Behaviourism learning group 1


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  • Biological basis for learning – you have it or you don’t…it’s a thing you inherit
  • Behaviour Shaping or Successive Approximation Rather than waiting for the rat to accidentally press the lever it can be rewarded initially for a movement towards the lever, then it is only rewarded when it is touching the lever, until eventually the rat presses the lever. The rat having pressed the lever would then only be rewarded for pressing the lever. This process takes away the learning by trial and error and can be used to train pigeons to play ping pong or to walk in a circle anti- clockwise. Operant Conditioning uses reinforcement (rewards) to single out one specific action from the animals normal behaviour and ensure that it is repeated more often than the rest. Different ways of providing reinforcement which can have different effects on both the response rate (No of times animal presses the lever) and the extinction rate (rate at which lever pressing is extinguished).
  • Behaviourism learning group 1

    2. 2. Behaviorism <ul><li>Learning is defined by the outward expression of new behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses solely on observable behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>A biological basis for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is context-independent </li></ul><ul><li>Classical & Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexes (Pavlov’s Dogs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback/Reinforcement (Skinner’s Pigeon Box) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Behavioral Learning Theory According to the behaviorists, learning can be defined as “the relatively permanent change in behavior brought about as a result of experience or practice.” Behaviorists recognize that learning is an internal event. However, it is not recognized as learning until it is displayed by overt behavior.
    4. 4. Behavioral Learning Theory <ul><li>The term &quot;learning theory&quot; is often associated with the behavioral view. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of the behavioral approach is on how the environment impacts overt behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that biological maturation or genetics is an alternative explanation for relatively permanent change. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Behavioral Learning Theory The behavioral learning theory is represented as an S-R paradigm. The organism is treated as a “black box.” We only know what is going on inside the box by the organism’s over behavior. Stimulus (S) Organism (O) Response (R)
    6. 6. Behavioral Learning Theory The feedback loop that connects over behavior to stimuli that activate the senses has been studied extensively from this perspective.
    7. 7. Behaviorist Theory of Education <ul><li>Behaviorist Theorists </li></ul><ul><li>J.B Watson, B.F. Skinner and Ivan Pavlov – these theorists are known for their studies in animal behavior. They both argue that a behavior can be modified or reinforced by a direct change in the environment and external stimulus. They believe that human behavior can be compared with animal behavior. (What is your view of this?) </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is behaviorism? <ul><li>Behaviorism is the the educational theory that is based on the underlying ideology that the environment has a direct influence on behavior. It presumes that by manipulating the environment, learning can be enhanced through behavior modification. This means that behavior is measured, seen to be appropriate or inappropriate and accordingly changed or reinforced. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Behaviorism in the Classroom <ul><li>Rewards and punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for student learning rests squarely with the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture-based, highly structured </li></ul>
    10. 10. Experiment: <ul><li>Example Pavlov: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal used Dogs: experiment involved the conditioning of dogs to respond to the ringing of a bell that indicated it was meal time. </li></ul>
    11. 11. An argument against Behaviorism: <ul><li>Naturalistic – “Man has no soul and no mind, only a brain that responds to external stimuli” (DeMar 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Man is nothing more than a machine that responds to conditioning…our behavior is the product of our conditioning. We are biological machines and do not consciously act” (Ibid) </li></ul><ul><li>“ We are not responsible for our actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorism.. Seeks not merely to understand human behavior but to predict and control it </li></ul>
    12. 12. Features of Behaviorism <ul><li>Learning is defined as a change in behavior </li></ul><ul><li>When we learn how to change behaviors we can improve the teaching and learning process (pedagogy) </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes based (objectives and measurement) approach </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to make use of negative and positive reinforcement in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Makes argument for personal developmental process and the teaching machine which allows students to progress at own rate (but it is argued to dehumanize the teaching-learning process) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Two main types of Learning <ul><li>Classical conditioning: addresses learning of involuntary responses. For example when the sound of a bell alone stimulates saliva flow in dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning: addresses learning of voluntary responses. </li></ul>Paris, N.A. Kennesaw State University- M.Ed in Ad Ed program
    14. 14. Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive reinforcer: “Rewards” or something desireable is received after a behavior occur </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcer: “Escapes” or something undesirable is avoided after a behavior occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment:applying something bad - reduces undesired behaviour </li></ul>Paris, N.A. Kennesaw State University- M.Ed in Ad Ed program
    15. 15. Practice phase <ul><ul><li>Structured practice: whole class led through each step of the problem with teacher leading and checking for everyone’s understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided practice: students work on a few examples alone at their desks. Teacher circulates and monitors, providing corrective feedback and reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent practice: students given a few examples just like what had been learned to practice alone. Feedback is not necessarily immediate (i.e. next day). </li></ul></ul>Paris, N.A. Kennesaw State University- M.Ed in Ad Ed program
    16. 16. Guidelines for Practice <ul><li>From a behavioral perspective, students should only practice what they already know how to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide short but intense practice sessions (no more than 30-40 minutes for middle/high school) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor carefully and provide corrective feedback and reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect responses which are not corrected become part of the learner’s behavior and impede progress toward subsequent learning </li></ul></ul>Paris, N.A. Kennesaw State University- M.Ed in Ad Ed program
    17. 17. Guidelines for Practice (cont.) <ul><li>Do not engage students in independent practice until have 85% success in guided practice </li></ul><ul><li>Space structured practice close together with guided and independent sessions gradually further and further apart. </li></ul>Paris, N.A. Kennesaw State University- M.Ed in Ad Ed program
    18. 18. Shaping <ul><li>Behaviour Shaping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successive approximations to the goal behaviour </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Critiques of Behaviorism <ul><li>Does not account for processes taking place in the mind that cannot be observed </li></ul><ul><li>Advocates for passive student learning in a teacher-centric environment </li></ul><ul><li>One size fits all </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge itself is given and absolute </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed instruction & teacher-proofing </li></ul>
    20. 21. Observatinal learning <ul><li>Holds that observable behavior is a symptoms- not the cause-the tip of an iceberg,with the bulk of the problem submerged </li></ul><ul><li>Looks only at observable behavior-what a person does rather what a person thinks, feels or imagines </li></ul>
    21. 22. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>