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1
Teknik MENULIS
pidato, paper seminar, press release,
policy brief, dll
Oleh: Syahyuti
Pelatihan penulisan Staf Biro Pere...
2
Alasan mengapa menulis bagus
penting?
• dunia pengetahuan ”ada” karena adanya keterampilan good writing
• Tanpa good wri...
3
Point pokok untuk mencapai “good writing” :
• TUJUAN. What is your intended goal? Jika anda
memiliki tujuan yang jelas s...
4
Tips for Writing Well :
• Develop your vocabulary. Caranya adalah banyak membaca dan
menulis. ‘Practice makes perfect'.
...
5
6
7
8
Steps to Achieve Good Writing:
• make sure you know what you are writing for.
• organize an outline of your written piec...
9
How to Improve Your Vocabulary and
Build Confidence?
• The more you read, the richer your vocabulary will become.
• Just...
10
Pemilihan kata-kata:
• Kata-kata yang dipakai menentukan nilai sebuah tulisan.
• Sebuah pikiran yang berharga, menjadi ...
11
Powerful Words:
• Ada kata-kata yang “kuat” ada yang tidak. Jika digunakan dalam
kalimat, ia akan menghasilkan makna ya...
12
Penggunaan alinea :
• Dalam satu alinea hanya ada satu pikiran
utama.
• Pikiran utama tersebut tercermin di dalam
kalim...
13
Syarat-syarat garis besar yang baik:
a. Tiap unit garis besar harus mengandung hanya satu
ide. Apabila dua ide dibiarka...
14
Untuk menulis paper ilmiah perlu
menjawab 4 hal berikut:
1. What is the problem? Your answer is the
Introduction.
2. Ho...
15
 Experimental process  Section of Paper
What did I do in a nutshell?  Abstract
 What is the problem? Introduction
 How ...
16
Checklist for Writing
Scientific Papers:
Sebelum mulai menulis:
• Make an Outline to construct the basic structure of t...
17
Tahap menulis:
1. write a draft.
2. Revise it a couple of times.
3. get input from other readers.
4. Revise again.
5. W...
18
Bagian-bagian TULISAN :
19
Title :
• Bagin ini sangat penting dari keseluruhan paper, dan
menentukan keefektifan paper
• Abstracting and Indexing ...
20
Types of title :
1. Job title. Hanya menunjukkan isi namun tidak hasilnya. Contoh:
The effectiveness of bed nets in con...
21
How to write titles:
Ensure that the title:
• Describes the contents of the paper.
• Is accurate, concise and specific....
22
Introduction:
• tujuannya memberikan informasi background yang cukup kepada pembaca
sehingga dapat mengerti dan mengeva...
23
Background to the topic (past verb tense)
-What is known or believed about the topic
-What is still unknown or problema...
24
Result:
• Ini adalah "core" dari keseluruhan paper.
• Tujuannya adalah memaparkan data hasil riset
• Masalah serius ada...
25
Discussion:
• Ini adalah bagian yang lebih sulit dibandingkan bagian lain, juga lebih sulit
menuliskannya
• Seringkali ...
26
Isi bagian Discussion:
• Answers to the question(s) posed in the introduction together with
any accompanying support, e...
27
Informal vs Formal Writing:
• Istilah “paper review” kurang dikenal dalam khasanah berbahasa Inggris,
namun “informal w...
28
Informal Formal
Use colloquial words, expressions (kids, guy,
awesome, a lot, etc.)
Avoid colloquial words/ (children, ...
29
formal and informal writing:
Formal features Informal features
Vocabulary items
Latin based words
Uncommon words
Anglo ...
30
Conclusion:
• move your reader's focus outward from the
detailed discussion in the body of your paper.
• bring the pape...
31
Three purposes of References:
• Memberi kredit pada paper anda. Karena itu,
beri referensi pada tiap insight, paraphras...
Membuat kalimat EFEKTIF
32
Kalimat efektif =
kalimat yang dapat mengungkapkan pikiran atau
gagasan yang disampaikan dengan...
Ciri kalimat efektif:
1. EFISIEN dalam kesepadanan.
Tomi pergi ke kampus, kemudian Tomi pergi ke
perpustakaan (tidak efekt...
3. HEMAT
a. Menghilangkan pengulangan subjek:
Karena harga gabah petani tidak menarik, petani kurang berminat
menanam padi...
35
Wordy Phrase Concise Phrase
at the conclusion of after
based on the fact that because
in view of the fact that because
...
4. KELOGISAN
Untuk mempersingkat waktu, kami teruskan acara ini. (tidak efektif)
Untuk menghemat waktu, kami teruskan acar...
7. KETEGASAN
Harapan kami adalah agar soal ini dapat
kita bicarakan lagi pada kesempatan lain
(tidak).
Pada kesempatan lai...
38
Sumber Bacaan:
• Gary Dillard. The Scientific Paper.
http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol398/paper/papertext.html
• Micha...
39
Terima Kasih,
(syahyuti@gmail.com)
Terima Kasih,
(syahyuti@gmail.com)
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Teknik menulis paper untuk menteri, kalimat efektif, dll

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  1. 1. 1 Teknik MENULIS pidato, paper seminar, press release, policy brief, dll Oleh: Syahyuti Pelatihan penulisan Staf Biro Perencanaan KEMENTAN Bogor - 24 November 2009
  2. 2. 2 Alasan mengapa menulis bagus penting? • dunia pengetahuan ”ada” karena adanya keterampilan good writing • Tanpa good writing, there would be anarchy and chaos. • poor writing can be akin to misinformation. • bad writing skills can convey either the wrong or an ambiguous message. • good writing abilities are necessary in many careers to be successful. • Having the ability to write well at work or on a personal level can give us that much-needed confidence boost. • First and foremost, being able to write well builds confidence. • Furthermore, if people believe your writing to be poor, they might not actually believe what you’ve written. • can accurately describe situations without letting your bias show through. • important in both our personal and professional lives.
  3. 3. 3 Point pokok untuk mencapai “good writing” : • TUJUAN. What is your intended goal? Jika anda memiliki tujuan yang jelas sebelum menulis, anda akan mencapai first-rate writing. • Kenali audiens pembaca anda • Good writing must also be engaging. Tulisan baik jika dibaca orang. Jika tidak ada yang membaca ia tidak baik. • Keep your writing focused. Coba untuk menulis secara direct dan to the point.
  4. 4. 4 Tips for Writing Well : • Develop your vocabulary. Caranya adalah banyak membaca dan menulis. ‘Practice makes perfect'. • Make sure you listen to these critiques. • Enjoying research • Make sure that you write in a logical and organized fashion. • Follow the rules of grammar and punctuation • Try not to use long-winded sentences. Jangan bingungkan pembaca. • Focus your writing and get to the point. • Don’t try to impress with long sentences and big words. • Make sure your titles or headings accurately describe the content of your writing. • Writing well is about getting the facts right. Jika anda tidak mampu menangkap fakta dengan baik, anda tidak bisa menulis bagus. • Try to get the words right first and foremost. Do not place a word in text just because it sounds good and you think it will impress readers.
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8 Steps to Achieve Good Writing: • make sure you know what you are writing for. • organize an outline of your written piece. • start writing. • The first phase of writing involves writing everything down. Don’t worry about spelling or punctuation at this stage. • Read it back, this is fine. • The final stage is editing. • It is a skill, like any other, that can come with practice and effort.
  9. 9. 9 How to Improve Your Vocabulary and Build Confidence? • The more you read, the richer your vocabulary will become. • Just knowing the definition of a word does not indicate you understand it. You must also understand it in context. • Knowing what a word means is connected to the background that the word is used within. • Words that are used in speaking or writing often require a greater understanding than those used in listening and reading • Examining similarities and differences in word meanings • Learning new words frequently • Keeping a written record of words, their meanings, and usage that you have learnt. • Look at word associations (antonyms, synonyms, roots, and signal connections to other words • Examine words that sound the same but are spelt differently and have different meanings (homophones) • Active learning. • Contextual understandings (putting words into different sentences and creating stories where the word is the main focus).
  10. 10. 10 Pemilihan kata-kata: • Kata-kata yang dipakai menentukan nilai sebuah tulisan. • Sebuah pikiran yang berharga, menjadi tidak berarti karena kata-kata yang untuk menjelaskannya kurang tepat. • Meskipun kata-kata tersusun dalam kalimat, namun kata-kata juga mempunyai tenaga. • Kata-kata bisa ditampilkan secara sederhana, dalam arti bahasa keseharian. • Makna yang dikandung harus jelas, tidak membigungkan pembaca.
  11. 11. 11 Powerful Words: • Ada kata-kata yang “kuat” ada yang tidak. Jika digunakan dalam kalimat, ia akan menghasilkan makna yang ”berbeda” • Ia memberi energi komunikasi • Ganti verb phrases dengan single verbs. ( ‘give instructions to’ ganti dengan ‘instruct’) • Powerful words lebih spesifik. Contoh: ‘I was glad’ ganti dengan ‘I jumped with excitement’. • Gunakan thesaurus atau KBBI • Powerful words not only make your writing stand out, but they also make you stand out. • Will make sure what you say, or what you write, • Will make you stand out from the crowd. • Can be used and are extremely helpful in a variety of business environments. • Impressive when used in a social setting. • Changing your words, make sure to impress.
  12. 12. 12 Penggunaan alinea : • Dalam satu alinea hanya ada satu pikiran utama. • Pikiran utama tersebut tercermin di dalam kalimat utama, kalimat-kalimat lain hanyalah penjelas atau pengembangan. • Posisi kalimat utama dapat diawal, tengah atau di akhir alinea.
  13. 13. 13 Syarat-syarat garis besar yang baik: a. Tiap unit garis besar harus mengandung hanya satu ide. Apabila dua ide dibiarkan dalam satu unit maka hubungan strukturnya tidak akan tampak jelas. Bila kedua ide tersebut berada dalam situasi yang setara, maka masing-masingnya harus ditempatkan pada urutan simbol yang sama derajatnya. Namun apabila berbeda maka ide-ide tersebut haruslah ditempatkan dalam simbol yang berbeda derajatnya. b. Persoalan-persolan atau fakta-fakta yang dicatat dibawah judul utama haruslah merupakan bawahan langsung dan tidak boleh sama pentingnya dengan judul utamanya.
  14. 14. 14 Untuk menulis paper ilmiah perlu menjawab 4 hal berikut: 1. What is the problem? Your answer is the Introduction. 2. How did you study the problem? Your answer is the Materials and Methods. 3. What did you find? Your answer is the Results. 4. What do these findings mean? Your answer is the Discussion.
  15. 15. 15  Experimental process  Section of Paper What did I do in a nutshell?  Abstract  What is the problem? Introduction  How did I solve the problem?  Materials and Methods  What did I find out?  Results  What does it mean?  Discussion  Who helped me out?  Acknowledgments (optional)  Whose work did I refer to?  Literature Cited  Extra Information Appendices (optional) Materi paper ilmiah:
  16. 16. 16 Checklist for Writing Scientific Papers: Sebelum mulai menulis: • Make an Outline to construct the basic structure of the paper. • Decide who you are writing for & aim at that level. • Form a "thesis statement" - a short (1-3 sentence) statement of what you want the reader to understand as the most important point in your paper. This statement may end up appearing in the abstract or introduction.
  17. 17. 17 Tahap menulis: 1. write a draft. 2. Revise it a couple of times. 3. get input from other readers. 4. Revise again. 5. Write the Body first. You can't write the Conclusion before you write the Body. 6. Easier to write the Introduction once you know what you're introducing. 7. Write the abstract and title last
  18. 18. 18 Bagian-bagian TULISAN :
  19. 19. 19 Title : • Bagin ini sangat penting dari keseluruhan paper, dan menentukan keefektifan paper • Abstracting and Indexing services will also utilize the title. Karena itu, pemilihan kata mesti sangat hati-hati • What is a good title? Mampu menerangkan isi paper • How long? Beberapa jurnal membatasi 10 sampai 12 kata. • employ effective syntax (word order) and avoid waste words such as "Investigations on" and "Observations on". • never contain abbreviations (singkatan) and jargon
  20. 20. 20 Types of title : 1. Job title. Hanya menunjukkan isi namun tidak hasilnya. Contoh: The effectiveness of bed nets in controlling mosquitoes at different seasons of the year. 2. Informative titles. Mengindikasikan hasil yang dicapai dan kesimpulan riset. Contoh: Bed nets control mosquitoes most effectively when used in the rainy season. 3. Question-type titles. Contoh: When are bed nets most effective when used to control mosquitoes? 4. Main-subtitle (series) type. Menunjukkan seri kesekian dari paper serupa. Contoh: The effect of bed nets on mosquitoes: 1.Their effectiveness when used only in the rainy season. 5. Hanging titles. Karena ia paper dari riset pertama yang belum ada hasil yang memuaskan. Contoh: The effect of bed nets on mosquitoes: Their effectiveness when used only in the rainy season.
  21. 21. 21 How to write titles: Ensure that the title: • Describes the contents of the paper. • Is accurate, concise and specific. • Has as many key words as possible and is modelled on the style adopted by the publication for which you are writing. • Is as easy to understand as possible. The title should not: • Contain a full stop, unless it is an informative title • Contain unnecessary words such as "Some notes on....……. "An investigation into..…….. • Contain abbreviations, formulas and acronyms • Promise more than is in the paper • Be too general
  22. 22. 22 Introduction: • tujuannya memberikan informasi background yang cukup kepada pembaca sehingga dapat mengerti dan mengevaluasi konsep dari riset yang disampaikan paper, menyampaikan rasionalitas riset, mengenalkan the most outstanding conclusions dari tujuan riset • provide the context for your paper. • to catch your reader's attention. • make your topic sound so interesting • describe clearly and succinctly the topic of your paper. • must be specific and focused • must give your reader a clear idea of precisely what your paper is about. • must focus your reader's attention inward towards the detailed discussion that will comprise the body of your document. • will be short; perhaps a page in length. • It is not labelled with a separate heading, • It is not a review of the field, it merely establishes a common point of departure for readers with different levels of expertise. • It should provide some justification for the paper (why the issue is important), and it should present the objective of the paper.
  23. 23. 23 Background to the topic (past verb tense) -What is known or believed about the topic -What is still unknown or problematic -Findings of relevant studies (past verb tense) -Importance of the topic Statement of the research question -Several ways can be used to signal the research question , e.g., -“To determine whether ………” -“The purpose of this study was to …….” -This study tested the hypothesis that ……” -“This study was undertaken to ……” Approach taken to answer the question (past verb tense) Isi pendahuluan:
  24. 24. 24 Result: • Ini adalah "core" dari keseluruhan paper. • Tujuannya adalah memaparkan data hasil riset • Masalah serius adalah memutuskan mana data yang penting ditampilkan dan mana yang repetitif sehingga tak berguna • Penggunaan data statistik mestilah yang meaningful dan responsibly. • Should be short and sweet. • Results of original studies represent new knowledge and therefore the skeleton (rangka) of the paper. • The entire success of the paper is dependent upon the results • Must be presented with crystal clarity. • Gunakan tabel dan gambar secara selektif • Hindari : "It is clearly seen in Table 1 that". Bukan tugas pembaca untuk menganalisis data • Must be organized logically, not chronologically. Your paper is not a diary. Its job it to explain your findings,
  25. 25. 25 Discussion: • Ini adalah bagian yang lebih sulit dibandingkan bagian lain, juga lebih sulit menuliskannya • Seringkali paper ditolak karena lemahnya bagian ini • kesalahan yang sering muncul adalah bagian diskusi yang terlalu panjang • Seringkali not knowing what to say about the results, hides behind a protective cloud of ink. • Harus menunjukkan bagaimana relasi antar seluruh fakta yang ditemukan dari riset • Harus berusaha untuk menjelaskan prinsip-prinsip, relasi, dan generaliasi. • It should discuss, notreformulate the results. • Point out any exceptions or lack of correlation and define any unsettled points. • Show how your results and interpretations agree or disagree with previously published works. • Discuss any theoretical implications or practical applications of the results. • Reaffirm the major conclusions or findings as clearly as possible. • Summarize the evidence of the study for each conclusion.
  26. 26. 26 Isi bagian Discussion: • Answers to the question(s) posed in the introduction together with any accompanying support, explanation and defence of the answers with reference to published literature. • Explanations of any results that do not support the answers. • Indication of the originality/uniqueness of the work Explanations of: • How the findings concur (setuju) with those of others • Any discrepancies (pertentangan) of the results with those of others • Unexpected findings • The limitations of the study which may affect the study validity or generalisability of the study findings. • Indication of the importance of the work e.g. clinical significance • Recommendations for further research
  27. 27. 27 Informal vs Formal Writing: • Istilah “paper review” kurang dikenal dalam khasanah berbahasa Inggris, namun “informal writing” sangat banyak. • Contoh tulisan informal: You know that book I wrote? Well, the publishing company rejected it. They thought it was awful. But hey, I did the best I could, and I think it was great. I’m not gonna redo it the way they said I should. • Contoh tulisan formal: This is to inform you that your book has been rejected by our publishing company as it was not up to the required standard. In case you would like us to reconsider it, we would suggest that you go over it and make some necessary changes. • Keduanya adalah BENAR, hanya beda style.
  28. 28. 28 Informal Formal Use colloquial words, expressions (kids, guy, awesome, a lot, etc.) Avoid colloquial words/ (children, man/boy, wonderful, many) May use contractions (can’t, won’t, shouldn’t, etc.). Avoid contractions (full words – cannot, will not, should not, etc.). Write in third person (except in business letters where first person may be used). May use first, second, or third person. May use clichés (loads of, conspicuous by absence, etc.) Avoid clichés (use many, was absent, etc.) May address readers using second person pronouns (you, your, etc) Avoid addressing readers using second person pronouns (one, one’s, the reader, the reader’s, etc.) May use abbreviated words (photo, TV, etc) Avoid using abbreviated words (full versions – like photograph, television, etc.) May use imperative voice (e.g. Remember….) Avoid imperative voice (use Please refer to.….) May use active voice (We have notice that…..) Use passive voice (e.g. It has been noticed that….) May use short and simple sentences. Longer and more complex sentences are preferred (short simple sentences reflects poorly on the writer) Difficulty of subject may be acknowledged and empathy shown to the reader. State your points confidently and offer your argument firm support.
  29. 29. 29 formal and informal writing: Formal features Informal features Vocabulary items Latin based words Uncommon words Anglo Saxon words (phrasal verbs) Common words Punctuation (tanda baca) Full words Abbreviations Contractions Grammar Passive constructions Noun phrases Complext sentences Active constructions Verb phrases Simple sentences
  30. 30. 30 Conclusion: • move your reader's focus outward from the detailed discussion in the body of your paper. • bring the paper to closure. • Don’t end a paper without a conclusion. • conclusion is what your readers will remember. If you just stop, your readers will remember nothing. • redefine the objective of the study and show how you satisfied these goals • It should strengthen the relationship between the ideas you have built in the body of the paper.
  31. 31. 31 Three purposes of References: • Memberi kredit pada paper anda. Karena itu, beri referensi pada tiap insight, paraphrase, result, derivation, idea, atau direct quotation yang anda ambil dari satu sumber. Jika keliru, anda dicap plagiarism (one of the most heinous crimes in science). • Provides your reader with carefully selected background references. Memmungkinkan pembaca menelusuri dan paham perkerjaan anda • Contributes to the context of your paper, situating it in the field in which you're working.
  32. 32. Membuat kalimat EFEKTIF 32 Kalimat efektif = kalimat yang dapat mengungkapkan pikiran atau gagasan yang disampaikan dengan baik sehingga dapat dipahami dan dimengerti oleh pembaca/pendengar dengan EFISIEN dan TEPAT.
  33. 33. Ciri kalimat efektif: 1. EFISIEN dalam kesepadanan. Tomi pergi ke kampus, kemudian Tomi pergi ke perpustakaan (tidak efektif) Tomi pergi ke kampus, kemudian ke perpustakaan (efektif) 2. CERMAT memilih kata Nilai komoditas seperti itu tidak membuat tertarik petani mengembangkannya. (tidak efektif). Harga komoditas yang rendah kurang menggairahkan petani (efektif). 33
  34. 34. 3. HEMAT a. Menghilangkan pengulangan subjek: Karena harga gabah petani tidak menarik, petani kurang berminat menanam padi (tidak efektif) Karena harga yang tidak menarik, petani agak malas menanam padi (efektif) b. Menghindarkan pemakaian superordinat pada hiponimi kata: baju (berwarna) merah c. Menghindarkan kesinoniman dalam satu kalimat: naik (ke atas) d. Tidak menjamakkan kata yang sudah jamak: semua (jeruk)-jeruk di keranjang itu 34
  35. 35. 35 Wordy Phrase Concise Phrase at the conclusion of after based on the fact that because in view of the fact that because despite the fact that although in the event that if at this point in time now until such time as until on a daily basis daily it is often the case that often have a capability to can during the course of during take into consideration consider of the opinion that think that make reference to refer to in the final analysis finally
  36. 36. 4. KELOGISAN Untuk mempersingkat waktu, kami teruskan acara ini. (tidak efektif) Untuk menghemat waktu, kami teruskan acara ini. (efektif) 5. KESATUAN/KEPADUAN Makalah ini membahas tentang teknologi fiber optik. (tidak efektif) Makalah ini membahas teknologi fiber optik. (efektif) 6. KESEJAJARAN Kakak menolong anak itu dengan dipapahnya ke pinggir jalan. (tidak efektif) Kakak menolong anak itu dengan memapahnya ke pinggir jalan. (efektif) Anak itu ditolong kakak dengan dipapahnya ke pinggir jalan. (efektif) 36
  37. 37. 7. KETEGASAN Harapan kami adalah agar soal ini dapat kita bicarakan lagi pada kesempatan lain (tidak). Pada kesempatan lain, kami berharap kita dapat membicarakan lagi soal ini. (efektif) Presiden mengharapkan agar rakyat membangun bangsa dan negara ini dengan kemampuan yang ada pada dirinya. Harapan presiden ialah agar rakyat membangun bangsa dan negaranya. 37
  38. 38. 38 Sumber Bacaan: • Gary Dillard. The Scientific Paper. http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol398/paper/papertext.html • Michael A. Morrison. Tips on Scientific Writing. Version 4.3: January 21, 2004. http://www.nhn.ou.edu/~morrison/Teaching/WritingTips.pdf • Checklist for Writing Scientific Papers. • http://physics.gac.edu/~huber/misc/wricheck.htm • How to Write a Scientific Article. http://www.aaps- journal.org/submission%20pdf/How%20to%20Write%20a %20Scientific%20Paper.pdf • Introduction to Journal-Style Scientific Writing • http://abacus.bates.edu/~ganderso/biology/resources/writing/HTWg eneral.html • http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~fox/paper_writing.html ****** email: syahyuti@yahoo.com
  39. 39. 39 Terima Kasih, (syahyuti@gmail.com) Terima Kasih, (syahyuti@gmail.com)

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