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School training module six, using reinforcement in the classr


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School training module six, using reinforcement in the classr

  1. 1. The Basics of AutismSpectrum Disorders Training Series Regional Autism Advisory Council of Southwest Ohio (RAAC-SWO) RAAC Training Committee 2011
  2. 2. Training Series Modules Module One: Autism Defined, Autism Prevalence and Primary Characteristics Module Two: Physical Characteristics of Autism Module Three: Cognition and Learning in Autism Module Four: Getting the Student Ready to Learn Module Five: Structuring the Classroom Environment Module Six: Using Reinforcement in the Classroom
  3. 3. Training Series Modules Module Seven: Autism and Sensory Differences Module Eight: Sensory in the Classroom Module Nine: Communication and Autism Module Ten: Communication in the Classroom Module Eleven: Behavior Challenges and Autism Module Twelve: Understanding Behavior in Students with Autism
  4. 4. Training Series Modules Module Thirteen: Social Skills in the School Environment Module Fourteen: Functional Behavior Assessment Module Fifteen: Working Together as a Team Module Sixteen: Autism and Leisure Skills to Teach Module Seventeen: Special Issues of Adolescence Module Eighteen: Safety and Autism Module Nineteen: Special Issues: High School, Transition, and Job Readiness
  5. 5. Training Series Modules Module Twenty: Asperger Syndrome: Managing and Organizing the Environment Module Twenty-One: Asperger Syndrome: Addressing Social Skills
  6. 6. A Few Key Points Reinforcement is anything that comes after a behavior that increases the likelihood the behavior will occur again. If you want to change someone else’s behavior, first change your own. If challenging behaviors exist, two things must occur  Adapt the environment  Teach AND REINFORCE new skills
  7. 7. Strategies for Increasing Reinforcement
  8. 8. Make itrewarding!
  9. 9. So what do we reinforce, and how do we reinforce it?
  10. 10. Its about the bells and whistlesCelebration!Great job!Way to go!Woohoo!!!!
  11. 11. What are we reinforcing? New skills – reinforce with high rate (a lot of reinforcement with high frequency) for new or desired behaviors. Maintenance – use a variable rate (less often and not every time the behavior happens) Practice – use a variable rate Prompted behavior – high rate, smaller amount (reinforce often but do not use a large amount of the reinforcer)
  12. 12. What are we not reinforcing?Danger, danger!We do not reinforce behaviorswe wish to extinguish (get rid of)!Remember, timeout and reprimands are a reinforcers for some! Turn those “rewards” and “reinforcers” around –
  13. 13. We know the ”what” of reinforcement…so how do we reinforce it?
  14. 14. If you’ve metone childwith Autism… You’ve met one child! The same holds true for reinforcers – they are very individual. One size does not fit all.
  15. 15. Where to start? Assessment! Know your student! Begin with a list of:1. likes,2. LOVE IT3. GOTTA HAVE IT NOW!!!4. and dislikes
  16. 16. Test for preferencesConsider your student’s special interests – String Ripping paper Sponge Bob Disney trivia cookies
  17. 17. Test for new preferences
  18. 18. Big Idea The reinforcer must be reinforcing to thestudent for it to work. Some students need avariety of reinforcers to keep their interest and motivation moving, and they may change reinforcers frequently.
  19. 19. Tantalize and Tempt Make it something to want. Make it visually accessible, or something that they can see. Make it a reward.
  20. 20. Tantalize and TemptHow?Container with a lidPut item up highor out of reachHide item –use picture icon
  21. 21. How to remove the reinforcer to keep them working“my turn”Food items – only offer small bites
  22. 22. How to keep them workingEarning pieces to get rewards - Token or coin system 1,2,3 Puzzle pieces to favorite puzzle
  23. 23. Try a timer
  24. 24. Use what you have Computer time Reading corner TV time Swing Music Puzzles
  25. 25. Use what you have People rewards Home rewards (agreed upon with parents) Free time Coloring Painting Playdough Quiet time Computer time
  26. 26. Use “stims” “Love to jump?” Finish this task and you can jump!
  27. 27. Speaking of jump… Don’t make them jump through hoops. Make your goals reasonable and your reinforcement powerful.
  28. 28. Preference choice board Using pictures or boardmaker symbolsChoice of activity, treat or song
  29. 29. Additional thoughts…Don’t put all your eggs in one basket –Reserve some reinforcers and alternate to retain effectiveness Always have a backup plan – Assess, assess, assess!
  30. 30. Good places to shop/look Dollar tree Fast food prizes in kid meals Family Look to your classroom Check your junk drawer Goodwill, second hand stores
  31. 31. Big Idea If the student never earns the reinforcer, the system isn’t working… to build any new skillindividual’s need LOTS AND LOTS of reinforcement all day long.