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Farmer Participatory
Research (FPR)
Rajasekaran, B. 1993. A framework for incorporating
indigenous knowledge systems into agricultural research,
extension, an...
Penyebab adalah karena pengetahuan
petani:
(1) oral in nature;
(2) not formally recorded and documented;
(3) Each individu...
Untuk mengintegrasikan indigenous knowledge
systems dalam pengkajian dan penyuluhan
dibutuhkan:
1. strengthening the capac...
Lanjutan:
7. bringing research-extension-farmer together
at all stages is practically difficult considering
the existing b...
Farmer Participatory
Research (FPR) :
Christine Okali, James Sumberg, John Farrington. Farmer
Participatory Research: Rhet...
Langkah-langkah FPR (Escalada and
Heong, 1997) :
1. Planning meeting: peneliti, penyuluh, tokoh
formal, 10-25 petani, memb...
Checklist dalam berdiskusi
dengan petani:
Level of historical
intervention:
Who
Since when
What issues
Selection of trial
...
Lanjutan:
Testing/adapting options:
Trial management
Who decides on level of inputs
(quantity applied, when, how)
Can farm...
Proses
pengkajian
Peneliti
saja
Peneliti,
petani
pasif
Kerjasama
sejajar
peneliti
dan petani
Petani,
dengan
melibatk
an
pe...
Participatory On-station Research (POSR):
Dilakukan di laboratorium dan kebun penelitian
Alasannya karena tidak memadai ji...
On-farm Farmer-oriented Research
(OFFOR):Dilakukan di lahan petani
basisnya adalah partisipasi
tujuannya memvalidasi temua...
Peta “AEZ Sosial”:
“AEZ sosial” berupa social mapping (pemetaan
komunitas):
Tujuan:
1. Menggambarkan kondisi dan masalah m...
Materi yang dipetakan:
demografi, sosial, ekonomi, budaya, geografi,
potensi, masalah
kebiasaan, adat istiadat, nilai-nila...
Mengapa perlu social mapping?
1. Agar paham karakeristik masyarakat
yang akan dibina
2. Tahu potensi dan masalah
masyaraka...
Langkah-langkah melakukan social
mapping:
Step 1: Select Local Analysts.
Identifikasi pihak yang akan diwawancara dan kelo...
Step 4: Analyze a Social Map
semi-structured interviews dengan key questions might
include :
boundaries of the community w...
Analisa Leverage Point Modeling:
= “ … are typically expressed through differential
equations that reflect analysis based ...
Determining Leverage:
1. Yang signifikansinya kuat
2. Yang terbukti menjadi faktor yang
paling lama menjadi kendala
3. Yan...
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Santika 3a fpr (yuti)

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Bagaimana menjalankan riset dengan pendekatan FPR ?

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Santika 3a fpr (yuti)

  1. 1. Farmer Participatory Research (FPR)
  2. 2. Rajasekaran, B. 1993. A framework for incorporating indigenous knowledge systems into agricultural research, extension, and NGOs for sustainable agricultural development. Sikap ilmuwan terhadap petani biasanya: 1. Memandang rendah (underperceiving) hasil penelitian petani ( farmers' experiments) 2. Pengalaman petani tidak dianggap sebagai sumber inovasi 3. Dalam kegiatan pertemuan peneliti-penyuluh, inovasi petani tidak menjadi objek riset 4. Berbagai teknologi petani tidak digunakan 5. “Knowledge is generated in universities, laboratories, and research stations, and then transferred packaged for adoption. The approach is centralized, standardized, and simple. 6. Cirinya adalah: reductionist research, high input packages, and top-down extension 7. Pengetahuan petani (indigenous knowledge) disebut sebagai `primitive', `unproductive' and `irrelevant'
  3. 3. Penyebab adalah karena pengetahuan petani: (1) oral in nature; (2) not formally recorded and documented; (3) Each individual possesses only a part of the community's indigenous knowledge systems; (4) indigenous knowledge systems may be implicit within local people's practices, actions, and reactions, rather than a conscious resource
  4. 4. Untuk mengintegrasikan indigenous knowledge systems dalam pengkajian dan penyuluhan dibutuhkan: 1. strengthening the capacities of regional research and extension organizations; 2. building upon local people's knowledge that are acquired through various processes such as farmer-to-farmer communication, and farmer experimentation; 3. identifying the need for extension scientist/ social scientist in an interdisciplinary regional research team; 4. formation of a sustainable technology development consortium to bring farmers, researchers, NGOs, and extension workers together well ahead of the process of technology development; 5. generating technological options rather than fixed technical packages 6. working with the existing organization and management of research and public sector extension;
  5. 5. Lanjutan: 7. bringing research-extension-farmer together at all stages is practically difficult considering the existing bureaucracies and spatial as well as academic distances among the personnel belonging to these organizations. ….. validating farmer experiments; 8. outlining areas that research and extension organizations need to concentrate on during the process of working with farmers. 9. understanding that it is impractical to depend entirely on research stations for innovations considering the inadequate human resource capacity of the regional research system.
  6. 6. Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) : Christine Okali, James Sumberg, John Farrington. Farmer Participatory Research: Rhetoric and reality Suatu pendekatan dengan melibatkan dan mendorong petani dalam penelitian di lahan mereka sendiri, sehingga mereka dapat belajar, mengadopsi dan menyebarkannya ke petani lain. Peneliti sebagai fasilitator, peneliti dan petai bekerja secara erat mulai dari desain awal, sampai ke pengumpulan datam analisis, menarik kesimpulan, dan tindak lanjutnya (follow-up actions). Keuntungannya, petani dapat “learn by doing” dan membuat keputusan berbasiskan pengalaman sendiri To shape learning, interpretations of experience must provide information about what happened, why it happened and whether what happened was satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Informasi, teknologi, dan konsep lebih mudah dikomunikasikan.
  7. 7. Langkah-langkah FPR (Escalada and Heong, 1997) : 1. Planning meeting: peneliti, penyuluh, tokoh formal, 10-25 petani, membicarakan masalah dan objek untuk riset 2. Laying out the experiment, untuk menyusun experiment plot. 3. Support materials 4. Monitoring, sebelumnya lakukan pra-FPR mengumpulkan data farmers’ practices (produktivitas, teknik budidaya, penggunaan input, pengetahuan petani, dll) 5. Farmer experience sharing workshop 6. Farmer-to-farmer spread 7. Upscaling, melalui media massa
  8. 8. Checklist dalam berdiskusi dengan petani: Level of historical intervention: Who Since when What issues Selection of trial farmers: Who selects Why selected Modes of participation: •Identification of constraints and opportunities •Who identifies subject matter for investigation •How were these identified – instruments used •Identification of ideas/options •Trial design •Who identifies technology options to be tested •How are priorities set •Who determines type of trial and choice of treatments •Who designs trials
  9. 9. Lanjutan: Testing/adapting options: Trial management Who decides on level of inputs (quantity applied, when, how) Can farmer change decisions on inputs (consult? who?) Who supplies inputs Data collection and analysis: Who collects data Types of data collected, variables monitored Who analyzes data How are results evaluated How are data interpreted How are results disseminated How is information shared, with whom Intensity of interaction: •Mode of interaction – researchers, technicians, extension, farmer •Frequency of interaction •Involvement with on-station and on- farm experimentation •Farmer knowledge and perceptions •Knowledge about objectives of trials •Perception of treatments •Establish trials on their own (understanding the research process) •Farmer experimentation •What experiments conducted •Motivation for conducting experiments •Monitor farmer experimentation •Mechanism for feedback
  10. 10. Proses pengkajian Peneliti saja Peneliti, petani pasif Kerjasama sejajar peneliti dan petani Petani, dengan melibatk an peneliti Petani saja Penentuan masalah 5 3 3 2 0 Identify opportunities 5 4 3 1 0 Menyusun prioritas 5 4 3 1 0 Mengidentifikasi pilihan 5 4 3 2 0 Rencana (how, where, who, with what) 5 4 3 2 0 Melakukan eksperimen 5 4 3 2 0 Menilai hasil (assessing results) 5 4 3 2 0 Tipe kerjasama penelitian peneliti-petani: (derajat keterlibatan peneliti 5=tinggi s/d 1=rendah)
  11. 11. Participatory On-station Research (POSR): Dilakukan di laboratorium dan kebun penelitian Alasannya karena tidak memadai jika petani hanya terlibat dalam identifikasi masalah dan hanya recording of indigenous knowledge systems. is a two-way flow that both takes scientists to farmers' fields and brings farmers to research stations involving "research minded" farmers while conducting on-station research ….farmer-scientist interaction should help both groups learn. …… more interaction should improve each other's experiments Peneliti paham tentang faktor biologis, sedangkan petani faham tentang management of ecological, technological, and organizational factors related to food production under specific local conditions Ada dua komponen, yaitu : (1) Developing new research station technologies based on indigenous knowledge systems (2) Integrating indigenous knowledge systems and existing research station technologies
  12. 12. On-farm Farmer-oriented Research (OFFOR):Dilakukan di lahan petani basisnya adalah partisipasi tujuannya memvalidasi temuan dalam kegiatan POSR. peran utama peneliti adalah menyesuaikan teknologi dari lab dengan kondisi petani, harus bekerjasama dengan “ahli penyuluhan” (extension scientists). pengetahuan petani sebagai basis dapat dijalankan pada banyak tempat dengan beragam kondisi menjadi feedback untuk peneliti Hal yang perlu dipertimbangkan : Manajemen serahkan ke petani, jika memungkinkan Penilaian petani (farmer assessment) merupakan komponen penting dalam keseluruhan analisis Farmer control is particularly important for site selection, plot sizes, seed rate, planting patterns, and timing of agronomic operations; Exploration and demonstration activities are required to stimulate awareness and interest in technological options.
  13. 13. Peta “AEZ Sosial”: “AEZ sosial” berupa social mapping (pemetaan komunitas): Tujuan: 1. Menggambarkan kondisi dan masalah masyarakat secara sistematik 2. Memahami potensi sumber daya dan modal sosial komunitas 3. Memahami stakeholder yang berpotensi untuk diajak bekerjasama atau menghambat program 4. Memahami jaringan sosial 5. Mengidentifikasi kebutuhan dan akar permasalahan di komunitas 6. Sebagai bahan untuk menyusun perencanaan community development 7. Mengetahui kelompok masyarakat mana yang akan memperoleh manfaat dari program dan tidak
  14. 14. Materi yang dipetakan: demografi, sosial, ekonomi, budaya, geografi, potensi, masalah kebiasaan, adat istiadat, nilai-nilai, norma, tokoh-tokoh kunci , kepemimpinan, pekerjaan, keterampilan dan pengalaman, pendapatan penduduk tentang agraria (status penguasaan, luas penguasaan, dll) Infrastruktur (akses pada air bersih, kesehatan, dll) Metode pembuatan peta: Data primer dan sekunder Data kuantitatif dan kualitatif model rangking per wilayah (mis rangking kesejahteraan) gambar dua dimensi wilayah
  15. 15. Mengapa perlu social mapping? 1. Agar paham karakeristik masyarakat yang akan dibina 2. Tahu potensi dan masalah masyarakat sasaran 3. Mengetahui kebutuhan masyarakat 4. Sebagai dasar penentuan program agar tepat guna
  16. 16. Langkah-langkah melakukan social mapping: Step 1: Select Local Analysts. Identifikasi pihak yang akan diwawancara dan kelompok-kelompok yang akan diajak diskusi Step 2: Provide Introductions and Explanations Step 3: Produce a Social Map decide what type of area (desa, kecamatan, atau desa pinggir hutan, dll) outline or boundary of the map. identify and draw on the map other institutions and landmarks (religious buildings, schools, health centers, traditional healers, places where people frequently meet, community centers, and other public and business buildings. services or facilities (irrigation, electricity, water, gas, telephone, dll) all houses in the community, bedakan atas berbagai kriteria etnis, female headed-households, and large households) eople with special functions Lokasi toko dan bisnis kecil, Rumah tangga yang lebih kosmopolit
  17. 17. Step 4: Analyze a Social Map semi-structured interviews dengan key questions might include : boundaries of the community with regard to social interaction and social services? social structures and organization public buildings community centers Religious ethnic groups Rumah dan pemukiman Penguasaan lahan Rumah tangga imigran access ke infrastruktur ekonomi, pendidikan, politik, dll Step 5: Conclude the Activity Ask the analysts to reflect on the advantages, disadvantages, and the analytical potential of the tool.
  18. 18. Analisa Leverage Point Modeling: = “ … are typically expressed through differential equations that reflect analysis based on System Dynamics, focusing on how important variables of a system interact to produce behavior of a system over time”. Variabel pentingnya adalah: mission capability, cost, and other system variables. Ada 3 elemen System Dynamics: 1. to explain why a system changes over time as opposed to why a system is in a particular state at a point in time. 2. takes a broad view of the factors that cause changes …. 3. shows reciprocal feedback relationships between 18
  19. 19. Determining Leverage: 1. Yang signifikansinya kuat 2. Yang terbukti menjadi faktor yang paling lama menjadi kendala 3. Yang dalam konteks struktur, adalah yang baik fisik dan informasi, saling terkoneksi (interconnections) dengan yang lain dan kuat memperngaruhi perilaku. 19

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