Making Words Stick:
for the K-5 Classroom
Presented by : Syafril Mulia
Class : IV D
Do you need to know what the words
Thoughts on VocabularyThoughts on Vocabulary
What do you
What does the research say?
Research based strategies
◦ Morpheme Triangle
◦ Semantic Gradient
◦ Ten Important Words Plus
◦ Text Talk
Questions & Evaluation
Teachers should shift focus from
individual word knowledge to “word
consciousness” (Graves, 2006).
Rich vocabulary instruction could add
approximately 400 words per year to
students’ word knowledge (McKeown, et al,
70-80% of comprehension is made up of
word meaning (Bromely, 2007).
Effective vocabulary strategies are
essential for improving comprehension
and language skills for diverse students in
urban schools (Kieffer & Lesaux, 2007).
Word analysis through
How do morpheme triangles
make words stick?
Build word consciousness
Develop working definitions based on
Provide visual support
Support ELLs word knowledge
Improve reading comprehension
More than a definition…
Understanding a word is
◦ A literal definition
◦ The relationship with other words
◦ The various forms of the root
◦ The connotation in different contexts
Morpheme Triangle Example
im – poss - ible
+ possible + possibility
? opossum ? possessed
Imagine using this
strategy in other
Using Context Clues with
Making Connections Between Context
Clues and Semantic Gradients
Why Use Context Clues and
Semantic Gradients Together?
instruction may not make the
(Greenwood & Flanigan, 2007)
• Erin_______________ down the street.
• Erin frantically _______________ down the street.
• Erin_____________ down the street. She was
extremely proud of the award that she had received.
Greenwood, S.C., & Flanigan, K. (2007). Overlapping vocabulary and comprehension: Context clues complement
semantic gradients. The Reading Teacher, 61(3), 249-254.
Raced Sprinted Ran WalkedStrutted Crawled
Let’s try it!
The teacher was ______________.
The teacher was ___________ because
the class misbehaved with the substitute.
The teacher was ____________ on the
last day of school.
How could you
incorporate the strategy
Ten Important WordsTen Important Words
Analyzing Text to Select Important Words While
Reading Informational Text
How can Ten Important Words Plus make
Support students in using context
to identify important words
Extend understanding of words
through further exploration
(Yopp & Yopp, 2007)
Ten Important Words PlusTen Important Words Plus
Introduction and modeling
Create class graph
Discussion and Summary
butterfly wings caterpillar
butterfly insects wings caterpillar flower
butterfly insects wings caterpillar egg flower
butterfly insects wings caterpillar fly egg flower leaves
butterfly insects wings caterpillar fly egg flower leaves moth change
Butterflies Important Words Graph
One sentence summary: _______________________________
Pink: List synonyms or related words for fly.
Green: Write sentences using words from the graph.
Yellow: Pick 4 words and draw a picture.
Think of additional prompt
cards you would like
to try with your students.
Enhancing students’ language through read-alouds
that offer questions, discussion and vocabulary study
Why use Text Talk to make wordsWhy use Text Talk to make words
Word meanings learned early are easier
to access later in life (Izura & Ellis, 2002; Turner, Valentine, & Ellis,
1998, as cited in Beck & McKeown, 2007).
“Significantly more vocabulary” was
learned by students who participated in
Text Talk than by students who received
read-alouds only. (Beck & McKeown, 2007)
Components of Text TalkComponents of Text Talk
Texts Complex event structure to
Initial questions Open-ended to allow
Follow-up questions Repeat/rephrase thoughts
Pictures Generally, saved for after
Vocabulary Direct attention and
discussion after reading
Procedures for Text TalkProcedures for Text Talk
Make notes: questions, pictures, vocabulary
Initial and follow up questions
Pictures, if appropriate
Suggested TitlesSuggested Titles
Abiyoyo. Pete Seeger (1986)
Alexander and the wind-up mouse.
Leo Lionni (1969)
Amos and Boris. William Steig (1971)
Think about a thematic
book that you could use
with the Text Talk Strategy.