomal number from one inheritance in offspring for offspring – anak generation to another, continuation of life, c) the need to produce gametes ? state the necessity to maintain with haploid number of diploid chromosomal number chromosomes, from generation to generation, d) the uniqueness of diploid ? state the necessity for number of chromosomes in production of haploid gametes in organisms, sexual reproduction, e) the significance of meiosis, ? state the significance of meiosis, f) the type of cell that undergoes ? identify the type of cell that meiosis in human, animals and undergoes meiosis, plants. Observe the process of meiosis ? explain the process of meiosis, A detailed through computerised animation, explanation of photomicrograph, prepared slides, ? arrange the various stages of Prophase 1 is not or video. meiosis in the correct order, required. Use simulation activities to show changes in chromosome behaviour during meiosis I and meiosis II ? compare and contrast meiosis I Use graphic organisers to compare and meiosis II, and contrast: ? compare and contrast meiosis a) Meiosis I and meiosis II, and mitosis. b) Meiosis and mitosis. 30
  39. 39. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 4.3 a) conduct a role-play, A student is able to: Appreciating the movement b) avoid radioactive and ? describe what will happen when of carcinogenic substances. the movement of chromosomes chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis do during mitosis not occur in an orderly manner, and meiosis. ? know and avoid things that maybe harmful. 31
  40. 40. THEME: INVESTIGATING THE PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVING THINGS LEARNING AREA: 1.0 NUTRITION Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives 1.1 Understanding Observe and identify types of A student is able to: types of nutrition in various organisms. nutrition Discuss autotrophic and ? state the types of nutrition, heterotrophic nutrition with ? explain autotrophic nutrition, reference to chemosynthesis, ? explain heterotrophic nutrition, photosynthesis, holozoic nutrition, saprophytism, and parasitism. Use a graphic organiser to show the types of nutrition. Conduct an activity to classify ? classify organisms according to various organisms according to the types of nutrition. types of nutrition. 1.2 Carry out small group discussion A student is able to: Applying the on the following and present the concept of findings: ? explain the necessity for a balanced diet – gizi balanced diet a) requirements of a balanced diet, balanced diet, seimbang b) factors affecting the daily energy ? explain the factors affecting the requirement such as age, sex, daily energy requirement of the body weight and occupation. human body, Conduct an activity to determine ? determine the energy value in The unit for energy the energy value in food samples. food samples, used is Joule. Design activities to test for the ? determine the nutrient content in presence of starch, reducing sugar, different food samples, non-reducing sugar, protein and lipid in food samples. 32
  41. 41. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Conduct an experiment to determine the Vitamin C content in ? explain the functions and roughage / dietary fibre – various fruit juices. sources of vitamins in a diet to pelawas maintain health, Match the vitamins with their sources, functions and effects of deficiency. Match the minerals with their ? explain the functions and sources, functions and effects of sources of minerals in a diet to target group – kumpulan deficiency. maintain health, sasaran Discuss the sources, functions and ? explain the functions and deficiency of roughage. sources of roughage / dietary Discuss the sources and functions fibre in a diet, of water in the body. ? explain the functions of water in the body, Carry out a group discussion to formulate and justify an appropriate diet menu based on a nutrient chart ? justify the selection of an for the following target groups: appropriate balanced diet for a a) pregnant mothers, target group. b) infants, c) children, d) teenagers, e) athletes, f) people with specific diseases, g) the aged, h) vegetarians. 33