Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
GAUTAM BUDDH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
Prashant Gupta 
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
INVERTIS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING &
BAREILLY - 243003.
Cloud Computing,” to put it simply, means“Internet Computing.” The Internet
is commonly visualized as clouds; hence the term “cloud computing” for
computation done through the Internet. With Cloud Computing users can
access database resources via the Internet from anywhere, for as long as they
need, without worrying about any maintenance or management of actual
resources. Besides, databases in cloud are very dynamic and scalable.
Cloud computing is unlike grid computing, utility computing, or autonomic
computing. In fact, it is a very independent platform in terms of computing. The
best example of cloud computing is Google Apps where any application can be
accessed using a browser and it can be deployed on thousands of computer
through the Internet.
2. WHAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING?
Cloud computing provides the facility to accessshared resources and common
infrastructure, offering services on demand over the network to perform
operations that meet changing business needs. The location of physical
resources and devices being accessed are typically not known to the end user. It
also provides facilities for users to develop, deploy and manage their
applications „on the cloud‟, which entailsvirtualization of resources that
maintains and manages itself.
3. CLOUD STORAGE
Over time many big Internet based companies (Amazon, Google…) have come
to realise that only a small amount of their data storage capacity is being used.
This has led to the rentingout of space and the storage of information on remote
servers or "clouds". Information is then temporarily cached on desktop
computers, mobile phones or other internet-linked devices. Amazon‟s Amazon
Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Simple Storage Solution (S3) are the current
best known facilities.
Along with services the cloud will host data.There has been some discussion of
this being a potentially useful notion possibly aligned with the Semantic Web,
though it could result in data becoming undifferentiated .
4. CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE
Cloud computing architecture, just like any othersystem, is categorized into two
main sections: Front End and Back End. Front End can be end user or client or
any application (i.e. web browser etc.) which is using cloud services. Back End
is the network of servers with any computer program and data storage system. It
is usually assumed that cloud contains infinite storage capacity for any software
available in market. Cloud has different applications that are hosted on their
own dedicated server farms.
Cloud has centralized server administration system. Centralized server
administers the system, balances client supply, adjusts demands, monitors
traffic and avoids congestion. This server follows protocols, commonly known
as middleware. Middleware controls the communication of cloud network
Cloud Architecture runs on a very important assumption, which is mostly true.
The assumption is that the demand for resources is not always consistent from
client to cloud. Because of this reason the servers of cloud are unable to run at
their full capacity. To avoid this scenario, server virtualization technique is
applied. In sever virtualization, all physical servers are virtualized and they run
multiple servers with either same or different application. As one physical
server acts as multiple physical servers, it curtails the need for more physical
As a matter of fact, data is the most important part of cloud computing; thus,
data security is the top most priority in all the data operations of cloud. Here, all
the data are backed up at multiple locations. This astoundingly increases the
data storage to multiple times in cloud compared with a regular system.
Redundancy of data is crucial, which is a must-have attribute of cloud
5. TYPES OF CLOUDS
Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional
mainstream sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-
grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services,
from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-
grained utility computing basis.
5.2 HYBRID CLOUD
A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external
providers "will be typical for most enterprises".
5.3 PRIVATE CLOUD
Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently
used to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private
networks.These (typically virtualisation automation) products claim to "deliver
some benefits of cloud computing without the pitfalls", capitalising on data
security, corporate governance, and reliability concerns.They have been
criticised on the basis that users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and
as such do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on
management ,essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud
computing such an intriguing concept".While an analyst predicted in 2008 that
private cloud networks would be the future of corporate IT, there is some
contention as to whether they are a reality even within the same firm.
1.COST - Pricing is based on usage-based options and minimal or no IT skills are
required for implementation.
2.DEVICE AND LOCATION INDEPENDENCE - It enable users to access systems
using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using,
e.g. PC, mobile
3.MULTI-TENANCY - This enables sharing of resources and costs among a large
pool of users.
4.RELIABILITY - This is suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.
5.SCALABILITY - Dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources without
users having to engineer for peak loads
6.SECURITY - It improves due to centralization of data,increased security-
7.SUSTANIBILITY - This comes through improved resource utilisation, more
7. ADVANTAGES OF CLOUD COMPUTING
1. Ability to scale to meet changing user demands quickly
2. Pay by use.
3. Task oriented
4. Virtually no maintainence due to dynamic infrastructure software.
5. Application and operating system independent.
6. Easy to develop your own web-based applications that run in the cloud.
7. Location of infrastructure in areas with lower costs of real estate and
8. Sharing of peak-load capacity among a large pool of users ,improving overall
9. Separation of application code from physical resources.
10. Not having to purchase assets for one time or infrequent computing tasks.
11. Ability to use external assets to handle peak loads.
8. DISADVANTAGES OF CLOUD COMPUTING
1. Often limited or no technical support available.
2. Canned solutions such may not be full-featured or too task oriented.
3. When there are technical issues,you may lose access to your data or
4. No control.
5. You must have an internet connection.
6. If the company hosting the application goes out of business,you may lose
access to your data or application permanently.
After so many years, Cloud Computing today isthe beginning of “network based
computing”over Internet in force. It is the technology of the decade and is the
enabling element of two totally new computing models, the Client-Cloud
computing and the Terminal-Cloud computing. These new models would create
whole generations of applications and business. Our prediction is that it is the
beginning to the end of the dominance of desktop computing such as that with
the Windows. It is also the beginning of anew Internet based service
economy: the Internet centric, Web based, on demand, Cloud
applications and computing economy.