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Tips menulis ilmiah


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Menulis tulisan ilmiah sepertinya sulit, padahal ga juga, asal tahu etikanya

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Tips menulis ilmiah

  1. 1. 1 Berbagai tips menulis karya ilmiah Berbagai tips menulis karya ilmiah Oleh: Syahyuti Pelatihan Penulisan Karya Ilmiah DKP Jakarta, 13 November 2009
  2. 2. 2 Checklist for Writing Scientific Papers: Sebelum mulai menulis: • Make an Outline to construct the basic structure of the paper. • Decide who you are writing for & aim at that level. • Form a "thesis statement" - a short (1-3 sentence) statement of what you want the reader to understand as the most important point in your paper. This statement may end up appearing in the abstract or introduction.
  3. 3. 3 While writing & making global revisions to the paper: • Check organization of the paper. Make sure it is consistent with the format requested. • Make sure that the text in each paragraph agrees with the opening sentence of the paragraph. Break the paragraphs by logical divisions. • Be careful of plagiarism • Reference (endnote, footnote) any material, including apparatus diagrams, which is not your own or is not "common knowledge." Use a standard style for references • All graphs, pictures, drawings, diagrams, sketches, etc. must be called a "Figure." All must be numbered. • All Figures & Tables must be referred to, by number, in the text. • All numeric values should have units and errors (if appropriate). Check significant figures. • Make sure your conclusions logically follow from the analysis and discussion in the paper. • Carefully read the whole paper!
  4. 4. 4 Proof reading of paper (at the sentence/paragraph level): • Carefully read the whole paper again! • Check the spelling. • Avoid the first person (We or I) • If a sentence is longer than about 2-3 lines, make sure it is not run-on or that you shouldn't rewrite it. • Check tense of verbs and remain consistent: Past Tense (was, were) Present Tense (is, are). • Check noun/verb agreement (singular/plural) • Check punctuation. • Avoid unnecessary words ("due to the fact that" -> "because“) • Carefully read the whole paper still again! • While you are at it, carefully read the whole paper one more time!
  5. 5. 5 Langkah-langkah: Do first things first !
  6. 6. 6 • organize your ideas • figure out how to explain your ideas • decide how to illustrate your ideas; • choose the equations, figures, and tables you'll include • decide how you're going to say what you're going to say; • devise efective transitions between items you're discussing; • check spelling; grammar; polish your prose; include references. • Brainstorm your ideas. • organize them into a logical sequence. • write about your ideas in general terms, not worrying about technicalities. • look at what you've written to see if your ideas follow one another logically. If they don't, rearrange them and try again. • Then decide what figures, tables, equations, etc. you must include to explain your ideas. Tahap ide:
  7. 7. 7 Tahap menulis: 1. write a draft. 2. Revise it a couple of times. 3. get input from other readers. 4. Revise again. 5. Write the Body first. You can't write the Conclusion before you write the Body. 6. Easier to write the Introduction once you know what you're introducing. 7. Write the abstract and title last
  8. 8. 8 Kriteria (redaksi) dalam menilai paper ilmiah: • Smooth, tata bahasa benar, struktur kalimat, penulisan kata (spell-checking) dan correct punctuation (tanda baca) • A clear thesis at the beginning of the paper. Didukung argumen pokok di body tulisan, dan diakhiri oleh kesimpulan yang kohesif (cohesive conclusion) • Menunjukkan bahwa penulisnya mengerti dan paham menulis paper ilmiah. • Ability to articulate that definition and its subparts content, organization, first disclosure, valid publication and appropriate language
  9. 9. 9 Point pokok untuk mencapai “good writing” : • TUJUAN. What is your intended goal? Jika anda memiliki tujuan yang jelas sebelum menulis, anda akan mencapai first-rate writing. • Kenali audiens pembaca anda • Good writing must also be engaging. Tulisan baik jika dibaca orang. Jika tidak ada yang membaca ia tidak baik. • Keep your writing focused. Coba untuk menulis secara direct dan to the point.
  10. 10. 10 Tips for Writing Well : • Develop your vocabulary. Caranya adalah banyak membaca dan menulis. ‘Practice makes perfect'. • Make sure you listen to these critiques. • Enjoying research • Make sure that you write in a logical and organized fashion. • Follow the rules of grammar and punctuation • Try not to use long-winded sentences. Jangan bingungkan pembaca. • Focus your writing and get to the point. • Don’t try to impress with long sentences and big words. • Make sure your titles or headings accurately describe the content of your writing. • Writing well is about getting the facts right. Jika anda tidak mampu menangkap fakta dengan baik, anda tidak bisa menulis bagus. • Try to get the words right first and foremost. Do not place a word in text just because it sounds good and you think it will impress readers.
  11. 11. 11 Steps to Achieve Good Writing: • make sure you know what you are writing for. • organize an outline of your written piece. • start writing. • The first phase of writing involves writing everything down. Don’t worry about spelling or punctuation at this stage. • Read it back, this is fine. • The final stage is editing. • It is a skill, like any other, that can come with practice and effort.
  12. 12. 12 How to Improve Your Vocabulary and Build Confidence? • The more you read, the richer your vocabulary will become. • Just knowing the definition of a word does not indicate you understand it. You must also understand it in context. • Knowing what a word means is connected to the background that the word is used within. • Words that are used in speaking or writing often require a greater understanding than those used in listening and reading • Examining similarities and differences in word meanings • Learning new words frequently • Keeping a written record of words, their meanings, and usage that you have learnt. • Look at word associations (antonyms, synonyms, roots, and signal connections to other words • Examine words that sound the same but are spelt differently and have different meanings (homophones) • Active learning. • Contextual understandings (putting words into different sentences and creating stories where the word is the main focus).
  13. 13. 13 Pemilihan kata-kata: • Kata-kata yang dipakai menentukan nilai sebuah tulisan. • Sebuah pikiran yang berharga, menjadi tidak berarti karena kata-kata yang untuk menjelaskannya kurang tepat. • Meskipun kata-kata tersusun dalam kalimat, namun kata-kata juga mempunyai tenaga. • Kata-kata bisa ditampilkan secara sederhana, dalam arti bahasa keseharian. • Makna yang dikandung harus jelas, tidak membigungkan pembaca.
  14. 14. 14 Powerful Words: • Ada kata-kata yang “kuat” ada yang tidak. Jika digunakan dalam kalimat, ia akan menghasilkan makna yang ”berbeda” • Ia memberi energi komunikasi • Ganti verb phrases dengan single verbs. ( ‘give instructions to’ ganti dengan ‘instruct’) • Powerful words lebih spesifik. Contoh: ‘I was glad’ ganti dengan ‘I jumped with excitement’. • Gunakan thesaurus atau KBBI • Powerful words not only make your writing stand out, but they also make you stand out. • Will make sure what you say, or what you write, • Will make you stand out from the crowd. • Can be used and are extremely helpful in a variety of business environments. • Impressive when used in a social setting. • Changing your words, make sure to impress.
  15. 15. 15 Penggunaan alinea : • Dalam satu alinea hanya ada satu pikiran utama. • Pikiran utama tersebut tercermin di dalam kalimat utama, kalimat-kalimat lain hanyalah penjelas atau pengembangan. • Posisi kalimat utama dapat diawal, tengah atau di akhir alinea.
  16. 16. 16 Syarat-syarat garis besar yang baik: a. Tiap unit garis besar harus mengandung hanya satu ide. Apabila dua ide dibiarkan dalam satu unit maka hubungan strukturnya tidak akan tampak jelas. Bila kedua ide tersebut berada dalam situasi yang setara, maka masing-masingnya harus ditempatkan pada urutan simbol yang sama derajatnya. Namun apabila berbeda maka ide-ide tersebut haruslah ditempatkan dalam simbol yang berbeda derajatnya. b. Persoalan-persolan atau fakta-fakta yang dicatat dibawah judul utama haruslah merupakan bawahan langsung dan tidak boleh sama pentingnya dengan judul utamanya.
  17. 17. 17 Strategies and Tactics: • There is no trick to writing an efective paper. The more you revise your paper, the more efective your paper will be. • Get constructive feedback from someone else, someone who can be objective and constructive, and someone whose judgement you trust.
  18. 18. 18 Berbagai sumber informasi: Dari yang paling populer menuju yang paling scientific, up to date and reliable: 1. The World Wide Web. 2. Scientific textbooks. 3. Newspaper articles, articles on science subjects in popular journals. 4. On-line journals (not refereed). 5. Popular science journals 6. Review articles in scientific journals 7. Grey literature (conference proceedings, research reports, annual reports. 8. Abstracting journals. 9. Science citation index. 10.Higher degree theses. 11.Scientific papers in scientific journals (including refereed on-line journals).
  19. 19. 19 Tabel dan Gambar
  20. 20. 20 Tujuan dan etika tabel: Tujuan tabel: 1. The primary purpose of a table is archival. Ia menjadi permanent record dari kerja keras anda di riset. 2. To make a point you can't make in a figure. • Tiap tabel harus memiliki caption. • Tiap tabel mesti disebut dalam teks, bukan dinarasikan di teks. • Hati-hati, karena tabel sering kali dikutip orang. Jika salah, orang akan keliru mengutip hasil riset anda • Jangan lupa satuan, waktu, tempat, dan sumber • Tabel harus self explanation
  21. 21. 21 Anatomi tabel
  22. 22. 22 Figures: • Jenisnya: diagram, grafik, foto, peta, dll • Lebih baik gunakan gambar daripada tabel atau ilustrasi, karena lebih memberi kejelasan dan penekanan pada penjelasan • Gunakan secara selktif. Tidak semua hasil riset dimasukkan dalam gambar. Empat aturan menggunakan gambar: 1. must identify unambiguously each element (points, lines, etc.) in the figure. Judul gambar harus jelas menerangkan apa esensi dari gambar tersebut . 2. tiap gambar dibicarakan dalam teks 3. beri label yang jelas, termasuk unit pengukuran 4. konsisten dengan data yang dibicarkan di teks, gunakan ukuran dan simbol yang sama.
  23. 23. 23 Anatomi gambar
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25 Demikian, Terima Kasih