UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

VISUAL LITERACY:
IMPLEMENTING VISUALS IN COMMUNICATING
HEALTHCARE INFORMATION

NOR SYAMIMI BINT...
CONTENTS

CONTENTS...........................................................................................................
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction
Art and science is the branch of knowledge but there was split between two
hemis...
Figure 1: The illustration by Mark Tatro, Rotate Graphic (www.rotategraphic.com)

Health literacy is about communication a...
According to Andrus and Roth (2002), healthcare practitioner face problem in
recognizing when patients do not understand w...
complicated, confusing or perhaps even frightening. The format can include numbering
data, dense text, unreadably small fo...
i.

To identify why people have trouble in understanding healthcare information.

ii. To identify the design of visual tha...
According to Fitzgerald (1995), visual literacy are becoming the predominant
form of communication across a range of learn...
The researcher should have to produce a visual material based on healthcare
information. The limitation also from the proc...
purpose of influencing with intent (Rappaport, 2002). In this study, communication
refer to the process of telling somethi...
2.0 Introduction
In this chapter we will be focusing on the perspectives of other researchers, as
well as previous researc...
messages. There have two major approaches; helping learners to decode, or "read",
visuals proficiently by practicing visua...
According to Thompson (2003), discussing health topics with patients orally presents
many challenges. He added that verbal...
2.2.2 Age
Age also affect how people learn and understand health information. People of
all ages want to know what new dia...
differences, healthcare information need to convey in ways all of the patients can
understand.

2.2.6 Emotion
In addition ...
and understanding information. Visuals can help in interpreting healthcare setting. They
not only are interesting and attr...
Figure 2: The example of layout for healthcare service.

Figure 3: The example of pictograph and cartoons illustration in ...
Figure 5: The example of medical genograms symbols in healthcare service.

Visuals not only are interesting and interactiv...
Problem in
understanding
health information

Visuals can help
interpret the
healthcare
information

Produce the visual
mat...
CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction
This chapter explains the research design of this study, the method of d...
data. The data that has been analyzed will then be presented in the next chapter.

Visual literacy:
Implementing Visuals i...
questions but rather to obtain information about where the participants are coming from
and what they have experienced. Th...
section.

3.3.2 Unstructured interview
The second instrument that will be used in this research is unstructured
interview....
information. The researcher also made use of article from newspapers and journal
to collect the relevant information in or...
the interview transcripts will be coded and each code indicate a certain pattern and
meaning.

Besides that, the researche...
The Bibliography
Andrus, M.R., & Roth, M.T. (2002). Health Literacy: A review. Pharmacotherapy, 22,
282-302.
Ausburn, L. &...
Fitzgerald, M. (1995). NAA Leaders disagree over the value of cyberspace. International
Federation of Newspaper Publishers...
28
APPENDICES

Visual Literacy: Implementing Visuals in Communicating Healthcare Information
Universiti Teknologi MARA, SHAH ...
PART A: RESPONDENT'S BACKGROUND
Part A: Respondent's Background
Please answer all questions and tick (√) in the appropriat...
a.
b.
c.
3.
a.
b.
c.
4
a
b
c

I prefer my doctor explain about health information in slowly
and using simple term.
I prefe...
A

B

Reason of your answer:_____________________________________________________
2. Which is the best following show abou...
Reason of your answer:_____________________________________________________
3. Which is the best following show about "do ...
5. Based on the pictograph (image) show below, I become more understand about the
medication prescription.
Yes

No

Please...
information? Why?
3. Do you have any problem when communicating about healthcare information to your
patients?
4. If yes, ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Research proposal final

497 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
497
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
42
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Research proposal final

  1. 1. UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA VISUAL LITERACY: IMPLEMENTING VISUALS IN COMMUNICATING HEALTHCARE INFORMATION NOR SYAMIMI BINTI SAMSUDIN 2012359041 ED702 RESEARCH PROPOSAL FACULTY OF EDUCATION DECEMBER 2013 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS CONTENTS.........................................................................................................................2 CHAPTER 1 .......................................................................................................................3 1.0 Introduction.............................................................................................................3 1.1 Problem Statement..................................................................................................5 1.2 Research Objectives................................................................................................6 1.3 Research Questions.................................................................................................7 1.4 Significance of the Study........................................................................................7 1.5 Limitation of the Study...........................................................................................8 1.6 Operational Definitions...........................................................................................9 1.6.1 Visual Literacy..............................................................................................9 1.6.2 Visuals...........................................................................................................9 1.6.3 Communication.............................................................................................9 1.6.4 Healthcare information...............................................................................10 1.7 Conclusion............................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 2 .....................................................................................................................10 2.0 Introduction...........................................................................................................11 2.1 Visual Literacy .....................................................................................................11 2.2 Problem in understanding healthcare information................................................12 2.2.1 Literacy.......................................................................................................13 2.2.2 Age..............................................................................................................14 2.2.3 Disability.....................................................................................................14 2.2.4 Language.....................................................................................................14 2.2.5 Culture.........................................................................................................14 2.2.6 Emotion.......................................................................................................15 2.3 Communication through visuals...........................................................................15 2.4 Conceptual framework..........................................................................................18 2.5 Conclusion............................................................................................................19 CHAPTER 3 .....................................................................................................................20 3.0 Introduction...........................................................................................................20 3.1 Research Design ...................................................................................................21 3.2 Population and Sampling......................................................................................22 3.3 Instrumentation ....................................................................................................22 3.3.1 Questionnaire..............................................................................................22 3.3.2 Unstructured interview................................................................................23 3.3.3 Document analysis......................................................................................23 This study also uses documents from others research and then a document analysis are carried out. For the document analysis, the researcher would also get the additional sources such as books, newspapers, the Internet and so on to supplement the findings. All the data were analyzed to obtain the complete information and facts. .....................................................................................................................................23 3.4 Data Collection.....................................................................................................24 3.5 Data Analysis........................................................................................................24 3.6 Conclusion............................................................................................................25 The Bibliography...............................................................................................................26 APPENDICES...................................................................................................................29 2
  3. 3. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction Art and science is the branch of knowledge but there was split between two hemispheres of brain; left and right brain. According to Williams (1983), the left brain more to analytical skills, language, mathematical concepts, medical experimental, logic and science stream while right brain characteristic based on creativity, the ability to see pattern, spatial awareness, visual and art stream. He stated that if both of the hemisphere combined, there will be contributed toward effective instructional material in educating people in future. In this study, the implementation of art into science or medical areas in communicating healthcare information will be studied. 3
  4. 4. Figure 1: The illustration by Mark Tatro, Rotate Graphic (www.rotategraphic.com) Health literacy is about communication and understanding. It affects how people understand wellness and illness, participate in health promotion and prevention activities, weigh decisions about treatment, take medications, and follow self-care instructions. Health literacy is defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions (Osborne,2005) 4
  5. 5. According to Andrus and Roth (2002), healthcare practitioner face problem in recognizing when patients do not understand written words and challenging on how to communicate through visuals or other visual media. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing visuals in communicating healthcare information by the doctor. The integration of art (visuals literacy) into science (health literacy) will be facilitating people in understanding healthcare information in effectively and promoting the best healthcare services. However, not all health professionals have time, interest, or talent to draw, and the information may be too complex to simply convey in visuals. They not artists or designer to come out with graphically design of healthcare information. The is no reason to expect that health professionals either know to draw pictures or feel confident doing so. Here, the art practitioner can plays the roles as the facilitator or designer in creating handout specific to a medical practice or facility. Collaborations between health professionals and visual artist are often more effective than working alone (Osborne, 2005). The good health and well-being require a clean and harmonious relationship between doctor and patients. The integration of the visual into healthcare environments can play a important role in achieving these objective. Moreover, those who provide healthcare now understand that communicating clearly with their patient is essential to quality patient care and serve the quality of healthcare service. 1.1 Problem Statement This research is based on several factors. Patients and their family members often receive an overwhelming amount of health information. The content may be unfamiliar, 5
  6. 6. complicated, confusing or perhaps even frightening. The format can include numbering data, dense text, unreadably small fonts and number presented as fractions or decimals or percentages. Adding to these problems, patients and their families often receive health information at times when they feel sick, distracted an are not at their learning best (Osborne, 2006). "...The doctor or healthcare administrator never laid a hand on me, he or she never touched me, he or she was hardly listening and they were busy entering stuff into the computer and they start to do assumption on the disease about the patient. The doctor just say the biological terminology that I cannot understand and they will suggest the medication and do's and dont's and they asked to come back for another 4 weeks..". (The Fading Art of The Physical Exam by Richard Knox ,2012) Based on the statement above that stated by Richard Knox in his research, he believed that common patient complaint about on how the doctor treats them as the patients. The important of healthcare story is as to recognize emergencies, essential information, to follow the medical instruction and to know what to do when they occur. So, every patient has the rights to access competent healthcare and treatment because this can truly be a matter of life and death. If the communication just on verbally not attached with visual and adding with patient's emotion in that time, might be the healthcare information end up with the wrong interpretation by the patients. 1.2 Research Objectives The research objectives of this study are: 6
  7. 7. i. To identify why people have trouble in understanding healthcare information. ii. To identify the design of visual that want to implement in communicating healthcare information iii. To produce the effective visuals literacy tools that can help interpret the healthcare information. 1.3 Research Questions The research questions for this study are: i. Why people have trouble in understanding healthcare information? ii. How the design of visual that want to implement in communicating healthcare information? iii. How to produce the effective visuals literacy tools that can help interpret the healthcare information? 1.4 Significance of the Study The significance of this research is as to promoting on how visual can help in interpreting the healthcare information. This study also contributing on how important art by using visual as the simple approach in delivering healthcare information. It is important to make a study, documentation and producing visual materials that related to deliver the healthcare information as a references for the benefit to people. 7
  8. 8. According to Fitzgerald (1995), visual literacy are becoming the predominant form of communication across a range of learning and teaching resources, delivered across a range of medias and formats. He argued that the visual literacy is now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge and building successful educational outcomes. These reasons seem to be relevant as the significance of this study as to relate visual literacy in health literacy together. People needs to aware with the important of the implementation of visual literacy in communicating healthcare information because everyone in this world is involved with healthcare matter since we are early infancy to older ages. It is hoped that the findings from this study will provide insights to this issues may help health professionals in implementing visuals in communicating to their patients about the healthcare information and fully conveyed in effective ways. This study also as the encouragement of visuals artists to involve in actively in society in contributing something useful in healthcare aspects. 1.5 Limitation of the Study The main limitation of this research is the integration between science and art together in one research. The researcher need to study about the medication area that not very familiar and need to ask many expertise in this area for avoid to gain the wrong data and misleading healthcare information. Moreover, the researcher also need to find out the variety of resources from biological, medication and art to obtain the information. 8
  9. 9. The researcher should have to produce a visual material based on healthcare information. The limitation also from the process of development in producing a visual material based on healthcare story. The researcher should have to understand the health information first and interpret all of the text in the visual art form. The duration for producing final product is quite short and the important of final product’s quality is needed. 1.6 Operational Definitions 1.6.1 Visual Literacy According to Giorgis, Johnson, et.al, (1999), visual literacy refers to the ability in constructing the meaning from visual images. In this research, visual literacy is defined as an ability to understanding the meaning of visuals in healthcare information. 1.6.2 Visuals Visuals refers to a picture, a piece of film, or display used to illustrate or accompany something, etc , used to make an article or a talk easier to understand or more interesting (The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 7 th Edition, 2005). In this research, visuals is defined as a tools or material to convey the meaning of healthcare information in effectively. 1.6.3 Communication Communication is defined as a process of transmitting ideas, informations, attitudes by the use of symbols, words, pictures, figures from the source, for the 9
  10. 10. purpose of influencing with intent (Rappaport, 2002). In this study, communication refer to the process of telling something about healthcare information and participating people to understanding the contents. 1.6.4 Healthcare information Healthcare information refers to the process of telling something about the healthcare or medical information that involved the communication between the doctor and the patient (American Medical Association Foundation, 2003). In this study, healthcare information defined as the information about healthcare that will be explained by the doctor to patients using the visuals as the medium of instruction. 1.7 Conclusion This chapter has covered the background of this study, the statement of the research problem, the research objectives, the research questions, the operational definitions, the limitation of this study and the significance of this study. The literature review of the topics related to this study will be discussed in the next chapter. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 10
  11. 11. 2.0 Introduction In this chapter we will be focusing on the perspectives of other researchers, as well as previous researches to be able to produce a more significant and concrete research. The research that is being done is the contents of visual literacy and health literacy. Other than that, this research will also explore the relationship between visuals and healthcare information itself. Summarized in the following review of the literature are the definition of visual literacy, the important of visual literacy, the problem in understanding healthcare information and how visuals can help in communicating healthcare information. 2.1 Visual Literacy The term "visual literacy" originally coined by John Debes in 1968 and he believed that it is the ability to see, comprehend, discriminate and interpret objects and symbols in the environment, integrate them with other sensory experiences and use them to creatively communicate with others or derive enjoyment (Debes, 1968). Later, according to Cochran (1972) in Ausburn and Ausburn (1978), she examined 72 different definitions of visual literacy and identified three themes in common; human abilities, teaching strategies and the promotion of ideas based on the types of visual language in body language, object language, sign and symbol language and abstract language. Visual literacy can be defined as the ability to interpret, use, appreciate and create images and video using both conventional and 21st century media in ways that advance thinking, decision, making, communication and learning. Visual literacy also refers to the learned ability to interpret visual and messages accurately and to create such 11
  12. 12. messages. There have two major approaches; helping learners to decode, or "read", visuals proficiently by practicing visual analysis skills and helping learners to encode, or "write", visuals to express themselves and communicate with others (Smaldino, Lowther & Russell, 2012). According to Ausburn & Ausburn (1978), visual literacy includes the group of skills which enable an individual to understand and use visuals for intentionally communicating with others. The International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA) was founded to investigate the potential value of visual literacy principle and to apply them to enhance education and communication. There has been a steady development in the field since that time, and visual aids have been integrated into classroom instruction, advertising, business, and patient education regarding healthcare procedures (http://www.uniteforsight.org/visual-literacy/module3#_ftnref1). Visual literacy encourages an appreciation and comprehension of visual communication. In healthcare matter, visual literacy allowed a healthcare professionals to be able to interpret and communicate difficult terminologies and explain to their patient about their condition. Two ways of communication achieved in successfully if the healthcare professionals share the responsibilities and the patients understand the contents about the healthcare information. The important of visual literacy contributes to problem solving and critical thinking through exposure to interesting and varied images in communicating healthcare information materials. 2.2 Problem in understanding healthcare information Patients and their family members often struggle to understand health information. 12
  13. 13. According to Thompson (2003), discussing health topics with patients orally presents many challenges. He added that verbal instruction are often complex, delivered rapidly and easily forgotten in stressful situations. In addition, language barriers present comprehension problem. Strunk (1979) stated that how people absorb some information is different from others; auditory learners, kinesthetic learner and visual leaners.Besides of the learner style, Osborne (2006) stated that people have trouble understanding health information because of learning challenges. There are literacy aspect, age, disability, culture and emotion of the patients. Instead, people might be also are in different learning characteristic. 2.2.1 Literacy Literacy has been consistently observed as critical to participation in healthcare programs and to improve quality of live. According to Smaldino, Lowther and Russell (2012), they claimed that literacy is defined as an individual's ability to read, write, speak, compute and solve problem at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job and in society, to achieve one's goals and to develop one's knowledge and potential. People with low literacy will have difficulty learning information from many written patient medical materials, including medication labels. A lot of health information is in written formats like brochures, fact sheet and websites. To understand these materials, people who struggle with literacy almost always have trouble understanding health information because so much of it is communicated in writing. 13
  14. 14. 2.2.2 Age Age also affect how people learn and understand health information. People of all ages want to know what new diagnose or treatments will mean in their lives and how to cope with their medical conditions on a day to day basis As people age, many factor can interfere with health understanding. Older adult for example may also be struggling with difficult emotions and anxiety in understanding the complex of health information by doctor (Osborne, 2006). 2.2.3 Disability When people have disabilities that interfere with seeing, hearing or remembering, their receptive (taking in) and expressive (giving out) communication skills are affected (Osborne, 2006). So, it can impact on a person's ability to understand about the health information well and needs someone to be the interpreter or family member to explain it back. 2.2.4 Language Next, the problem based on the language. Here, in healthcare information its refer to medical terminologies and words choice that used by the doctor. Patients can easily overlook or understanding the exact meaning. In short, the fluent of language need to involve with body language and visuals materials as to ensure the misconception will be overcome. 2.2.5 Culture Culture provides a context or framework for people to understand concepts. This problem arises when there have culturally diverse patient. In some cultures, patients are not the ones to make health decisions. Despite cultural and linguistic 14
  15. 15. differences, healthcare information need to convey in ways all of the patients can understand. 2.2.6 Emotion In addition to all the other factors that affect health understanding, people's emotions affect how they learn. It is more difficult to concentrate and comprehend when feeling scared, sick or in pain (Osborne, 2006). 2.3 Communication through visuals Research has shown that visual aids can increase a patient's understanding of their medication regimen(s). Visuals accompanied by oral instructions have increased patients' recall more than if they are given oral instructions alone (Houts et al., 2001). In addition, they claimed that by using pictures and text, patients more understand and help them in recalling information because the formation of the message is encoded in multiple places in memory. Visual materials help people remember information they hear. Schwarzberg (2005) suggested that people remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see and 70% of what they see and hear. He believed that the use of visuals can help teach about something that can not be easily seen (example, female internal anatomy). Visuals can illustrate a specific point and demonstrate steps to follow to complete a task. In fact, visuals are an effective way to present real-life situations. In order to do all of this, healthcare information must be simply, clearly and correctly understood, even when the content is difficult or people have trouble in learning 15
  16. 16. and understanding information. Visuals can help in interpreting healthcare setting. They not only are interesting and attractive to look at, but can reinforce the written or spoken health message. Such example layout and design, pictograph and cartoons, pain scales and visual tools, maps, genograms and other diagrams and form in interactive way. (Osborne, 2006). According to Delp and Jones (1996), the studies of the role of cartoons in emergency room instructions, they founded that these illustrations are effective way to convey information. This also agreed by Houts et al. (2001), they believed that the use of pictographs (refer to simple line drawings that illustrate ideas or actions), shows that pictographs can be aid of learning and communicating in healthcare information, even for person who have lower or limited literacy skills. 16
  17. 17. Figure 2: The example of layout for healthcare service. Figure 3: The example of pictograph and cartoons illustration in healthcare service. Figure 4: The example of pain scales illustration in healthcare service. 17
  18. 18. Figure 5: The example of medical genograms symbols in healthcare service. Visuals not only are interesting and interactive to look at, but more toward the efficient and effective of the content delivered based on the written and healthcare information. Health information is not always linear, often it is too complex, but visuals can help in interrelationships it. 2.4 Conceptual framework 18
  19. 19. Problem in understanding health information Visuals can help interpret the healthcare information Produce the visual materials that can help interpret the healthcare information Figure 1: Conceptual Framework The study is focused from visual literacy among patient in the ways of understanding about healthcare information. The doctor have shared responsibility on communicating health information to patients (Osborne, 2006). There have major problem that involved the patient in understanding health information based on literacy, age, disability, language, culture and emotion. All patients have their right in gain the best explanation about their healthcare, but the doctor need to use visuals approaches to communicate the healthcare information. Visuals play an important roles in interpret healthcare information so for the last step in this study, the researcher will be come out with visuals materials based on healthcare information as the final product for this study. 2.5 Conclusion Researches from previous studies have proved that visual literacy have its contribution toward medical aspect (health literacy). So, the problem in understanding in healthcare information will be overcome by visuals material and verbal communication that combined together as to ensure there no misleading and difficulties occurs. More research are encourage as to promoting visuals literacy in healthcare information in future. 19
  20. 20. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction This chapter explains the research design of this study, the method of data collection, the population as well as the sample of this study and the data analysis of the 20
  21. 21. data. The data that has been analyzed will then be presented in the next chapter. Visual literacy: Implementing Visuals in Communicating Healthcare Information Instrumentation Questionnaire Document Analysis Unstructured interviews Findings Data Analysis Product (Visuals Material) Conclusion & Recommendations Figure 3.1: Chart of Methodology 3.1 Research Design This study will be carried out using quantitative approach as well as quantitative approach as well as qualitative approach; mixed method research. Under the quantitative approach, the researcher will be conducting a survey research as to identify why people have trouble in understanding health information. "A cross-sectional survey is one in which data are collected from selected individuals at a single point in time" (Fraenkel, Wallen & Hyun, 2012). Apart from that, according to Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun (2012), unstructured interview is an informal interview that is not aimed at obtaining answers to predetermined 21
  22. 22. questions but rather to obtain information about where the participants are coming from and what they have experienced. There are the research designs that will be used to gather the data is needed for this study. 3.2 Population and Sampling The target population of this study was a public people. The researcher will be using simple random sampling because all individuals in the selected population have an equal and independent chance to be selected for the sample ((Fraenkel, Wallen & Hyun, 2012). Besides of using the public people as the sample for this study, six healthcare practitioner or doctor from the hospital will be interviewed in order to gain their insights and experienced in communicating healthcare information to their patients. 3.3 Instrumentation 3.3.1 Questionnaire The first instrument that will be used in this study is a questionnaire. This questionnaire form was divided into 3 main parts. There are Part A: Respondent's Background asked about the respondent's background based on the question given.Then, Part B: Trouble in Understanding Healthcare Story. This study aims to identify what are some of the main factors which contribute people having trouble in understanding healthcare story. Part C: Design of the Visual that want to implement. This part as to identify about the design and visual that want to implement in communicating healthcare story. The questionnaire is included in the appendix 22
  23. 23. section. 3.3.2 Unstructured interview The second instrument that will be used in this research is unstructured interview. Interviews are one of the methods used to gain qualitative information. The researcher used interviews method as to collect and gain the relevant the information for this study. The purpose of interviewing the samples is to complement and extend data from questionnaire as well as to find out where the samples are coming from and their experiences. The interviews are questions designed to draw out the subjects’ responses on a topic of interest. These respondents are free to answer in their own word rather than have to choose from predetermined option, as in a survey in questionnaire for example. The unstructured open-ended format permits a greater flexibility and responsiveness to emerging issues for the participants. The interview questions are included in the appendix section. 3.3.3 Document analysis This study also uses documents from others research and then a document analysis are carried out. For the document analysis, the researcher would also get the additional sources such as books, newspapers, the Internet and so on to supplement the findings. All the data were analyzed to obtain the complete information and facts. Books are one of the important sources used to collect all the information for this study. There are several books that the researcher has relied on to collect the 23
  24. 24. information. The researcher also made use of article from newspapers and journal to collect the relevant information in order to complete this study. The Internet is also one of the sources that the researcher has relied on to collect all the related information for this study.Lots of web pages have been used to collect and gain the relevant information for this study. Most of the information that gained in the Internet is reliable and useful for the researcher. 3.4 Data Collection Before the real data collection process for this study is carried out, the researcher was sought from Malaysian Ministry of Health and Health Department of Selangor. After obtaining approval, the researcher requested lists of health practitioner from the Department of Health in Selangor. Then, the researcher sent a letter to health practitioner where there would be respondents for the study and the dates that it would take place. Further, the researcher asked cooperation from public people in the hospital in distributing the questionnaires and collecting completed questionnaires from them. For the unstructured interview, six samples will be used as the interviewees. The interview will be conducted at the clinic and the hospital and will be recorded. 3.5 Data Analysis After the completed questionnaires have been collected, the resulting data will be tabulated and entered into a spreadsheet. Then, the data will be summarized using descriptive statistics. The types of descriptive statistics that will be used to measure the value of data from the questionnaires. As for the data analysis for the unstructured interview, the interview transcripts will be read and memos will be written. The data from 24
  25. 25. the interview transcripts will be coded and each code indicate a certain pattern and meaning. Besides that, the researcher also need to produce the visual material that can help interpret healthcare information. There are several expenses involved with producing visual material for healthcare. Step 1: Planning the visual material by identify the resources needed, define the target audience, goal and objectives, determine the concepts and messages, identify the look and design. Step 2: Writing the visual material by recognize the content, literacy demand, graphics and interaction. Step 3: Revising the visual material Step 4: Formating the visual material The next chapter will be discussed about the process involved in final product based on visual materials in communicating healthcare information. 3.6 Conclusion This chapter has covered the research design, the sample population, the instrument, the data collection and the data analysis. The next chapter will be discussing on the findings of this study. 25
  26. 26. The Bibliography Andrus, M.R., & Roth, M.T. (2002). Health Literacy: A review. Pharmacotherapy, 22, 282-302. Ausburn, L. & Ausburn, F. (1978). Visual Literacy: Background,, Theory and Practice. PLET, 15 (4), 291-297. Debes, J. (1968). Some Foundations of Visual Literacy. Audio Visual Instruction, 13, 961-964. Delp, C. & Jones, J. (1996). Communicating Information to Patients: The Use of Cartoon Illustration to Improve Comprehension of Instructions, Academic Emergency Medicine, 3:264-270. 26
  27. 27. Fitzgerald, M. (1995). NAA Leaders disagree over the value of cyberspace. International Federation of Newspaper Publishers Research Association, 128 (12), 48-49. Frankel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. Eight Edition. New York: McGraw Hill International Edition. Giorgis, C., Johnson, N.J., Bonomo, A. Colbert, C., & al, e. (1999). Visual Literacy. Reading Teacher, 53 (2), 146-153. Houts, P.S., Witmer, J.T, Egeth, H.E., Loscalzo, M.J., & Zabora, J.R. (2001). Using pictographs to enhance recall of spoken medical illustrations. Patient Education and Counseling, 43, 231-242. Osborne H. (2005). Health Literacy from A to Z: Practical Ways to Communicate Your Health Message. United States: Jones and Bartlett Publishers Osborne H. (2006). Health Literacy: How Visuals Can Help Tell the Healthcare Story. Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, Vol.29, No.1, pp 28-32. Rappaport, T.S. (2002). Wireless Communication Principles and Practice. Second Edition. United States: Person Education Richard Knox. (2012). The Fading Art of The Physical Exam. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Emory University: United States Schwartzberg J.G. (2005). Understanding Health Literacy: Implications for Medicine and Public Health. Chicago: AMA Press. Smaldino, S.E., Lowther, D.L., & Russell, J.D. (2012). Instructional technology and media for learning (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Strunk W.Jr (1979). The Elements of Style. New York: MacMilan. Thompson T.L. (2003). Handbook of Health Communication. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Williams, L.V. (1983). A Guide to Right Brain/ Left Brain Education: Teaching with the Two Sided Mind. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Health Literacy. Retrieved October 30,2013 from http://www.healthypeople.gov Visual Literacy. Retrieved November 29,2013 from http://www.uniteforsight.org/visual-literacy/module3#_ftnref1 The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 7th Edition. (2005) American Medical Association Foundation (2003) 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. APPENDICES Visual Literacy: Implementing Visuals in Communicating Healthcare Information Universiti Teknologi MARA, SHAH ALAM This questionnaire form was divided into 3 main parts. There are: Part A: Respondent's Background This part asked about the respondent's background based on the question given. Part B: Trouble in Understanding Healthcare Story This study aims to identify what are some of the main factors which contribute people having trouble in understanding healthcare story. Part C: Design of the Visual that want to implement This study also want to identify about the design and visual that want to implement in communicating healthcare story. The information collected will be kept confidential and will only be used by the researcher for analyzing this research only. 29 Thank you for your valuable time and cooperation.
  30. 30. PART A: RESPONDENT'S BACKGROUND Part A: Respondent's Background Please answer all questions and tick (√) in the appropriate box. 1. Gender Male Female 2. Age Below 18 years old 19 - 29 years old 30 - 39 years old 40 - 49 years old 50 - 59 years old 60 years old and above 3. What is your ethnic group? Malay Chinese Indian Others:___________ 4. How often you meet your doctor for healthcare service? Always Sometimes Never 5. Do you satisfied after hear the explanation about your healthcare information from your doctor? Yes No PART B: To identify why people have trouble when understanding healthcare story. For question, please indicate the extent to which you agree with these statements by using circle (o) or tick (√) the most appropriate answer. (1- strongly disagree, 2- disagree, 3- agree, 4- strongly agree) 1. a. b. c. Literacy I always understand health information in written formats I do not understand if all the health information using texts, number and chart. I prefer the health information using more visual than texts 2. Verbal Communication / Language 30 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 2 3 4
  31. 31. a. b. c. 3. a. b. c. 4 a b c I prefer my doctor explain about health information in slowly and using simple term. I prefer when my doctor explain things in clear by using plain language. I understand if my doctor explain using too many statistic Age I prefer the approaches of explanation health information is divided into age group. I always confuse and misleading about the healthcare information that the doctor explained to me I need someone to help me to explain back the healthcare information after see the doctor. Emotion I feel very difficult to concentrate when the doctor communicate about the healthcare information to me I am not very sure about the healthcare information because i anxiety. I can control my emotion when hear the explanation from the doctor 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 6. What is your learning style? Visual learner Auditory learner Kinesthetic learner Mixed leaner PART C: To identify the design of visual that want to implement in communicating healthcare information. For question, please indicate the extent to which you agree with these statements by using circle (o) or tick (√) the most appropriate answer. 1. Which is the best following show about medication images? 31
  32. 32. A B Reason of your answer:_____________________________________________________ 2. Which is the best following show about the body part (heart and brain)? A B 32
  33. 33. Reason of your answer:_____________________________________________________ 3. Which is the best following show about "do not take this dairy product"? A B Reason of your answer:_____________________________________________________ 4. Based on the image below, I become more understand about the healthcare information. Yes No Please give your reason if you say YES or NO. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 33
  34. 34. 5. Based on the pictograph (image) show below, I become more understand about the medication prescription. Yes No Please give your reason if you say YES or NO. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Unstructured Interview 1. What is your opinion based on health literacy? 2. Do you agreed if the visuals material implement in communicating healthcare 34
  35. 35. information? Why? 3. Do you have any problem when communicating about healthcare information to your patients? 4. If yes, what is your approach to overcome the problem? 5. What is your suggestion if visual literacy implementing in communicating healthcare information? 35

×