types of communication


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  • - Informal Networks:
    - consist of interaction patterns that are not designed by management
    can be based on physical proximity, shared career interests or personal friendships
    article about the exchange of email in an organization (E-mail reveals real leaders)
    used e-mail exchanges to build a map of the structure of an organization
    The map shows the teams in which people actually work, as opposed to those they are assigned to
    unofficial de facto leaders can also emerge
    big institutions tend to divide organically into informal collaborative networks, called communities of practice
    -> companies‘ informal structure
    the communities often crossed the formal departmental boundaries defined by the company
    - chain:
    every member passes on information, but to just one person
    - gossip
    one person passes on information to all the others that he encounters
    - probability chain
    no structure
    A is very talkative and outgoing type, passes on information to random contacts
    - cluster
    information is passed on to selected persons
    most common pattern
    selectivity: pass on information to people with whom you are in close contact
  • company newsletters: formal
    - impersonal
    - aimed at a general audience
    - regularly published internal documents
    - describe information of interest to employees regarding an array of business and
    nonbusiness issues affecting them
    - effective devices in improving employees’ attitudes because the mere act of
    publishing a newsletter sends a message that the company cares enough about its
    employees to communicate with them
    employee handbooks: formal
    - major formal means of communicating pertinent company information to employees
    - internally published
    - a document describing to employees basic information about the company
    - general reference regarding the company’s background, the nature of its business,
    and its rules
    - explains key aspects of the company’s policies
    - clarifies the expectations of the company and employees toward each other
    - clarifies company policies -> prevents lawsuits
    - useful means of effectively socializing new employees and promoting the company’s
    company magazines: formal
    - sometimes published by a group of employees who spend part of their work time on
    the magazine
    - open dialogue between management and employees – e.g. critics and suggestions for
    - account on organizational activities
    - readership includes pensioners
    - small ads
    - formal meetings
    - long interactions on pre-planned topics
    - often with multiple people
    - scheduled: planned in advance by both parties
    - frequently in a room designed for meetings [4]
    - arranged participants
    - participants in role
    - preset agenda
    - formal language and speech register
    formal communication channels:
    - mostly produce written messages
    - frequently one-way and take long for a response
    - one-way written communications tend to be reserved for formal, official messages
    that need to be referred to in the future at the receiver’s convenience (e.g. official
    announcements about position openings)
  • types of communication

    1. 1. Channels ofChannels of CommunicationCommunication Presented By :Presented By : Suhas.RSuhas.R SunithaSunitha ShwethaShwetha SwatiSwati
    2. 2. Communication :Communication :
    3. 3. Types of communicationTypes of communication
    4. 4. Formal CommunicationFormal Communication WorkersWorkers President Managers Managers Workers Workers Workers Efforts at coordination Information Instructionsanddirectives
    5. 5. Formal CommunicationFormal Communication the process of sharing official informationthe process of sharing official information with others who need to know it,with others who need to know it, according to the prescribed patternsaccording to the prescribed patterns depicted in an organization chartdepicted in an organization chart Flows through formal channelFlows through formal channel Also known as line of commandAlso known as line of command
    6. 6. Types:Types: downward communicationdownward communication upward communicationupward communication horizontal communicationhorizontal communication Diagonal communicationDiagonal communication
    7. 7. Informal communicationInformal communication  Base of informal relation between two orBase of informal relation between two or more individualsmore individuals also known as grapevine.also known as grapevine. Not planned and organized.Not planned and organized. May be both official or personal.May be both official or personal. Based on friendship or acquaintance.Based on friendship or acquaintance.
    8. 8. Advantages:Advantages: Faster speedFaster speed Reacts quicklyReacts quickly Multi dimensionalMulti dimensional Positive group makingPositive group making Free expression of ideasFree expression of ideas Supplement to formal channelSupplement to formal channel
    9. 9. Disadvantages:Disadvantages: Half truth, rumorsHalf truth, rumors No documental proofNo documental proof No action can be takenNo action can be taken May lead to internal disputeMay lead to internal dispute No authority line is maintainedNo authority line is maintained
    10. 10. Informal channelsInformal channels Y D C B A Chain A JB D H I K F G E C Gossip A F B D J H C E K G I X Probability A C D F J IB Cluster
    11. 11. Formal vs InformalFormal vs Informal communicationcommunication ??? Behavior in Organizations, ch. 15
    12. 12. Difference:Difference: Formal communicationFormal communication  Follows the formalFollows the formal channelchannel  Executives are informedExecutives are informed about the senderabout the sender  Quick reaction is not beQuick reaction is not be therethere  Relation between theRelation between the sender and receiver is farsender and receiver is far remoteremote Informal communicationInformal communication  Doesn’t follow any formalDoesn’t follow any formal channelchannel  The sender will beThe sender will be unknownunknown  Quick reaction will beQuick reaction will be expectedexpected  Relation is more likeRelation is more like friendlyfriendly
    13. 13. Formal MediaFormal Media  Company newslettersCompany newsletters  Employee handbooksEmployee handbooks  Company magazinesCompany magazines  Formal meetingsFormal meetings  LettersLetters  Flyers and bulletinsFlyers and bulletins  MemosMemos  FaxesFaxes  All-employees mailingsAll-employees mailings
    14. 14. Informal MediaInformal Media Face-to-face discussionsFace-to-face discussions TelephoneTelephone Voice messaging (voice mail)Voice messaging (voice mail) E-mailE-mail Instant messaging (chat)Instant messaging (chat)
    15. 15. THANK YOU….THANK YOU….