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Wawancara Mendalam
(In-Depth Interview )
1
= a qualitative research technique that involves conducting
intensive
individual interviews
…. to explore their perspectiv...
Keuntungan In-Depth Interviews =
provide much more detailed information
provide a more relaxed atmosphere in
which to coll...
Process In-Depth Interviews:
1. Plan (siapa yang akan terlibat, apa info yg mau
dikumpulkan, dll)
2. Develop Instruments (...
Interview QuestionTips:
Questions should be open-ended
Ask factual question before opinion
questions.
Use probes as needed...
Focus Group Discussion:
6
Focus Group Discussion:
= is a rapid assessment, semi‐structured data gathering method
in which a purposively selected set...
Syarat untuk menjadi Facilitator FGD:
1. familiarity with the discussion topic
2. ability to speak the language spoken of
...
Langkah-langkah kegiatan FGD:
1. Pembukaan, jelaskan tujuan dan skop
2. Tanyakan nama dan background
peserta.
3. Gunakan p...
Pedoman menyusun pedoman
wawancara:
1. FGD adalah untuk listen and learn, bukan
mengajar
2. bagi kerja antar anggota tim
3...
Laporan FGD disusun dengan cara:
1. reviewing the notes
2. listening again to the cassettes from the session
3. grouping r...
Analisis Kelembagaan
(Institutional Analysis)
Syahyuti,
16 Mei 2012 @BBPTP
12
In English Biasa
diterjemahkan
menjadi
Terminologi
semestinya
Batasan dan materinya
1. institution Kelembagaan,
institusi
...
Institutions.
Lembaga =
norma + aturan +
cultural cognitive
Organization
= organisasi
Social
Network =
jaringan
sosial
= i...
Apa itu Lembaga? Apa itu
Organisasi?
Definsi menurut ahli ekonomi kelembagaan:
Douglass C. North:
“institutions = the long...
Di bidang sosiologi:
W. Richard Scott. 2001. Institutions and Organizations, Second
Edition. Sage Publications, Inc. Calif...
Paham kelembagaan baru:
“institution are comprised of regulative, normative
and cultural-cognitive elements that, together...
(1) Regulative pillar:
rule setting, monitoring, sanksi
kapasitas untuk menegakkan aturan
reward and punishment
caranya: m...
(2) Normative pillar:
Tokohnya: Durkheim, Parson, Selznick
norma menghasilkan preskripsi (=lebih dari
antisipasi dan predi...
(3) Cultural-cognitive pillar:
Tokohnya: Geertz, Douglass, Berger, Goffman, Meyer,
DiMaggio, Powel, Scott
Intinya: MEANING...
Pedoman singkat untuk menilai sebuah
organisasi (Short Guide for Organizational
Assessment
1. Kinerja organisasi (Organiza...
22
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Indept fgd kelembagaan bbptp (yuti)

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Berbagai aturan dan teknik melakukan wawancara mendalam, FGD, dll. Hati-hati, jangan sembarangan, syarat dan ketentuan berlaku.

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Indept fgd kelembagaan bbptp (yuti)

  1. 1. Wawancara Mendalam (In-Depth Interview ) 1
  2. 2. = a qualitative research technique that involves conducting intensive individual interviews …. to explore their perspectives on a particular idea, program, or situation. Kapan In-Depth Interviews sesuai digunakan? when you want detailed information about a person’s thoughts and behaviors want to explore new issues in depth. to provide context to other data (such as outcome data), offering a more complete picture of what happened in the program and why. in place of focus groups if the potential participants may not be included or comfortable talking openly in a group, distinguish individual (as opposed to group) opinions about the program to refine questions for future surveys of a particular group. 2
  3. 3. Keuntungan In-Depth Interviews = provide much more detailed information provide a more relaxed atmosphere in which to collect information Kelemahan In-Depth Interviews = Kemungkinan bias Butuh waktu : conduct interviews, transcribe, and analyze the results Harus peneliti yang mampu Not generalizable 3
  4. 4. Process In-Depth Interviews: 1. Plan (siapa yang akan terlibat, apa info yg mau dikumpulkan, dll) 2. Develop Instruments (untuk menjaga konsistensi wawancara, bagaimana urutannya, apa yang akan dilakukan selama wawancara, penerjemah, 3. Train Data Collectors (speak the local language). 4. Collect Data (be sure to explain the purpose of the interview, why the stakeholder has been chosen, and the expected duration of the interview). 5. Analyze Data (transcribe, review data, analyze all interview data). 6. Disseminate Findings (write report and see “How are In-Depth Interviews Presented?. 4
  5. 5. Interview QuestionTips: Questions should be open-ended Ask factual question before opinion questions. Use probes as needed (example, elaborate, jelaskan lebih jauh, apa ada yang lain ?, …) 5
  6. 6. Focus Group Discussion: 6
  7. 7. Focus Group Discussion: = is a rapid assessment, semi‐structured data gathering method in which a purposively selected set of participants gather to discuss issues and concerns based on a list of key themes drawn up by the researcher/facilitator (Kumar, 1987). Focus group discussion guide 1. Specify the objectives and information needs of the focus group discussion (misal; bagaimana penyuluh dan pengamat hama membuat keputusan dala merespon meledaknya serangan hama) 2. Break down the major topics into discussion points or themes. 3. Prepare probe questions (mari kita bicara tentang …..., apa informasi yang didapat dari lapang?,…..bagaimana respon pihak …..? 4. Review the guide and eliminate any irrelevant questions. 7
  8. 8. Syarat untuk menjadi Facilitator FGD: 1. familiarity with the discussion topic 2. ability to speak the language spoken of the area 3. cultural sensitivity. 4. genuine interest in people 5. sensitivity to men and women 6. Politeness 7. Empathy 8. Respect for participants 8
  9. 9. Langkah-langkah kegiatan FGD: 1. Pembukaan, jelaskan tujuan dan skop 2. Tanyakan nama dan background peserta. 3. Gunakan panduan pertanyaan yg telah disiapkan 4. Beri kesempatan yg sama untuk peserta berpartisipasi. 5. Gunakan beragam teknik untuk menggali data, misalnya: biarkan peserta saling berbicara secara langsung tanpa melalui moderator, yg malu-malu di dorong bicara, kendalikan yg dominan, dst. 9
  10. 10. Pedoman menyusun pedoman wawancara: 1. FGD adalah untuk listen and learn, bukan mengajar 2. bagi kerja antar anggota tim 3. semua anggota tim pegang FGD guide. 4. pahami dan gunakan bahasa dan istilah lokal 5. open mind and listen more. 6. hindari Yes or No answers. 7. hindari leading questions. 8. perhatikan local norms and customs. 9. Ingat, waktu bagi peserta juga penting 10. Ucapkan terima kasih 10
  11. 11. Laporan FGD disusun dengan cara: 1. reviewing the notes 2. listening again to the cassettes from the session 3. grouping research findings according to key themes 4. identifying the different positions that emerged under each key theme 5. summarizing each of the different positions and assess the extent to which each 6. position was held by participants 7. pulling out verbatim phrases that represent each position. 8. identifying the recurrent ideas that came out during the discussion 9. interpreting these recurrent ideas based upon other findings that emerged in the groups 11
  12. 12. Analisis Kelembagaan (Institutional Analysis) Syahyuti, 16 Mei 2012 @BBPTP 12
  13. 13. In English Biasa diterjemahkan menjadi Terminologi semestinya Batasan dan materinya 1. institution Kelembagaan, institusi Lembaga Berisi norma, nilai, regulasi, pengetahuan, dll. Menjadi pedoman dalam berperilaku aktor (individu dan organisasi) 2. institutional Kelembagaan, institusi Kelembagaan Hal-hal berkenaan dengan lembaga. 3. organization Organisasi, lembaga Organisasi Adalah social group, aktor sosial, yg sengaja dibentuk, punya anggota, utk mencapai tujuan tertentu, aturan dinyatakan tegas. Misal: koperasi, kelompok tani, kantor pemerintah. 4. organization al Keorganisasian, kelembagaan Keorganisasia n Hal-hal berkenaan dengan organisasi. Misal: kepemimpinan, keanggotaan, manajemen, keuangan Rekonseptualisasi “Lembaga” dan “Organisasi” 13
  14. 14. Institutions. Lembaga = norma + aturan + cultural cognitive Organization = organisasi Social Network = jaringan sosial = individu 14
  15. 15. Apa itu Lembaga? Apa itu Organisasi? Definsi menurut ahli ekonomi kelembagaan: Douglass C. North: “institutions = the long-standing rules and rights governing social and productive behavior, atau “the rules of the game” organizations = the 'players' and structures, or "groups of individuals bound together by some common purpose to achieve objectives", atau their entrepreneurs are the players. kelembagaan ekonomi dibentuk oleh aturan-aturan formal (formal constraints) berupa rules, laws, dan constitutions; dan aturan informal (informal constraints) berupa norma, kesepakatan, dan lain-lain. Seluruhnya merupakan penentu bagaimana terbentuknya struktur masyarakat dan kinerja ekonominya yang spesifik. 15
  16. 16. Di bidang sosiologi: W. Richard Scott. 2001. Institutions and Organizations, Second Edition. Sage Publications, Inc. California. Arti institution: 1. are composed of cultured-cognitive, normative, and regulative elements that, together with associated activities and resources, provide stability and meaning of social live. 2. are social structures that have attained a high degree of resilience. 3. are transmitted by various types of carriers, including symbolic systems, relational systems, routines, and artifacts. 4. operate at multiple levels of jurisdiction, from the world system to localized interpersonal relationships. 5. connote stabiliy but are subject to change processes, both incremental and discontinuous. unsur-unsur utama institusi: rules, norms, and cultural beliefs institusi ditentukan oleh batasan legal, prosedural, moral dan kultural yang memiliki legitimasi. 16
  17. 17. Paham kelembagaan baru: “institution are comprised of regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive elements that, together with associated activities and resources, provide stability and meaning to social life” (Richard Scott, 2008: 48): Ada 3 pilar dalam institution: 1. Regulative pillar 2. Normative pillar 3. Cultural-cognitive pillar 17
  18. 18. (1) Regulative pillar: rule setting, monitoring, sanksi kapasitas untuk menegakkan aturan reward and punishment caranya: melalui mekanisme informal (folkways) dan formal (polisi, pengeadilan) represi dan constraint institution memberikan constraint dan juga empower aktor 18
  19. 19. (2) Normative pillar: Tokohnya: Durkheim, Parson, Selznick norma menghasilkan preskripsi (=lebih dari antisipasi dan prediksi), evaluatif, dan tanggung jawab dalam kehidupan mencakup: value (= prefered and desirable) dan norm (how things should be done) Gunanya: agar tahu apa goal dan objectives kita, dan bagaimana cara mencapainya Juga meng-constraint dan meng-empower aktor “rules define relationship among role” 19
  20. 20. (3) Cultural-cognitive pillar: Tokohnya: Geertz, Douglass, Berger, Goffman, Meyer, DiMaggio, Powel, Scott Intinya: MEANING Konsep bersama tentang kehidupan sosial dan kerangka dimana makna-makna diproduksi Sedmintasi makna dan kristalisasi makna dalam bentuk objektif Berisi proses interpretatif internal yang dibentuk oleh kerangka kultural eksternal Situation shared secara kolektif Bersifat indivdual (individu dan ’individual organization’) dan variatif Culture = what is and what should be 20
  21. 21. Pedoman singkat untuk menilai sebuah organisasi (Short Guide for Organizational Assessment 1. Kinerja organisasi (Organizational Performance) 2. Kemampuan organisasi tumbuh di lingkungannya (The Enabling Environment and Organizational Performance) 3. Motivasi organisasi (Organizational Motivation) 4. Kapasitas Organisasi (Organizational Capacity) 21
  22. 22. 22

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