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Kelembagaan adopsi inovasi (yuti)

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Contoh penerapan analisis kelembagaan pada objek adopsi inovasi pertanian

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Kelembagaan adopsi inovasi (yuti)

  1. 1. Paradigma baru Penyuluhan: Komunikasi untuk INOVASI 1
  2. 2. Perubahan paradigma : ◦ From diffusion to systems of agricultural innovation. Alasannya: 1. inovasi teknologi bisa datang dari banyak sumber, 2. ada perubahan dari sustainable agriculture and progress menuju ecological knowledge system, 3. berkembangnya interdependence model dan innovation system framework, dimana yang terlibat tak hanya research and extension, tetap juga technology users, private companies NGO, dan supportive structures (pasar dan kredit). 4. pentingnya learning processes ( = a way of evolving 2
  3. 3. Transformasi pemikiran ttg penyuluhan dari LAMA ke BARU: From To Looking at extension as national government service Seeing extension as a set of functions, to be performed by a variety of players, at different levels Looking at extension to transfer technologies Seeing a wider mandate for extension, that also includes farmer mobilization, organization and education Looking at extension as a distinct, separate institution Seeing a coherent, comprehensive knowledge system for the generation, transfer and uptake of knowledge and technology, that includes the farmers, research, extension and education Using a linear, sequential and one-directional model of technology transfer A more realistic, cyclical and dynamic model of information exchange and knowledge dissemination (farmers, researchers, educators and extensionists) Designing projects from a teaching perspective, and budgeting for teaching efforts Allowing projects to develop a learning mode, engaging all major stakeholders. Paying lip service to the potential of information technology for rural development Taking some risks by including experimental information technologies in projects to link research institutes, extension managers, farmer organizations and others to each other and to the rest of the world. 3
  4. 4. Rapid Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge System (RAAKS): dikembangkan Department for Communication and Innovation Studies of Wageningen University, berdasarkan penelitian dan kegiatan di lebih 25 negara di Latin America, Africa, Asia, Europe and Australia. Digunakan untuk innovative capacity development and social learning processes at the community level among rural organisations and institutions and, more recently, in agricultural market chains. Keunggulannya: a participatory action research methodology that provides ways for those involved in complex situations to understand what is happening and to begin to find answers for themselves. 4
  5. 5. RAAKS methodology: better known and more accessible to a new group of potential users in the field on knowledge management. a participatory action research methodology and alternative system a methodology that has been designed and tested to help stakeholders gain a better understanding of their performance as innovators. provides a way to improve the generation, exchange and utilization of knowledge and information for innovation. 5
  6. 6. Why RAAKS? RAAKS is a participatory action-research methodology that attempts to provide ways for those involved in such complex situations to begin to find answers for themselves. RAAKS can be used to focus on the present and potential social organization of actors (groups or individuals) in a situation where innovation is desirable. It encourages the team to think about the system you are in, what you want from it, what it achieves and does not, and what is needed for improvement. For whom? RAAKS is first of all useful to organizations or institutions who feel pressed to improve their performance with respect to innovation. 6
  7. 7. Ways to use RAAKS: dapat dipakai oleh field worker, trainer, manager, researcher, dan consultant. As a researcher, you can use this method to develop an understanding of the social organization of innovation, based on input from those who are involved; this can be used as a basis for proposals for action and/or further analysis. 7
  8. 8. RAAKS study has three objectives: To identify opportunities to improve a knowledge and information system - that is, to better the organization, decision making, and exchange of information among actors, with the aim of improving the potential for learning and innovation; To create awareness among relevant actors (such as target groups or constituencies, managers, policymakers, producers, traders, researchers and extension workers) with respect to the opportunities and constraints that effect their performance as innovators; To identify actors and potential actors who do or could act effectively to remove constraints and take advantage of opportunities to improve innovative performance and to encourage their commitment to such changes. 8
  9. 9. Analisis KELEMBAGAAN (Institutional Analysis)
  10. 10. Buku Richard Scott. 2008. Institutions and Organizations. Institution= “….are composed of cultured-cognitive, normative, and regulative elements that, together with associated activities and resources, provide stability and meaning of social live”. Lembaga dan Organisasi 10
  11. 11. Kekeliruan yang sering terjadi: 1. Menyebut lembaga sama dengan organisasi 2. Menganggap dengan membuat organisasi telah menyelesaikan masalah kelembagaan 3. Kajian kelembagaan biasanya hanya meneliti kebijakan-kebijakan
  12. 12. In English Biasa diterjemahkan menjadi Terminologi semestinya Batasan dan materinya 1. institution Kelembagaan, institusi Lembaga norma, regulasi, pengetahuan-kultural. Menjadi pedoman dalam berperilaku aktor 2. institutional Kelembagaan, institusi Kelembagaa n Hal-hal berkenaan dengan lembaga. 3. organizatio n Organisasi, lembaga Organisasi social group, yg sengaja dibentuk, punya anggota, utk mencapai tujuan tertentu, aturan dinyatakan tegas. 4. organizatio nal Keorganisasia n, kelembagaan Keorganisasi an Hal-hal berkenaan dengan organisasi. Rekonseptualisasi “Lembaga” dan “Organisasi” 12
  13. 13. Institutions (Lembaga) = norma + aturan + cultural cognitive Organization = organisasi Network = individu 13
  14. 14. Menurut New Institutionalism, ada 3 pilar dalam lembaga: 14 1.Regulative pillar  “rules define relationship among role”  rule setting, monitoring, sanksi  kapasitas untuk menegakkan aturan  reward and punishment  melalui mekanisme informal (folkways) dan formal (polisi, pengeadilan)  represi, constraint, dan meng-empower aktor 2.Normative pillar  norma menghasilkan preskripsi (=lebih dari antisipasi dan prediksi), evaluatif, dan tanggung jawab  mencakup: value (= prefered and desirable) dan norm (how things should be done)  Gunanya agar tahu apa goal dan objectives kita, dan cara mencapainya  meng-constraint dan meng-empower aktor 3.Cultural- cognitive pillar  Intinya meaning  Konsep bersama tentang kehidupan sosial dan kerangka dimana makna-makna diproduksi  Sedimentasi makna dan kristalisasi makna dalam bentuk objektif  Berisi proses interpretatif internal yang dibentuk oleh kerangka kultural eksternal  Situation shared secara kolektif
  15. 15. Khusus untuk organisasi: Pedoman singkat untuk menilai sebuah organisasi (Short Guide for Organizational Assessment): 1. Kinerja organisasi (Organizational Performance) 2. Kemampuan organisasi tumbuh di lingkungannya (The Enabling Environment and Organizational Performance) 3. Motivasi organisasi (Organizational Motivation) 4. Kapasitas Organisasi (Organizational 15
  16. 16. Analisis Kelembagaan Inovasi
  17. 17. Kelembagaan (institutional): 1. Aspek regulatif - UU No. 7 tahun 1996, tentang Pangan - PP No 11 tahun 2010 ttg pemanfaatan tanah terlantar - Pedoman umum pelaksanaan Program - SK Pemda tentang peserta program 2. Aspek Normatif - Pernyataan Presiden RI pada Konferensi Dewan Ketahanan Pangan di (JICC) Oktober 2010: bahwa ketahanan dan kemandirian pangan nasional harus dimulai dari rumah tangga - Pemanfaatan pekarangan oleh masy desa untuk pertanian sudah berlangsung lama - Ketahanan pangan keluarga didukung secara kultural - Aspek-aspek kultural yang mendukung, menghambat, membolehkan, 3. Aspek pengetahua n dan sikap (cultural cognitif) - sikap penerimaan rumah tangga terhadap ide RPL - Pengetahuan rumah tangga dalam bertani dengan teknologi spesifik - Kesiapan rumah tangga mengikuti program RPL
  18. 18. Keorganisasi an (organization al) - kelompok rumah tangga -Pemerintahan Desa, PKK, penyuluh, -Perguruan tinggi, LSM -Swasta, pengembang - Pemerintah daerah -Badan Litbang Pertanian, BPTP -Kementerian Pertanian
  19. 19. Contoh: Dukungan Kelembagaan pada Eskalasi M- KRPL (Kawasan Rumah Pangan Lestari) ke Depan
  20. 20. Kelembagaan (institutional): 1. Aspek regulatif - UU No. 7 tahun 1996, tentang Pangan - PP No 11 tahun 2010 ttg pemanfaatan tanah terlantar - Pedoman umum pelaksanaan Program - SK Pemda tentang peserta program 2. Aspek Normatif - Pernyataan Presiden RI pada Konferensi Dewan Ketahanan Pangan di (JICC) Oktober 2010: bahwa ketahanan dan kemandirian pangan nasional harus dimulai dari rumah tangga - Pemanfaatan pekarangan oleh masy desa untuk pertanian sudah berlangsung lama - Ketahanan pangan keluarga didukung secara kultural - Aspek-aspek kultural yang mendukung, menghambat, membolehkan, 3. Aspek pengetahua n dan sikap (cultural cognitif) - sikap penerimaan rumah tangga terhadap ide RPL - Pengetahuan rumah tangga dalam bertani dengan teknologi spesifik - Kesiapan rumah tangga mengikuti program RPL
  21. 21. Lanjutan …. Keorganisasi an (organization al) - kelompok rumah tangga -Pemerintahan Desa, PKK, penyuluh, -Perguruan tinggi, LSM -Swasta, pengembang - Pemerintah daerah -Badan Litbang Pertanian, BPTP -Kementerian Pertanian
  22. 22. Matrik pembagian peran berdasarkan tahapan program Perencanaan Pelaksanaan Monev Level desa: Rumah tangga dan kelompok rumah tangga mengikuti sosialisasi pelaku utama Responden utk monev Pemerintahan desa, PKK, Pokja, Penyuluh membantu pembentukan kelompok pendampingan teknologi Informan utk monev Level daerah: Pemda (Kantor ketahanan pangan) mengidentifikasi dan menentukan sasaran koordinator tingkat kabupaten -Pelaksana monev -penanggung jawab keberlanjutan dan replikasi kegiatan Perguruan Tinggi, LSM Mengikuti sosialisasi Dukungan dan pengawalan teknologi -nara sumber Swasta, pengembang Mengikuti Fasilitasi Nara sumber
  23. 23. Lanjutan: Perencanaan Pelaksanaan Monev Level nasional: Badan Litbang pertanian/BPTP -membangun model KRPL -pelatihan budidaya, pengolahan, dan pemasaran Narasumber dan pengawalan teknologi dan kelembagaan Nara sumber Kementerian Pertanian (Badan Ketahanan Pangan) -penanggung jawab sosialisasi Koordinasi level nasional -monev level nasional
  24. 24. Matrik pembagian peran antar stakholders dalam sistem agribisnis KRPL Fungsi agribisnis Pihak/organisasi yang menjalankan Individu rumah tangga Kelompok Rumah tangga Pendamping (PPL, PT, LSM, pengembang) BPTP/ Litbang Swasta/pas ar 1.penyediaan benih V V V V 2.penyediaan pupuk & obat- obatan V V V 3.penyediaan modal V V V 4.penyediaan tenaga kerja V V 5.penyediaan air utk penyiraman V - 6.kegiatan usahatani V V 7.pengolahan hasil pertanian V V V 8.pemasaran hasil pertanian V V V V 9.penyediaan informasi (tekno logi, pasar, dll) V V V V Ket: V = dapat dilakukan (opsional)
  25. 25. TERIMA KASIH

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