November 4 People andorganizations 2011 Group six – Lina,Inspirational Approaches to Leadership Syafiqah, Zulfadli
QUESTION ONEA lot of new managers err (make a mistake) in selecting the right leadershipstyle when they move into management. Why do you think this happens? A lot of managers especially the one who just got promoted always makes amistake in selecting the right leadership style that are not correspond with theirbehavior. This is because they are usually being told to do this, being asked to dothat with a specific guidelines and time frame from their leader. But now theycannot be one of them (leader) due to they are not used to it. Moreover leader isnot to be born. There are three situation here namely Cheryl Kahn promoted to director ofcatering for Glazier Group restaurant in NY, Rob Carstons a technical manager atIBM in California and Linda McGee as the president of Medex Insurance Servicesin Baltimore, Maryland. The first situation, Cheryl Kahn is not an experience leader and she cannotinvolve in the water cooler gossip anymore. She always asks her employee to gettheir task done on time. She may motivate her employee and also de-motivatethem. This is because she doesn’t care about her relation with her employee.What she need is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement ofgoals. Attempting to find short-term fixes that address the symptoms of the crisisonly ensures the organization will wind up back in the same dilemma. Then theyshould gather their teams together and gain agreement about the root causes. Inorder to understand the real reasons for the crisis, everyone on the leadership
team must be willing to tell the whole truth. Leaders can’t solve problems if theydon’t acknowledge their existence. As a manager Cheryl Kahn may use the water-cooler gossip to her benefits.By listening to it very carefully to find out what current concerns are. She cannotkill the grapevine, but she can prevent it from spreading. No matter how badthings are, they will get worse. She must be patient. Moreover she must be strictto the employees who always come late to work by communicating face to facewith employees equally and across the board. The second situation is about Rob Carstons who being promoted fromjunior programmer to a manager. Rob Carstons is kind of guy who appreciate hisrelationship to others whether his colleagues, his boss and even his fellow co-workers who are much older than him. He is in fact relation oriented leader whichlikely to have job relationship characterized by mutual trust and respect forsubordinates ideas and regard by their feelings. He may face with bad news. Hecannot believe that things could really be so grim. Consequently, he will try toconvince the bearers of bad news that things aren’t so bad, and swift action canmake problems go away. . As a manager, Rob Carstons can see the bigger issues at hand, but he canalso see how things could be so much better if he could just remove thoseobstacles – fear of others being offended by the task given to them and also byevery words he said. To get people to help him in changing things, he needs toshare that positive vision with them. Inspire them. Motivate them. Guide them.Show them how their actions are bringing everyone closer to their goals.
Last but not least is Linda McGee, the new president of Medex Insuranceservices in Baltimore, Maryland. She is the most hardworking worker who justgot promoted. Her charisma is being asked by her colleagues because they allthink she is way too young to hold that position. Although her colleagues hateher, she still focuses on her job. In a crisis, she will carry the weight of theworld on her shoulders. She goes into isolation, and thinks she can solve theproblem herself. But she must have the help of all their people to devisesolutions and to implement them. This means bringing people into theirconfidence, asking them for help and ideas, and gaining their commitment topainful corrective actions.
QUESTION TWOWhat does this say about leadership and leadership training? A charismatic leadership style can seem similar to transformationalleadership, because these leaders inspire lots of enthusiasm in their teams andare very energetic in driving others forward. However, charismatic leaders cantend to believe more in themselves than in their teams, and this creates a riskthat a project, or even an entire organization, might collapse if the leader leaves.In the eyes of the followers, success is directly connected to the presence of thecharismatic leader. As such, charismatic leadership carries great responsibility,and it needs a long-term commitment from the leader. For Cheryl Kahn, she would probably a transactional leader under laissez-Faire because she abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions. She isneither a born leader nor a training leader. At the context “shrug-off anemployee’s chronic lateness”. She is not a task oriented as can be seen and alsoshe’s not a relationship oriented because she’s alienated with her employees. Rob Carstons, he is a little bit relationship oriented because he cares of hisemployees. This is because he tries to be careful not to offend anyone. He is aborn leader because he knows his subordinates’ personality. He is from juniorprogrammer so he knows the companies’ background. This relates to Hersey andBlanchard’s situational theory –a contingency theory that focuses on followers’readiness. Also, it is employee-oriented leader –emphasizing interpersonalrelations, taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and acceptingindividual differences among members.
Linda McGee, she leapt over colleagues because her task oriented make herdoesn’t care of what her workers have said behind her back. She focuses on hertask because her advance promotion would be exactly making a gossip among theworkers. This relates to product-oriented leader –one who emphasizes technicalor task aspects of the job. This could also make her position power –the degree ofinfluence a leader has over power variables. Product orientated companies fail toprovide value to the consumer. They design a product and market it to a vastmajority of people without telling them why they want it. The company createsthe product and attempts to market it with their costs in mind, not thecustomers. The product is made and designed as economically as possible tomaximize profits.
QUESTION THREEWhich leadership theories, if any, could help new leaders’ deals with transition? Transactional leadership is style of leadership starts with the idea that teammembers agree to obey their leader totally when they accept a job. The"transaction" is usually the organization paying the team members in return fortheir effort and compliance. The leader has a right to "punish" team members iftheir work doesnt meet the pre-determined standard. Team members can do little to improve their job satisfaction undertransactional leadership. The leader could give team members some control oftheir income/reward by using incentives that encourage even higher standards orgreater productivity. Alternatively, a transactional leader could practice"management by exception" – rather than rewarding better work, the leadercould take corrective action if the required standards are not met. Transactional leadership is really a type of management, not a trueleadership style, because the focus is on short-term tasks. It has seriouslimitations for knowledge-based or creative work. However it can be effective inother situations. For Cheryl Khan, since she’s not task and relationship oriented. This is whybehavioral –it implies that this leader can be trained. Since she’s alienated, shecan be trained so that she behaves in relationship oriented. Rob Carstons, he becomes more into relationship oriented because he usedto be like all peer worker. To overcome this problem, he can give advices and he
can be development-oriented leader –one who values experimentation, seeksnew ideas, and generates and implement change. It ‘originates new approachesto problems’. It ‘encourages members to start new activities’. Linda McGee must be flexible in doing her works while she’s doing. Just asfollowers seek safety in the new leadership environment, leaders might fearfailing in their new role. New leaders often have lost their peer support group bymoving to a new organization or by surpassing their former colleagues. Both theleader and the followers need support through the transition. Paying close attention to fear-based behavior in the organization isimportant. Addressing this behavior quickly and effectively is a hallmark ofsuccessful transitions. Encouraging followers to use existing social supportmechanisms during this period can help them greatly. It is important for the new leader to develop support networks of peerswho can provide advice and counsel on the new role. In addition, the new leaderneeds followers to understand the basic functional needs of leadership. Givenhow overwhelming the new role might be, just dealing with the daily stream ofideas, demands, e-mail, and so on can challenge the new leader. Followers canassist new leaders by seeking information about their preferred styles ofcommunication, not only how they would like to interact or the preferred meansof communication but also what information should be shared with them andwhen. In addition, a mutual understanding of delegation protocols can assist thenew leader in focusing on the new aspects of the job and free followers to workindependently on behalf of the leader. Particularly important is discussing
escalation of issues so that new leaders are not caught unaware by criticalproblems. A leadership transition poses dangers and challenges for both leaders andfollowers. While each party naturally focuses on the organizations success, timeneeds to be spent on how the new relationships will develop and mature intoeffective working relationships. Focusing on effective decision making andimplementation protocols is essential. Hallmarks of successful transitions alsoinclude supporting leaders and followers and assisting new leaders by challengingtheir views. By focusing on the four elements of interaction suggested in thisarticle, leaders and followers alike can avoid some of the difficulties of transitiontimes and make the period productive and smooth for the entire organization.
QUESTION FOURDo you think it’s easier or harder to be promoted internally into a formalleadership position than to come into it as an outsider? Explain. It is easier to be promoted internally because they are all familiar with theorganization as they are one of the former employees. They already know theinternal culture, the players, and the issues or challenges faced by the position.They can focus on doing the job right away which promotes commitment (and noton getting acclimated to the company. Moreover their skill and performance arealready known. It also facilitates innovation and provides opportunities for theemployees to increase their salaries. Thus it reduces the orientation cost. Most employees aren’t satisfied with doing the same job for the rest oftheir life. If you don’t give them an opportunity to advance in their career, theymight go looking elsewhere for someone who will. When new employees see thatopportunities exist for them and that theres a track record of hiring from within,they tend to stay longer with your company - retention. Promoting from within can take on a momentum of its own. Employeeswhove moved up the ranks are more likely to want to promote other internalcandidates and this approach becomes part of your company culture. Empoweremployees who have been promoted to talk about "where they came from" andto encourage new employees to aspire to be promoted. It shows where yourloyalty lies, creating appreciated and ultimately happy employees.
When you promote an employee, you’re recognizing a job well done, whichfor many is the ultimate payoff for all the hours they’ve dedicated to yourcompany. All these good feelings can resonate to create a more positive andmotivated work environment, company-wide. However, external promotion also brings about a few advantages. This isbecause it brings new ideas into the workplace especially the fresh newlygraduated worker. It might facilitate diversity and action initiatives and also bringin expertises which are not available internally. An employee who being promoted externally will start with a clean slateand has no political affiliations. It also might reduce training cost and time if theemployee comes to organization with the right skills to do the job. So in conclusion it depends to the higher authorities whether to promotesomeone within their range or outsiders. All of their actions have advantages andalso disadvantages. It’s up to them to choose the best among the best and have awin-win situation both for the employee and also the higher authorities.