URBAN TRANSPORT ASSIGNMENT 2 MODAL SHIFTName:NORIZZA SYAFIQAH BT BAHRIN Matric Card: P65408 Lecturer: Prof IR. DR. RIZA ATIQ OK RAHMAT
QUEST 1 In an effort to reduce traffic congestion, a city administratoris drawing up a plan to influence modal shift from private carto public transport. Explain briefly all the necessary measuresthat have to be taken so that most likely will influence theshift effectively.
SOLUTIONSINTRODUCTION Transportation exhibit a very close relation to the style of living, the range and location of activities. Therefore, transportation is a non separable part of any society. It has made the drastic changes in the way of living and a great influence in the development of civilization. However, we are facing probles due to increase in travel demand since there is an increse in population growth,rapid growth of cities which lead to higher income and urbanization. Improper planning of transportation facilities will create a failure.Modal shift from private car to public transport is recognized as one of the key strategy for reduction either in energy consumption or co2 emission in transport sector. PROBLEM STATEMENT We can see there will be increase in the number of cars on roads yearly. Though there has been a lot of road widening, new opening highways and etc, it will attract more private vehicle. Therefore, there still be road congestion expecially in the city. Congestion occur when transport demand exceeds transport supply in a specific section of transport system. The congestion increases emissions and the energy consumption and therefore making the road unsustainable and reduces the efficiency. Study shows that even in larger city with a high public transport, the car always have and been the top priority.
SOLUTIONSA. State preference survey• It has been widely used in analysing modal shift. It is used to estimate relative importanceto various characterictic given by the users in erms of travel and waiting time, cost, headway mode of public transport etc. It is also use to analyze the response of users with given choice of situation. Asurvey will be conducted where the respondent are given a various, realistic alternatives. Based on the results we can learn the importance people attach to each attribute to the choice they make. The survey may be done by questionnare or interview.This data might cause modal shift from private car to public transport. – Guidelines to be observe in conducting stated preference survey • Minimize the number of respondents • Provide adequate background information • Referendum format • Conduct personal interview • Pretest for interview effect • Include and explain non-response option – Stated preference survey must be well done in order to meet the objectives • To measure willingness to pay • To investigate effectof attitudes perceptions • To evaluate acceptability of innovative modes and services • To investigate effects of attitudes and perceptions – The revealed survey then can be use in modal shift analysis.a combination on both stated and revealed preference data can be used in order to increase the accuracy for the modal shift analysis.
B. Car Dissuasion• To make car use less popular, and promote the other modes of transport by makin them more attractive alternatives. The traveller or users usually compares the strength and weakness of each mode of transport. A shift can only occur when the user find it less beneficial compared to the other mode. They compare in terms of: – Total travel time – Cost – Reliability – Walking distance requires Users will only used and find it necessary where there will benefit either in terms of fares, quality of service and the cost of competetting modes.The quality of public transport is defined by dofferent factor such as: – Frequency of services – Time spent on it – The waiting and travel environment – Provision of information – The number of interchargesand the reliability Increse the operation of public transport by: – The priority at the traffic signalled intersection were given for buses and trams – Improve the reliabilty and travel time by enable them to bypass congestion and respect their schedules. This will result in lowering the travel times compared to car traffic In order to increase the quality services, they should provide and increase in provision on provision of information on public transport as how they provide for private transport. As for private cars, we have new technologies such as they provide information via website, mobile phone or tv and radio broadcast. They should provide the same for public transport. Provide real time information to passengers at bus, train station, trams etc and also for those who already on board. This will enable them to compete with the convenience and comfort. Safety is a crucial thing to be consider in choosing the mode of transport. This will be an advantage if their safety concerns are met. – Increas the safety for pedestrian by providing wider pedestrian foothpath.designated pedestrian areas would enhance the walking function of streets, as they are going to convert walking into a pleasant experience, more comfortale than driving in congested road.
QUEST 2 State preference survey has been conducted to study the reduction in bus travel time in influencing modal shift. The aggregated data of the survey is given in Table 1. Choose a suitable model and calibrate all parameters in your model.Table 1 Modal Shift BUS TRAVEL TIME 40 0.09 35 0.09 30 0.25 25 0.50 20 0.55