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ATTRIBUTION THEORY It is when the managers observe the behavior of the employees and verify the causes of the employees unsatisfactory job performance. As a managers, they will try to see things from different perspective , from that, they will perform judgments.
THROUGH SELECTIVE PERCEPTION - Managers see only the employees background, interest, attitudes and experiences. - What they see is what they get. - For e.g.; Job experiences between two employees.
THE HALO EFFECT – Judging the employees based on one-side characteristics. - E.g.; As for the unsatisfactory job, managers then focus only on the employees weaknesses, and this will make more negative judgment towards the employees .
THROUGH THE CONTRAST EFFECTS How the managers rate the employees characteristics by differentiate the employees performance with the other employees. For examples, the employees job performance is actually at a very good level already, buy there is someone more better, so the manager view it as unsatisfactory job performance.
STEREOTYPING JUDGMENT When the managers make judgment that come from on where the employees group of circle. In servicing kind of job, manager usually sees Philippine workers are more dedicated than Bruneian workers. Why??
HOW AN EFFICIENT MANAGERS MAKE HIS JUDGMENT Through Decision making style.- Directive = did not make judgment using his feelings but see things rationality.- - This kind of managers didn’t make decision in such a hurry.- - He will try to understand the causes of the employees outcome, and then from there he will make judgment.
Through Conceptual perspectives.- Managers tend to consider the outcome from the employees by using the information that he gather from other people in the organization.- For examples, he might ask around the people who the employees working with.
Through Behavioral Decision Making Style– strong concern for the people in the organization and their development.- This type of managers didn’t focus only the employees outcome, instead the manager try to help the employees to improve themselves.
HOWEVER MANAGERS TEND TO BE BIAS WHEN PERFORMING JUDGMENT. Overconfidence Bias Manager.- Managers has clear view/judgment about his employees. Therefore, he didn’t have any problems in decision making.- For examples, the employees is a very slow- learner, but then the managers is confident that the employees doesn’t have any special abilities.
Confirmation bias- This is when the manager judge his employees based on the judgment that he had made in the past, and he will eliminate all the information that contradicts with his past judgment.- The employees might produce unsatisfactory outcome, but he already try so hard, and there is external factors that affect his work, however, the managers still believe that it is the employees own mistakes.
Availability bias- When the managers judge the employees based on the information that he already receive.- The employees report : if the supervisor state in the employees report that the employees had done a very satisfying job, the managers will buy it and from there he make his judgment.
Anchoring Bias- The managers judge his employees by looking at his first impression and eliminate other backgrounds.
Hindsight Bias- The managers is already expect the outcome from his prediction.- - For examples the managers expect the employee to do his job well, however the outcome didn’t not meet his expectation even though the employees is already did a very satisfying job.
CONCLUSION Managers should chose the right ways to make a judgment because by performing judgment, he make decision making. His decisions will effect the employees job performances.