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Paper ilmiah

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Apa dan bagaimana yang disebut PAPER ILMIAH

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Paper ilmiah

  1. 1. 1 Paper Ilmiah Oleh: Syahyuti Pelatihan Penulisan Karya Ilmiah: DKP Jakarta 13 November 2009
  2. 2. 2 What is a Research Paper? Ada dua bentuk, yaitu: 1. Primary or experimental research papers. Menjelaskan hasil eksperimen yang dilalkukan penulis. Sesuatu yang baru yang berhasil ditemukan oleh penulis. 2. Secondary or review research papers. Menyimpulkan riset yang telah dilakukan di satu bidang tertentu. Review tidak menyampaikan informasi baru atau hasil baru, tapi lebih sebagai sintesis dari body of work, menyediakan perspektif baru atau pertanyaan baru dari satu hal. • ditulis dan dipublikasikan untuk melaporkan hasil riset yang orisinil • harus dipublikasikan di media yang tepat • harus direview oleh scientific peers dan dipublikasikan di jurnal yang utama. • Menulis paper bukanlah sebuah novel. Jangan zalimi publik dengan menunda-nunda menulis hasil riset anda.
  3. 3. 3 Why a Scientific Format? • Format ilmiah kelihatan membingungkan bagi orang awam karena struktur yang rigid, yang sangat berbeda dengan tulisan-tulisan umumnya. • Alasan utamanya adalah: • that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. • that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. • to insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper (beyond title skimming), they will likely get the key results and conclusions.
  4. 4. 4 Alasan mengapa menulis bagus penting? • dunia pengetahuan ”ada” karena adanya keterampilan good writing • Tanpa good writing, there would be anarchy and chaos. • poor writing can be akin to misinformation. • bad writing skills can convey either the wrong or an ambiguous message. • good writing abilities are necessary in many careers to be successful. • Having the ability to write well at work or on a personal level can give us that much-needed confidence boost. • First and foremost, being able to write well builds confidence. • Furthermore, if people believe your writing to be poor, they might not actually believe what you’ve written. • can accurately describe situations without letting your bias show through. • important in both our personal and professional lives.
  5. 5. 5 Untuk menulis paper ilmiah perlu menjawab 4 hal berikut: 1. What is the problem? Your answer is the Introduction. 2. How did you study the problem? Your answer is the Materials and Methods. 3. What did you find? Your answer is the Results. 4. What do these findings mean? Your answer is the Discussion.
  6. 6. 6 Types of articles: • Letters. Deskripsi singkat hasil terakhir yang ditemukan peneliti. Dilaporkan sesegera mungkin karena begitu urgen. • Research notes. Sama, namun kurang urgen dibanfing letters. • Articles. Tebal 5-20 halaman. Deskripsi lengkap hasil riset terakhir. • Supplemental articles. Berisi sejumlah besar data yang dihasilkan dari riset. Biasanya disimpan di internet dalam bentuk data elektronik. • Review articles. Bukan hasil orisinil riset, namun merupakan akumulasi beberapa artikel dalam topik tertentu untuk mendapatkan coherent narrative. Ia dapat dikutip untuk melakukan riset selanjutnya.
  7. 7. 7  Experimental process  Section of Paper What did I do in a nutshell?  Abstract  What is the problem? Introduction  How did I solve the problem?  Materials and Methods  What did I find out?  Results  What does it mean?  Discussion  Who helped me out?  Acknowledgments (optional)  Whose work did I refer to?  Literature Cited  Extra Information Appendices (optional) Materi paper ilmiah:
  8. 8. 8 Bagian-bagian paper ilmiah:
  9. 9. 9 Title : • Bagin ini sangat penting dari keseluruhan paper, dan menentukan keefektifan paper • Abstracting and Indexing services will also utilize the title. Karena itu, pemilihan kata mesti sangat hati-hati • What is a good title? Mampu menerangkan isi paper • How long? Beberapa jurnal membatasi 10 sampai 12 kata. • employ effective syntax (word order) and avoid waste words such as "Investigations on" and "Observations on". • never contain abbreviations (singkatan) and jargon
  10. 10. 10 Types of title : 1. Job title. Hanya menunjukkan isi namun tidak hasilnya. Contoh: The effectiveness of bed nets in controlling mosquitoes at different seasons of the year. 2. Informative titles. Mengindikasikan hasil yang dicapai dan kesimpulan riset. Contoh: Bed nets control mosquitoes most effectively when used in the rainy season. 3. Question-type titles. Contoh: When are bed nets most effective when used to control mosquitoes? 4. Main-subtitle (series) type. Menunjukkan seri kesekian dari paper serupa. Contoh: The effect of bed nets on mosquitoes: 1.Their effectiveness when used only in the rainy season. 5. Hanging titles. Karena ia paper dari riset pertama yang belum ada hasil yang memuaskan. Contoh: The effect of bed nets on mosquitoes: Their effectiveness when used only in the rainy season.
  11. 11. 11 How to write titles: Ensure that the title: • Describes the contents of the paper. • Is accurate, concise and specific. • Has as many key words as possible and is modelled on the style adopted by the publication for which you are writing. • Is as easy to understand as possible. The title should not: • Contain a full stop, unless it is an informative title • Contain unnecessary words such as "Some notes on....……. "An investigation into..…….. • Contain abbreviations, formulas and acronyms • Promise more than is in the paper • Be too general
  12. 12. 12 Authorship : • Penulis yang tercantum hanyalah mereka yang benar-benar berkontribusi dalam riset. • Yang paling berperan namanya di depan. • Cantumkan pula lembaga dimana penulisnya berafiliasi, dan alamat lembaga berasngkutan
  13. 13. 13 Abstract: • memungkinkan pembaca mengidentifikasi isi pokok paper dan secara cepat dan akurat menentukan relevansi untuk dirinya • jumlahnya tak lebih dari 250 kata • disusun untuk menentukan secara tegas apa sesungguhnya isi paper Materi dalam abstrak: • the background , principal objectives, and scope of the study. • the methodology(s) employed. • summarize the results. • state the principal conclusions. and discussion
  14. 14. 14 How to write abstracts? • An informative abstract. Memuat ringkasan point utama sebagaimana ada di paper. Menyiapkan informasi bagi pembaca saat akan membaca paper lengkap • An indicative abstract. Hanya menjelaskan subject matter dari paper/buku, tapi bukan ringkasan isinya.
  15. 15. 15 Isi abstrak Statement of: • The question asked (present verb tense) • What was done to answer the question (past verb tense) – research design, population studies, independent and dependent variables • Findings that answer the question (past verb tense) – the most important results and evidence (data) presented in a logical order. • The answer to the question (present verb tense) If useful, and where word limit allows, include: • One or two sentences of background information (placed at the beginning) • An implication or a speculation based on the answer (present verb tense, placed at the end)
  16. 16. 16 Introduction: • tujuannya memberikan informasi background yang cukup kepada pembaca sehingga dapat mengerti dan mengevaluasi konsep dari riset yang disampaikan paper, menyampaikan rasionalitas riset, mengenalkan the most outstanding conclusions dari tujuan riset • provide the context for your paper. • to catch your reader's attention. • make your topic sound so interesting • describe clearly and succinctly the topic of your paper. • must be specific and focused • must give your reader a clear idea of precisely what your paper is about. • must focus your reader's attention inward towards the detailed discussion that will comprise the body of your document. • will be short; perhaps a page in length. • It is not labelled with a separate heading, • It is not a review of the field, it merely establishes a common point of departure for readers with different levels of expertise. • It should provide some justification for the paper (why the issue is important), and it should present the objective of the paper.
  17. 17. 17 Background to the topic (past verb tense) -What is known or believed about the topic -What is still unknown or problematic -Findings of relevant studies (past verb tense) -Importance of the topic Statement of the research question -Several ways can be used to signal the research question , e.g., -“To determine whether ………” -“The purpose of this study was to …….” -This study tested the hypothesis that ……” -“This study was undertaken to ……” Approach taken to answer the question (past verb tense) Isi pendahuluan:
  18. 18. 18 Materials and method: • menyampaikan detail metodologi riset, agar pembaca dapat “mengulang eksperimen” • Isi laporan riset ilmiah mesti reproducable, karena itu metode riset menjadi indikator kredibilitas riset • Sumber yang spesifik, berkualitas, dan capabilities of reagents harus dipaparkan • Deskripsikan secara tepat kuantitas yang digunakan, pengukuran, kondisi suhu, dll, Pertinent references where applicable should be provided.
  19. 19. 19 Isi bagian metodologi: • Outline of the study design • Subjects – Method of sampling and recruitment; – Number of subjects; and – Justification of sample size. – Inclusion, exclusion and withdrawal criteria; – Method of allocation to study groups. • Variables – Independent, dependent, extraneous, controlled. • Pilot Studies – Outcome of any pilot studies which led to modifications to the main study.
  20. 20. 20 Isi bagian metodologi: • Materials. Equipment, instruments or measurement tools (include model number and manufacturer). • Procedures. Detailed description, in chronological order, of exactly what was done and by whom. • Major ethical considerations • Data reduction/statistical analyses – Method of calculating derived variables, dealing with outlying values and missing data. – Methods used to summarise data (present verb tense). – Statistical software (name, version or release number); – Statistical tests (cite a reference for less commonly used tests) and what was compared; – Critical alpha probability (p) value at which differences/relationships were considered to be statistically significant.
  21. 21. 21 Result: • Ini adalah "core" dari keseluruhan paper. • Tujuannya adalah memaparkan data hasil riset • Masalah serius adalah memutuskan mana data yang penting ditampilkan dan mana yang repetitif sehingga tak berguna • Penggunaan data statistik mestilah yang meaningful dan responsibly. • Should be short and sweet. • Results of original studies represent new knowledge and therefore the skeleton (rangka) of the paper. • The entire success of the paper is dependent upon the results • Must be presented with crystal clarity. • Gunakan tabel dan gambar secara selektif • Hindari : "It is clearly seen in Table 1 that". Bukan tugas pembaca untuk menganalisis data • Must be organized logically, not chronologically. Your paper is not a diary. Its job it to explain your findings,
  22. 22. 22 Discussion: • Ini adalah bagian yang lebih sulit dibandingkan bagian lain, juga lebih sulit menuliskannya • Seringkali paper ditolak karena lemahnya bagian ini • kesalahan yang sering muncul adalah bagian diskusi yang terlalu panjang • Seringkali not knowing what to say about the results, hides behind a protective cloud of ink. • Harus menunjukkan bagaimana relasi antar seluruh fakta yang ditemukan dari riset • Harus berusaha untuk menjelaskan prinsip-prinsip, relasi, dan generaliasi. • It should discuss, notreformulate the results. • Point out any exceptions or lack of correlation and define any unsettled points. • Show how your results and interpretations agree or disagree with previously published works. • Discuss any theoretical implications or practical applications of the results. • Reaffirm the major conclusions or findings as clearly as possible. • Summarize the evidence of the study for each conclusion.
  23. 23. 23 Isi bagian Discussion: • Answers to the question(s) posed in the introduction together with any accompanying support, explanation and defence of the answers with reference to published literature. • Explanations of any results that do not support the answers. • Indication of the originality/uniqueness of the work Explanations of: • How the findings concur (setuju) with those of others • Any discrepancies (pertentangan) of the results with those of others • Unexpected findings • The limitations of the study which may affect the study validity or generalisability of the study findings. • Indication of the importance of the work e.g. clinical significance • Recommendations for further research
  24. 24. 24 Conclusion: • move your reader's focus outward from the detailed discussion in the body of your paper. • bring the paper to closure. • Don’t end a paper without a conclusion. • conclusion is what your readers will remember. If you just stop, your readers will remember nothing. • redefine the objective of the study and show how you satisfied these goals • It should strengthen the relationship between the ideas you have built in the body of the paper.
  25. 25. 25 Literature cited: • gunakan literatur yang signifikan dan published. • Hindari unpublished atau gray literature • If considered absolutely necessary, such references should be used parenthetically or as a footnote in the text. • Secondly, check all parts of every reference against the original publication. • Never cite citations from other works. • Obtain and study carefully every citation used in a publication. • Far more mistakes occur in the Literature Citation section of a paper than anywhere else. • The specific citation style to be used is specific to the journal being published in and is given in the Instructions to the Authors.
  26. 26. 26 Three purposes of References: • Memberi kredit pada paper anda. Karena itu, beri referensi pada tiap insight, paraphrase, result, derivation, idea, atau direct quotation yang anda ambil dari satu sumber. Jika keliru, anda dicap plagiarism (one of the most heinous crimes in science). • Provides your reader with carefully selected background references. Memmungkinkan pembaca menelusuri dan paham perkerjaan anda • Contributes to the context of your paper, situating it in the field in which you're working.
  27. 27. 27 List of references : • Name (or names) of author(s), (each) followed by initials. • Year of publication in parenthesis. • Title of article. • Title of journal, either in full or abbreviated according to the World List of Scientific Periodicals. • Volume of journal, underlined • Publisher and place of publication (untuk buku) • Number of first and last pages of articles. • tanggal download (untuk electronic source)
  28. 28. 28 Sumber Bacaan: • Gary Dillard. The Scientific Paper. http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol398/paper/papertext.html • Michael A. Morrison. Tips on Scientific Writing. Version 4.3: January 21, 2004. http://www.nhn.ou.edu/~morrison/Teaching/WritingTips.pdf • Checklist for Writing Scientific Papers. • http://physics.gac.edu/~huber/misc/wricheck.htm • How to Write a Scientific Article. http://www.aaps- journal.org/submission%20pdf/How%20to%20Write%20a %20Scientific%20Paper.pdf • Introduction to Journal-Style Scientific Writing • http://abacus.bates.edu/~ganderso/biology/resources/writing/HTWg eneral.html ****** email: syahyuti@yahoo.com

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