Batteries & charging system

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  • Want to know more about batteries and how to use the same lead acid batteries for an indefinite period of time check out these ebooks/videos:
    http://www.emediapress.com/go.php?offer=love4earth&pid=24&tid=love4earth
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Batteries & charging system

  1. 1. BATTERIES & CHARGING SYSTEM <ul><li>BATTERIES </li></ul><ul><li>LEAD ACID BATTERIES </li></ul><ul><li>MF BATTERIES </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTENANCE, CHARGING & TESTING </li></ul><ul><li>DIAGNOSING BATTERY FAULTS </li></ul>
  2. 2. BATTERIES & CHARGING SYSTEM <ul><li>CHARGING SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIREMENTS OF CHARGING SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>CHARGING SYSTEM PRINCIPLES </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERNATOR & CHARGING CIRCUITS </li></ul><ul><li>DIAGNOSING CHARGING & SYSTEM FAULTS </li></ul>
  3. 3. BATTERIES <ul><li>PURPOSE OF THE BATTERY </li></ul><ul><li>The three main functions of the automotive battery are to : </li></ul><ul><li>Supply power to the starter and ignition system. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply the extra power required when vehicle's electrical load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requirements exceed the supply from the charging system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Act as a voltage stabilizer in the electrical system. </li></ul>
  4. 4. BATTERIES <ul><li>LEAD ACID BATTERY </li></ul><ul><li>Positive plate - lead peroxide ( Pb O 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative plate - sponge lead ( Pb ) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte solution - mixture of sulfuric acid and </li></ul><ul><li> water ( H 2 SO 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Produced - 2.1 to 2.5 volt </li></ul>
  5. 5. BATTERIES <ul><li>OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>Plate positive (PbO 2 ) + sulfate (SO 4 ) electrolyte + hydrogen = water (H 2 0). </li></ul><ul><li>Plate negative (Pb) + sulfate (SO 4 ) = Plumbum sulfate(PbSO 4 ) @ ‘Lead sulfate’ </li></ul><ul><li>Plate positive and plate negative = Plumbum sulfate </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte = water </li></ul>Cathode plate (change sulfate) Anode plate (change sulfate) - + Pb O 2 Pb H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO 4
  6. 6. BATTERIES <ul><li>OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>Charging </li></ul><ul><li>Plate positive and plate negative + water = Electrolyte </li></ul><ul><li>Plate positive = lead peroxide and plate negative= spongy lead </li></ul><ul><li>Charging gas oxygen and gas hydrogen * chemical action </li></ul>Cathode plate (change sulfate) Anode plate (change sulfate) Charger - + - + Pb SO4 Pb SO4 H2 O H2 O
  7. 7. BATTERIES BATTERY CONSTRUCTION Vent plug Shell connectors Grids Separators Plates Container and cover
  8. 8. BATTERIES
  9. 9. BATTERIES <ul><li>BATTERY CAPACITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Battery capacity is the amount of current that a battery can deliver for a certain length of time at a certain temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two terms used to express battery capacity: slow discharge capacity and high discharge capacity. </li></ul>
  10. 10. BATTERIES <ul><li>SLOW DISCHARGE CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><li>The electric power of a battery, when used for low-consumption loads, is called the slow discharge capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Ah = A x h </li></ul>
  11. 11. BATTERIES <ul><li>High-discharge capacity can be expressed as: </li></ul><ul><li>the length of time that a battery can output a heavy current when it discharges at a constant rate </li></ul><ul><li>the voltage after the battery has been discharged at constant heavy current for a certain length of time. </li></ul>
  12. 12. BATTERIES <ul><li>INTERNAL RESISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>A battery not only creates electromotive force but also acts as a </li></ul><ul><li>resistant, due to the internal resistance of its electrolyte and plates. </li></ul><ul><li>V = E-lr </li></ul>
  13. 13. BATTERIES <ul><li>CONNECTING METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>SERIES CONNECTION </li></ul><ul><li>E 0 = E 1 + E 2 </li></ul>
  14. 14. BATTERIES <ul><li>PARALLEL CONNECTION </li></ul><ul><li>E 0 = E </li></ul>
  15. 15. BATTERIES <ul><li>SELF-DISCHARGE </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of self-discharge is indicated in terms of a percentage </li></ul><ul><li>of the battery capacity, and is approximately 0.3 to 1.5 % per day </li></ul><ul><li>at electrolyte temperatures of between 20 and 30°C (68 and </li></ul><ul><li>86°F). A battery will become fully self-discharged in 1 to 3 months </li></ul><ul><li>if not used or recharged. The amount of self-discharge is larger </li></ul><ul><li>when the battery temperature is higher. Therefore, batteries </li></ul><ul><li>should be stored in a cool, dark place when not in use. </li></ul>
  16. 16. BATTERIES <ul><li>Self-discharge can be caused by any of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Metal impurities (such as iron or manganese) mixed in with the electrolyte or adhering to the plates. This is why distilled water, rather than tap water, is used in batteries since it contains minimal impurities. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Antimony used in the plates. </li></ul>
  17. 17. BATTERIES <ul><li>MAINTENANCE FREE BATTERIES </li></ul>
  18. 18. BATTERIES <ul><li>MAINTENANCE FREE BATTERIES </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFERENCES FROM ORDINARY BATTERIES </li></ul><ul><li>a. The amount of antimony in the positive and negative plate grids is either extremely small, or the antimony has been replaced with an other metal, such as calcium, for example. </li></ul><ul><li>b. The height of the ribs at the bottom of the case is reduced to increase the amount of electrolyte. </li></ul>
  19. 19. BATTERIES <ul><li>REDUCED NEED FOR WATER REPLENISHMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance interval batteries having low antimony and lead alloy grids </li></ul><ul><li>or calcium and lead alloy grids so the rate of electrolyte loss is low. </li></ul>
  20. 20. BATTERIES <ul><li>REDUCED SELF-DISCHARGING </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance interval batteries use low-antimony plates or </li></ul><ul><li>calcium-lead alloy plates, the rate of self-discharge is reduced </li></ul><ul><li>substantially. </li></ul>
  21. 21. BATTERIES <ul><li>ELECTROLYTE LEVEL AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY INDICATOR </li></ul><ul><li>Extended maintenance interval batteries are equipped with an indicator </li></ul><ul><li>which allows easy inspection of the electrolyte level and specific </li></ul><ul><li>gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>The indicator contains two floats of different colors, having different </li></ul><ul><li>specific gravities. Specific gravity is 1.150 for the blue float and below </li></ul><ul><li>1.0 for the red float. </li></ul>
  22. 22. BATTERIES <ul><ul><li>OPERATING PRINCIPLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Electrolyte Level </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. BATTERIES <ul><li>Electrolyte Level Normal but Specific Gravity Below 1.150 </li></ul>
  24. 24. BATTERIES <ul><li>Electrolyte Level and Specific Gravity both Normal </li></ul>
  25. 25. BATTERIES <ul><li>Battery Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Visual inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning the battery top, terminals and cable clamps. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing battery </li></ul><ul><li>Charging battery </li></ul>
  26. 26. BATTERIES <ul><li>Visual inspection </li></ul><ul><li>1. CHECK BATTERY ELECTROLYTE LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>2. CHECK BATTERY CASE FOR CRACKS </li></ul>
  27. 27. BATTERIES <ul><li>IF BATTERY ELECTROLYTE LEVEL IS LOW,ADD DISTILLED </li></ul><ul><li>WATER TO SPECIFIED LEVEL </li></ul>
  28. 28. BATTERIES <ul><li>Visual inspection </li></ul><ul><li>4.CHECK BATTERY VENT PLUGS FOR DAMAGE OR CLOGGED </li></ul><ul><li>BENT HOLES </li></ul>
  29. 29. BATTERIES <ul><li>Cleaning the battery top, terminals and cable clamps. </li></ul>
  30. 30. BATTERIES <ul><li>Battery Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Testing determines if the battery: </li></ul><ul><li>Is in good condition </li></ul><ul><li>Needs recharging </li></ul><ul><li>Is defective and should be discarded </li></ul>
  31. 31. BATTERIES <ul><li>OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE TEST </li></ul>
  32. 32. BATTERIES <ul><li>HYDROMETER TEST </li></ul>
  33. 33. BATTERIES Sulfuric acid rather than water has been added Specific gravity too high. Internal shorts ... lack of electrolyte Impurities in cells ... excessive self- discharge Specific gravity too low in some cells. Undercharged ... Charging system trouble, driving distance or speed too low Overcharged ... Overload, insufficient generator capacity (Leaking ... Lack of cleaning, too much electrolyte) Specific gravity too low in all cells alike. Possible Cause Measurement Result
  34. 34. BATTERIES <ul><li>Specific Gravity State of Charge </li></ul><ul><li>1.265 - 1.299 Fully charged battery </li></ul><ul><li>1.235 - 1.265 Three-fourths charged </li></ul><ul><li>1.205 - 1.235 One-half charged </li></ul><ul><li>1.170 - 1.205 One-fourth charged </li></ul><ul><li>1.140 - 1.170 Barely operative </li></ul><ul><li>1.110 - 1.140 Completely discharged </li></ul>
  35. 35. BATTERIES <ul><li>LOAD TEST </li></ul>
  36. 36. BATTERIES <ul><li>BATTERY CHARGING </li></ul>
  37. 37. BATTERIES <ul><li>BATTERY CHARGING </li></ul><ul><li>1. Slow charging </li></ul><ul><li>Small current 5 to 7 amps for long period 14-16 hours </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fast charging </li></ul><ul><li>High current 50-60 amps for short time 1-2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>3. Trickle charging </li></ul><ul><li>Very low current, less than 1 amps for wet batteries that must be kept </li></ul><ul><li>for any length of time. </li></ul>
  38. 38. BATTERIES <ul><li>Diagnosing battery faults </li></ul><ul><li>Fault Cause </li></ul><ul><li>undercharging • Low alternator output, perhaps due to </li></ul><ul><li>a slipping drive belt </li></ul><ul><li>• Excessive use of the battery, which may be due to </li></ul><ul><li>a short circuit </li></ul><ul><li>• Faulty alternator regulator </li></ul><ul><li>• Terminal corrosion </li></ul><ul><li>Overcharging • Defective cell in battery (excessive gassing) • Faulty alternator regulator </li></ul><ul><li>Low battery capacity • Internal or external short between cells </li></ul><ul><li>• Sulphation </li></ul><ul><li>• Loss of active material from plates </li></ul><ul><li>• Low electrolyte level </li></ul><ul><li>• Incorrect electrolyte strength </li></ul><ul><li>• Terminal corrosion </li></ul>
  39. 39. BATTERIES NEXT CHARGING SYSTEM THANK YOU

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