Rome in the Golden Age <ul><li>Pax Romana </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Praetorian Guard </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Public Baths </li></ul><ul><li>Roads and Aqueducts </li></ul><ul><li>Religion in the Golden Age </li></ul><ul><li>Pompeii </li></ul>
The Pax Romana The two centuries from the reign of Augustus until the death of Marcus Aurelius are known as the Golden Age of Rome, or the Pax Romana (Roman Peace). Market in Pompeii , by Antonio Niccolini Although there were rebellions and wars of conquest in this period, the core of the empire enjoyed peace and prosperity.
The Roman Emperor <ul><li>In ancient Rome, there was no such title or office as “emperor.” </li></ul><ul><li>The term “Roman emperor” is a convenient term to describe the single man who, from Augustus on, had all of the power that had been shared by many officers in the Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors used a number of titles: Imperator (commander), princeps ( first senator), augustus (venerable), and caesar. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Praetorian Guard </li></ul><ul><li>Created during the late Republic, it was an elite squad assigned to guard the commander’s tent. </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus transformed the Guard into the emperor’s private army, which served as the police force in Rome and other Italian cities. </li></ul><ul><li>It had legionary strength. A third of its members were stationed in Rome, where they dressed as civilians but carried weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the Guard were paid 50% more than legionaries of comparable rank. </li></ul>In modern times, the term has been used to describe an elite military force protecting a dictator.
<ul><li>The Praetorian Guard was an important force in the Principate. It could put an emperor in office, keep him there, or get rid of him. </li></ul><ul><li>The Guard was weakened by Diocletian and eliminated by Constantine in the early 4 th century. </li></ul>Praetorian Guard hails Claudius as emperor.
Architecture <ul><li>In imperial Rome, architecture was a form of propaganda. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the empire, great buildings, public and private, were a testament to the glory and importance of Rome and the emperor. </li></ul>As with military organization and weaponry, in architecture the Romans were great innovators. Arches, columns, domes and concrete, known and used by others, became something new and different in Roman hands.
The Pantheon, one of Rome’s most famous buildings
While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand; When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall; And when Rome falls - the world. - Lord Byron, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage The Colosseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, was the largest amphitheater ever built in the Roman Empire. It held 50,000 spectators.
Construction began around 70 under Vespasian and was completed in 80 under Titus. It remained in use for 500 years.
The Colosseum was used for gladiator games and other public spectacles, including mock naval battles, for which it could be filled with water piped from the Tiber River.
Artist’s reconstruction of the Roman Forum in the Golden Age
Baths of Caracalla Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1899 Public Bathing in Ancient Rome Public bathing was an important part of Roman social life in the Golden Age.
A visit to the baths was a part of daily life for Romans. The baths were a place to relax and meet with friends. Women and men of all classes used the public baths. Sometimes there were separate facilities or hours for women; sometimes men and women bathed together.
A trip to the baths would include exercise to work up a sweat, a soak in warm, hot and cool pools, and a cleansing massage with a strigil ( pictured ) which was used to scrape off aromatic oils and accumulated dirt. The Romans did not use soap.
<ul><li>Roman baths ranged from small privately managed facilities to large public complexes built and operated by the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Baths were found in every neighborhood of Rome, and in almost every Roman settlement throughout the empire. </li></ul>
Baths of Caracalla The Caracalla baths, the second-largest bath complex in ancient Rome, included two public libraries, one with texts in Greek and the other Latin.
Baths of Caracalla, engraving, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1720-1778)
Roads and Aqueducts Roman road in Pompeii Photo by Paul Vlaar Long straight roads, 53,000 miles of them, connected all parts of the Roman Empire to regional centers and the imperial capital in Rome.
<ul><li>The roads were used: </li></ul><ul><li>By legions to march quickly to where they were needed </li></ul><ul><li>To transport goods over great distances </li></ul><ul><li>By Romans to travel around the empire </li></ul><ul><li>The roads were built to last; some are still used today. </li></ul>Via Appia – The Appian Way
<ul><li>The roads were important for maintaining the stability of the empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Later, during the 5 th century as the empire collapsed, they were used by “barbarians” invading Roman provinces. </li></ul>Roman roads in Italy
The arcades of the Aqua Claudia with the Anio Novus on top, two of the aqueducts of Rome. (Constructed in 36-50 under Caligula and Claudius) Photo by Wilke Schram www.romanaqueducts.info
The Roman waterway system, which brought fresh water to private homes as well as public baths and fountains, was one of the engineering marvels of the ancient world. The Romans also developed indoor plumbing and sewers to carry waste away from homes. Clay pipes (lower right) tapped into Aqua Claudia Photo by Wilke Schram Aqueducts
<ul><li>Eleven water lines brought water to Rome from sources as far as 60 miles away. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the system was composed of underground pipes and tunnels, but when the pipes had to cross valleys, or as they approached the city, they were raised on spectacular arched aqueducts. </li></ul>Covered stone water channel, Germany Photo by Wilke Schram
The entire system was gravity-fed. Very subtle gradients maintained the flow of water. Occasionally, a system of pressurized pipe, called an inverted siphon, was used to push the water a short distance uphill. Roman aqueduct, ca. 19 BCE, Pont du Gard, France Similar aqueducts were constructed all over the empire. Some are still in use today.
Religion Romans worshipped their classical gods as well as past emperors, deified after death. Emperor worship - the cult of the emperor - became a unifying force in the empire. Temple of Augusta and Livia, Vienne, France. Erected by Claudius.
Emperor Marcus Aurelius offers a sacrifice Animals being led to sacrifice
Foreign Gods and Cults Mithras Isis Cults from the east became popular in Rome. Mithras came to Rome from Persia, through Greece. Isis, a goddess of Egypt, was also popular in Rome. Many other “mystery cults” were popular in the empire.
<ul><li>Jews were a large religious minority in the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to their kingdom of Judaea, there were many Jews in Egypt, Syria, and Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a Jewish community in Rome from at least the 2 nd century BCE . </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar and Augustus passed laws protecting the rights of Jews in Rome. </li></ul>Jews in the Empire Josephus was a Jewish military leader who was captured by the Romans. He wrote a history of the Jewish-Roman War of 66-73.
<ul><li>Judaea had been a Roman ally since the 2 nd century BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>It became a province in 6 CE. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews were usually treated with toleration and respect, but not always. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Caligula insisted on placing a statue of himself in the temple at Jerusalem. Although he was killed before he could do so, he created resentment. </li></ul><ul><li>In 66, a local conflict erupted into a major rebellion that lasted until 73. The Jews were defeated. Jewish deaths in the rebellion are estimated to have been between 600,000 and 1.3 million; 100,000 Jews were taken as slaves to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The temple at Jerusalem was destroyed. </li></ul>
<ul><li>960 Jewish rebels made their last stand at the hilltop fortress of Masada. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman siege of Masada is one of the most famous examples of siege warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>15,000 Roman soldiers surrounded the fortress, preventing supplies from getting in. They constructed a massive ramp to assault the rebels on the hilltop. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than face capture, the rebels committed mass suicide. </li></ul>Masada and ruins on summit “ From one end of Galilee to the other there was an orgy of fire and bloodshed." - Josephus, Jewish historian
Titus, military commander in Judaea and later emperor, condemned 2,500 Jews to fight wild beasts in the amphitheater at Caesarea in celebration of his brother Domitan's birthday. Coin issued by Jewish rebels during the Roman-Jewish War
Early Christianity <ul><li>Christianity began as a small cult – one of many – which grew in Palestine after the crucifixion of the Jewish teacher, Jesus of Nazareth. </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of Christians developed around the Mediterranean. Many Christians differed widely on theory and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity drew a following among the poor and uneducated. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire was generally tolerant of religious practices, but Christians’ refusal to participate in official religious celebrations, and their practice of meeting in secret, drew public suspicion. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Christianity grew slowly in the 1 st and 2 nd centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>There were occasional episodes of persecution, as when Nero blamed Christians for the Great Fire of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity spread more rapidly in the 3 rd century, along with political and economic disruption. </li></ul><ul><li>The persecution of Christians also increased in the 3 rd century crisis. </li></ul>Spread of Christianity to 325 CE Spread of Christianity to 600 CE
Pompeii, a city in southern Italy near Naples, was founded in the 6 th century BCE . It was destroyed on August 24, 79 CE , when Mt. Vesuvius erupted, burying the city under several feet of ash and rock. Pompeii, buried in the explosion, was abandoned and forgotten. Pompeii Computer-generated depiction of the eruption of Vesuvius (by the BBC)
Pompeii was rediscovered in 1748. Excavations have exposed a well-preserved Roman city from the Golden Age. Ruins of Pompeii Photos by Robert Curtis Rossetti
Rome and the Ancient World Slide 4 Roman Republic Slide 31 Roman Expansion/Punic Wars Slide 46 Roman Society in the Republic Slide 82 The Roman Revolution Slide 126 The Principate Slide 159 Rome in the Golden Age Slide 191 Third Century Crisis Slide 229 The Dominate Slide 244 Late Antiquity Slide 257 Legacy of Rome Slide 282 Table of Contents Below you will find the Table of Contents for the Ancient Rome PowerPoint. If you are connected to the internet, click on the link below to go directly to the Ancient Rome page: Ancient Rome PowerPoint