ISTQB Online Training Session-1


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ISTQB Online Training Session-1

  1. 1. ISTQB Foundation Level TrainingSession 1ByManish VermaB.E., CSQA, ISTQB-CTFL,
  2. 2. What is ISTQBISTQB® (International Software Testing Qualifications Board) wasfounded in November 2002 and is a not-for-profit association legallyregistered in Belgium.ISTQB® (International Software Testing Qualifications Board) hasdefined the "ISTQB® Certified Tester" scheme that has become theworld-wide leader in the certification of competences in softwaretesting.ISTQB® is an organization based on volunteer work by hundreds ofinternational testing experts.For more details visit:
  3. 3. ISTQB Certification LevelsFoundation Level (CTFL)• Foundation Level qualification is aimed at professionalswho need to demonstrate practical knowledge of thefundamental concepts of software testing. Includespeople in roles like test designers, test analysts, testengineers, test consultants, test managers, useracceptance testers and IT Professionals.• The Foundation Level qualification is also appropriatefor anyone who needs a basic understanding ofsoftware testing such as project managers, qualitymanagers, software development managers, businessanalysts, IT directors and management
  4. 4. ISTQB Certification Levels cont.Advanced Level (CTAL)o Test Managero Test Analysto Technical Test Analyst• The Advanced Level qualification is aimed at people who have achieved anadvanced point in their careers in software testing. This includes people inroles such as testers, test analysts, test engineers, test consultants, testmanagers, etc.• Advanced Level qualification is also appropriate for anyone who wants adeeper understanding of software testing, such as project managers,quality managers, software development managers, business analysts, ITdirectors and management consultants.• To receive Advanced Level certification, candidates must hold theFoundation Certificate and satisfy the Exam Board which examines themthat they have sufficient practical experience to be considered AdvancedLevel
  5. 5. ISTQB Certification Levels cont.Expert Level (CTEL)Improving the Test ProcessTest ManagementTest Automation (in progress)Security Testing (in progress)Each Expert Level module has clear business outcomes. Theseprovide information to businesses concerning the expectationsof an expert in a particular subject. The business outcomes mapto the individual Learning Objectives in a particular
  6. 6. Foundation level exam patternThe Foundation Level exam is characterized by:• 40 multiple-choice questions• a scoring of 1 point for each correct answer• a pass mark of 65% (26 or more points)• a duration of 60 minutes (or 75 minutes forcandidates taking exams that are not in theirnative or local language)
  7. 7. What are K-levels?The Foundation and Advanced exams cover four different K-levels (K1 to K4):• K1 (Remember) = The candidate should remember orrecognize a term or a concept.• K2 (Understand) = The candidate should select anexplanation for a statement related to the question topic.• K3 (Apply) = The candidate should select the correctapplication of a concept or technique and apply it to agiven context.• K4 (Analyze) = The candidate can separate informationrelated to a procedure or technique into its constituentparts for better understanding and can distinguish betweenfacts and
  8. 8. Why is testing necessary(k2)• As we all are human beings and human beings make mistakesduring development.• Some of the errors do not impact much on our day to day life andcan be ignored, however some errors are so severe that they canbreak the whole system or software. In such kind of situations youneed to take care that such errors are caught well in advance beforedeploying the system/software in production environment.Examples:• Net banking websites or ATMs should be thoroughly tested tomaintain bank credibility.• Air traffic control system is very critical system which needs to bethoroughly tested before live deployment as human lives aredependent on
  9. 9. Causes of software defects(k2)• If someone makes an error or mistake in usingthe software, this may lead directly to aproblem - the software is used incorrectly andso does not behave as we expected.• People design and build the software and theycan make mistakes during the design andbuild.• These mistakes mean that there are flaws inthe software itself. These are called defects orsometimes bugs or
  10. 10. Role of testing in software development,maintenance and operation (k2)• Human errors can cause a defect or fault to be introduced at anystage within the SDLC and, depending upon the consequences ofthe mistake, the results can be trivial or catastrophic.• Rigorous testing is necessary during development and maintenanceto identify defects, in order to reduce failures in the operationalenvironment and increase the quality of the operational system.• Executing tests helps us move towards improved quality of productand service• Processes are also checked, for example by audit. A variety ofmethods may be used to check work, some of which are done bythe author of the work and some by others to get an
  11. 11. Testing and quality (k2)• Testing helps us to measure the quality ofsoftware in terms of the number of defectsfound, the tests run, and the system coveredby the tests.• We can do this for both the functionalattributes of the software (for example,printing a report correctly) and for the non-functional software requirements andcharacteristics (for example, printing a reportquickly enough)
  12. 12. What is testing(k2)• Software Testing is a process that consists ofall test life cycle activities like static anddynamic testing, planning, preparation andevaluation of software products to determinethat the software products satisfy customersrequirements and are fit for customers use.• Software Testing is done to find softwaredefects or failures in
  13. 13. Seven testing principles(k2)• Principle 1: Testing shows presence of defectsTesting can show that defects are present, but cannot prove that there areno defects. Testing reduces the probability of undiscovered defectsremaining in the software but, even if no defects are found, it is not aproof of correctness.• Principle 2: Exhaustive testing is impossibleTesting everything (all combinations of inputs and preconditions) is notfeasible except for trivial cases. Instead of exhaustive testing, we use risksand priorities to focus testing efforts.• Principle 3: Early testingTesting activities should start as early as possible in the software or systemdevelopment life cycle and should be focused on defined
  14. 14. Seven testing principles cont.• Principle 4: Defect clusteringA small number of modules contain most of the defectsdiscovered during pre- release testing or show the mostoperational failures.• Principle 5: Pesticide paradoxIf the same tests are repeated over and over again,eventually the same set of test cases will no longer find anynew bugs. To overcome this pesticide paradox, the testcases need to be regularly reviewed and revised, and newand different tests need to be written to exercise differentparts of the software or system to potentially find
  15. 15. Seven testing principles cont.• Principle 6: Testing is context dependentTesting is done differently in different contexts.For example, safety-critical software is testeddifferently from an e-commerce site.• Principle 7: Absence-of-errors fallacyFinding and fixing defects does not help if thesystem built is unusable and does not fulfill theusers needs and
  16. 16. Fundamental test process (k1)• Planning and control• Analysis and design• Implementation and execution• Evaluating exit criteria and reporting• Test closure
  17. 17. Planning and controlDuring test planning, we make sure we understand the goals and objectives of thecustomers, stakeholders, and the project, and the risks which testing is intended toaddress.Test planning has the following major tasks• Determine the scope and risks and identify the objectives of testing• Determine the test approach• Determine the required test resources• Schedule test analysis and design tasks, test implementation, execution andevaluation• Determine the exit criteriaTest control has the following major tasks:• Measure and analyze the results of reviews and testing• Monitor and document progress, test coverage and exit
  18. 18. Test analysis and designTest analysis and design has the following major tasks• Review the test basis (such as the product risk analysis,requirements, architecture, design specifications, and interfaces),examining the specifications for the software we are testing.• Identify test conditions based on analysis of test items, theirspecifications, and what we know about their behavior andstructure.• Design the tests• Evaluate testability of the requirements and system.If the requirements just say the software needs to respond quicklyenough that is not testable, because quick enough may meandifferent things to different people. A more testable requirementwould be the soft ware needs to respond in 5 seconds with 20people logged on.• Design the test environment set-up and identify any requiredinfrastructure and
  19. 19. Test implementation and executionDuring test implementation and execution, we take the test conditions and makethem into test cases and set up the test environment.Test implementation and execution have the following major tasksImplementation:• Develop and prioritize our test cases, using test design techniques like BVA,EP• Create test suites from the test cases for efficient test execution.• Implement and verify the environment.Execution:• Execute the test suites and individual test cases• Log the outcome of test execution• Compare actual results• Where there are differences between actual and expected results, reportdiscrepancies as
  20. 20. Evaluating exit criteria and reportingEvaluating exit criteria is the activity where test executionis assessed against the defined objectives. This should bedone for each test level, as for each we need to knowwhether we have done enough testing.Evaluating exit criteria has the following major tasks• Check test logs against the exit criteria specified in testplanning• Assess if more tests are needed or if the exit criteriaspecified should be changed• Write a test summary report for
  21. 21. Test closure activitiesDuring test closure activities, we collect data from completed testactivities to consolidate experience, including checking and filingtestware, and analyzing facts and numbers.Test closure activities include the following major tasks:• Check which planned deliverables we actually delivered and ensureall incident reports have been resolved through defect repair ordeferral.• Finalize and archive testware, such as scripts, the test environment,and any other test infrastructure, for later reuse.• Hand over testware to the maintenance organization who willsupport the software and make any bug fixes or maintenancechanges, for use in con firmation testing and regression testing.• Evaluate how the testing went and analyze lessons learned forfuture releases and
  22. 22. Thank you!!!