module 2-Body Tissue (The integument)


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components of skin

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module 2-Body Tissue (The integument)

  1. 1. The integument by Syafiqa Al-Azua Binti
  2. 2. I’d like to talk about • How many layers are there in the skin ? • What are these layers made of ? • What are their significant functions ?
  3. 3. But. What is this ….  SKIN?
  4. 4. 1.Largest organ 2.Also known as INTEGUMENT or CUTANEOUS LAYER
  5. 5. Our skin are made of 3 basic layers Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Epithermal layer of ectodermal origin A layer of mesodermal Beneath the dermis connective tissue
  6. 6. 1st skin layer- Epidermis  Outermost layer of the skin  Have 4 different types of cells  But mainly are STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS KERATINIZED EPITHILIUM – composed of cells called keratinocytes  The other NON-KERATINOCYTE CELLS  pigment-producing melanocytes  antigen-producing langerhans cells  tactile merkel cells
  7. 7. Layers of epidermis  Stratum corneum  Stratum lucidum  Stratum granulosum – the granular layer  Stratum spinosum – the spinous layer  Stratum basale – the basal layer
  8. 8. WHAT IT DOES - COMPONENTS – • Supports epidermis & binds it to the hypodermis • Site for epidermal derivatives (e.g: hair follicles & glands) • irregular in shape & has many projections called Dermal Papillae. • Have abundance of nerve supply DERMIS Have BASEMENT MEMBRANE • located in between the epidermis’s stratum basale & dermis’s papillary layer. • Composed of Basal Lamina and Reticular Lamina • Important for nutrients to pass through from the vascular dermis into the avascular epidermis. Consists of 2 layers with indistinct boundaries • OUTERMOST PAPILLARY LAYER • Constitutes the major parts of the dermis • Functions : produce anchoring – to be inserted into basal lamina for the binding of dermis and epidermis • DEEPER RETICULAR LAYER • Thicker & composed of irregular dense CT • Has more fibers than cells • Present of elastic fiber to provide elasticityu
  9. 9. Dermal papillae • Projections of dermal layers into the epidermis. • Interlock with epidermal pegs • It is more numerous in skin that is subjected to frequent pressure. HOW???  By increasing the epidermal-dermal junction
  10. 10. HypoDermis 1. Consists of loose connective tissue – e.g: fat cells / adipocytes (vary in number according to different region of the body & vary in size according to the nutritional state) 2. Binds the skin loosely to the subjacent organs - This enable the skin to slide over them. 3. Have an extensive vascular supply – promote rapid uptake of insulin / drug injected into the tissue.