The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance  Beijing and the South-to-North Water Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
Outlines  ✤   Introduction  ✤   Urbanization of water and water politics  ✤   Beijing’s water: historical legacies  ✤   Be...
Introduction  ✤   This paper discusses the issues regard how rapid industrialization      and urbanization generated high ...
China: Water Scarcity Problems  ✤   Rapid economic development after 1980s  ✤   The increase of water consumption  ✤   Une...
Rainfall Distribution   The arid north, and humid south13年4月9日星期二
Beijing: Thirsty Capital  ✤   Located in the dry northern part of China  ✤   Rapid urbanization and industrialization  ✤  ...
Research Questions  ✤   How has the Chinese state handled the disputes on water demands      from related provinces?  ✤   ...
Hydraulic Society and State Power  ✤   Wittfogel: The capital investment and labor coordination required for      substant...
Dujiangyan (都江堰)   Sichuan, China13年4月9日星期二
Who dominate?13年4月9日星期二
Urbanization of Water  ✤   Not only social, political and economic processes, but also the      interaction of social and ...
Beijing’s water  legacies  ✤   Located in Northern China      with Yongding river and      Chaobai river  ✤   Capital city...
1949-1970s  ✤   Beijing dominant era  ✤   Dams: Guanting and Miyung  ✤   Wells: everywhere in the city  ✤   Policy: Indust...
1980s-1990s  ✤   Local competition era  ✤   Rapid Industrialization  ✤   Crowded Urbanization  ✤   Water Pollution  ✤   Wa...
Fragmented Water  Management System                                                          State Council of             ...
Water shortage crisis in Beijing  ✤   In the late 1990s, seven consecutive years led Miyung and Guanting      reservoirs’ ...
Water consumption and Water resource in Beijing (Unit: One billion cubic meter)             60             45             ...
Water Consumption in Beijing (Unit: One billion cubic meter)             60             45             30             15  ...
The South-to-North Water  Transfer Project  ✤   1952: Chairman Mao suggested  ✤   2002: the overall plan of the project be...
South-to-North Water                  Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
Danjiangkou Dam13年4月9日星期二
Beijing vs. Hebei: Urban vs. Rural  ✤   Not just a water diversion project, but also a task to prevent water      from env...
Beijing vs. Water-Supply Provinces  ✤   Immigration: in Henan and Hubei, 330,000 people have to move.  ✤   Compensation: e...
A new governance mechanism is  emerging?  ✤   Political, the “South-to-North Water Diversion Project Committee      Office”...
A new governance mechanism is  emerging?  ✤   Economical, three types of Company compose the market mechanism  ✤   Water T...
A new governance mechanism is  emerging?  ✤   Ecological Compensation  ✤   First one: the water-receiving areas should hel...
The Governance Mechanism              of the South-to-NorthWater                          Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
Conclusion  ✤   This paper argues that the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in      fact has strengthened the Beijing...
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The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project

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Paper to be presented at the International Workshop on economic sociology of Water, NDHU, Taiwan. March 27-28, 2013

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The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance: Beijing and the South–to-North Water Transfer Project

  1. The Scale Politics of Urban Water Governance Beijing and the South-to-North Water Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
  2. Outlines ✤ Introduction ✤ Urbanization of water and water politics ✤ Beijing’s water: historical legacies ✤ Beijing and the “South-to-North Water Transfer Project” ✤ A new governance mechanism is emerging? ✤ Conclusion13年4月9日星期二
  3. Introduction ✤ This paper discusses the issues regard how rapid industrialization and urbanization generated high degree of water consumption that, triggering by the building of various water supply civil engineering, caused conflict/tension between cities and rural areas as well as between central and local states. ✤ Case: Beijing vs. the South-to-North Water Transfer Project ✤ Urban Political Ecology Perspective13年4月9日星期二
  4. China: Water Scarcity Problems ✤ Rapid economic development after 1980s ✤ The increase of water consumption ✤ Uneven rainfall distribution ✤ The arid north, and humid south13年4月9日星期二
  5. Rainfall Distribution The arid north, and humid south13年4月9日星期二
  6. Beijing: Thirsty Capital ✤ Located in the dry northern part of China ✤ Rapid urbanization and industrialization ✤ Water, we need more water ✤ The South-to-North Water Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
  7. Research Questions ✤ How has the Chinese state handled the disputes on water demands from related provinces? ✤ How has Beijing city compensated those rural regions where water was diversified to feed its need? ✤ Has China developed a new type of governance to solve the dispute of water supply along the affected provinces where the Sou-North water diversification project?13年4月9日星期二
  8. Hydraulic Society and State Power ✤ Wittfogel: The capital investment and labor coordination required for substantial water control demand the rise of a strong and hierarchical power center which he called the “despotic” states of the Orient. (ex: China) ✤ Worster: The “capitalist state mode” of production on water control is dominated by two powerful groups: wealthy agricultural capitalists and “water bureaucrats.” (ex: The Western US) ✤ Swyngedow: After 1990s, water became Privatized, Commodified, Globalized. (ex: Latin America)13年4月9日星期二
  9. Dujiangyan (都江堰) Sichuan, China13年4月9日星期二
  10. Who dominate?13年4月9日星期二
  11. Urbanization of Water ✤ Not only social, political and economic processes, but also the interaction of social and nature. ✤ Swygngedow: Urbanization of water looks at urban hydraulic environments as socio-physical constructions in which urban water is organized through a combination of social historical and metabolic- ecological process. ✤ The re-territorialization of water, the rise of scalar politics.13年4月9日星期二
  12. Beijing’s water legacies ✤ Located in Northern China with Yongding river and Chaobai river ✤ Capital city of China from Qin Dynasty (1644-1912)13年4月9日星期二
  13. 1949-1970s ✤ Beijing dominant era ✤ Dams: Guanting and Miyung ✤ Wells: everywhere in the city ✤ Policy: Industrialized!!13年4月9日星期二
  14. 1980s-1990s ✤ Local competition era ✤ Rapid Industrialization ✤ Crowded Urbanization ✤ Water Pollution ✤ Water Shortages ✤ Fragmented Authoritarian13年4月9日星期二
  15. Fragmented Water Management System State Council of P.R. China Ministry of Water Ministry of Resources Environmental Protection ✤ Tiao-Kuai (條塊) Inter- 7 River Bansin governmental relation Commissions Provincial Governments ✤ No Water Law before 1980s Bureau of Bureau of Water Environmental Resources Protection ✤ Water Act promulgated 1988 City & County ✤ Water Pollution Amendment Governments Act amended in 1996 Bureau of Water Bureau of Resources Environmental Protection ✤ But local governments still compete to each other.13年4月9日星期二
  16. Water shortage crisis in Beijing ✤ In the late 1990s, seven consecutive years led Miyung and Guanting reservoirs’ storage had sharply shrunk. ✤ In the fragmented water management system, adjusted the water prices couldn’t solve the problem. ✤ But, Beijing government promotes FAB, TFT-LCD and even Olympic ✤ So, where is the CLEAN WATER?13年4月9日星期二
  17. Water consumption and Water resource in Beijing (Unit: One billion cubic meter) 60 45 30 15 0 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Water Consumption Water Resource13年4月9日星期二
  18. Water Consumption in Beijing (Unit: One billion cubic meter) 60 45 30 15 0 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Water Consumption Agricultural Irrigation Industrial Use Urban Domestic Use13年4月9日星期二
  19. The South-to-North Water Transfer Project ✤ 1952: Chairman Mao suggested ✤ 2002: the overall plan of the project began to take place ✤ There are EASTERN, CENTRAL, and (WESTERN) Routes ✤ Beijing is the terminal of the Central Routes13年4月9日星期二
  20. South-to-North Water Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
  21. Danjiangkou Dam13年4月9日星期二
  22. Beijing vs. Hebei: Urban vs. Rural ✤ Not just a water diversion project, but also a task to prevent water from environmental pollution. ✤ The Beijing government asks the farmers in Hebei: no more chemical pesticide, no more ecological harmful farming techniques, and reducing the farming area. ✤ Dead lock: poorly irrigation skill + national food security policy ✤ So the conflict still going...13年4月9日星期二
  23. Beijing vs. Water-Supply Provinces ✤ Immigration: in Henan and Hubei, 330,000 people have to move. ✤ Compensation: each person can get 600 RMB per year but hard to get job in the new place. ✤ Fiscal burden: for the local government, resettlement costs is too heavy and industrial development is forbidden. ✤ Ecological impact: not only to the water source area, but also along the canal and the downstream of Han River.13年4月9日星期二
  24. A new governance mechanism is emerging? ✤ Political, the “South-to-North Water Diversion Project Committee Office” was composed in 2003. ✤ Director: the Deputy Prime Minister of the State Council ✤ Members: Minister of the relevant ministries, the governors of the People’s Bank and the Development Bank, and the relevant provinces. ✤ Missions: Policy, Financing, Monitor, and Cooperation. ✤ Six Units at the Central level ✤ Project Construction Committees at the Local level13年4月9日星期二
  25. A new governance mechanism is emerging? ✤ Economical, three types of Company compose the market mechanism ✤ Water Transfer Company: state-owned company, invested by central government and relevant local governments with different ratio. ✤ Water Resources Company: invested by the water-supply province government, sell the water to the Water Transfer Company. ✤ Water Company: some state-owned some private, buy the water from the Water Transfer Company and sell it to the citizen.13年4月9日星期二
  26. A new governance mechanism is emerging? ✤ Ecological Compensation ✤ First one: the water-receiving areas should help the water-supply areas to solve its economic problem. ✤ Second one: the market-oriented compensation. Rise of Beijing water price to compensate water contribution areas. ✤ Beijing: provided 50 million RMB to Henan + signed economic cooperation agreement.13年4月9日星期二
  27. The Governance Mechanism of the South-to-NorthWater Transfer Project13年4月9日星期二
  28. Conclusion ✤ This paper argues that the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in fact has strengthened the Beijing-centered central-peripheral relation ✤ Such an “artificial water-shed” strengthen the injustice distribution of natural resources between Beijing and other inland areas. ✤ Beijing should re-orient its development path.13年4月9日星期二

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