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The Science Behind Beer


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The Science Behind Beer

  3. 3. BEER MEASUREMENTS - STRENGTH <ul><li>The Plato scale is an empirically derived hydrometer scale to measure density of beer wort in terms of percentage of extract by weight. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scale expresses the density as the percentage of sucrose by weight, so a wort measured at 12° Plato has the same density as a water−sucrose solution containing 12% sucrose by weight, denoted as 12% Brix. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was developed in 1843 by Bohemian scientist Karl Balling, and improved by German Fritz Plato. For the brewer, it has an advantage over specific gravity in that it expresses the measurement in terms of the amount of fermentable materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degrees Plato are more popular in central European brewing, and occasionally feature in beer names—some Slovak or Czech breweries feature 10° and 12° versions of their beers, for instance. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. BEER MEASUREMENTS - COLOR <ul><li>Degrees Lovibond or °L </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degrees Lovibond has fallen out of industry use but has remained in use in homebrewing circles as the easiest to implement without a spectrophotometer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard Reference Method or SRM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The method involves the use of a spectrophotometer or photometer to measure the attenuation of light of a particular wavelength, 430 nanometers, as it passes through a sample contained in a cuvette located in the light path of the instrument. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. BEER CHEMISTRY <ul><li>Terpenes are chemical components that contribute to the scent of beer and are responsible for the spicy character of hops. Researchers in Australia and New Zealand determined the main ones are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geraniol , which is named after geranium flowers and obviously has a floral scent.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linalool , has a floral and spicy scent. It is also found in mint, cinnamon, and rosewood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eugeneol has a spicy, clove-like aroma. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta-ionone has a complex woody and fruity scent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caryophyllene is found in black pepper. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. BEER STEIN OF SCIENCE <ul><li>by funrarium </li></ul><ul><li>$250.00 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>“ I've made this stein using a bench top dewar flask because the former croygenics technician in me won't let me use an inferior quality dewar. I've found dewars still holding good vacuum after 30 years. This is, for all intents and purposes, the very best thermos you're ever going to find. It is quite common to fill these with liquid nitrogen, let it sit on the lab bench, and when you come back three days later there will still be liquid nitrogen in it. </li></ul><ul><li>Now imagine what it can do for beer.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. BEER MAKING <ul><li>Wort, pronounced /ˈwɜrt/, is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky. Wort contains the sugars that will be fermented by the brewing yeast to produce alcohol. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first step in wort production is to make malt from dried, sprouted barley. Grain adjuncts are then added and the malt is ground into grist. In beer making, the wort is known as &quot;sweet wort&quot; until the hops have been added, after which it is then called &quot;hopped wort.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. BEER MAKING <ul><li>In brewing and distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of milled grain (typically malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn, sorghum, rye or wheat), known as the &quot;grain bill&quot;, and water, known as &quot;liquor&quot;, and heating this mixture. Mashing allows the enzymes in the malt to break down the starch in the grain into sugars, typically maltose to create a malty liquid called wort. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two main methods - infusion mashing, in which the grains are heated in one vessel; and decoction mashing, in which a proportion of the grains are boiled and then returned to the mash, raising the temperature.[2] Mashing involves pauses at certain temperatures (notably 45 °C, 62 °C and 73 °C), and takes place in a &quot;mash tun&quot; - an insulated brewing vessel with a false bottom.[3][4][5] The end product of mashing is called a &quot;mash&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Each particular ingredient has its own flavor which contributes to the final character of the beverage. In addition, different ingredients carry other characteristics, not directly relating to the flavor, which may dictate some of the choices made in brewing: nitrogen content, diastatic power, color, modification, and conversion. </li></ul>
  9. 9. BEER MAKING <ul><ul><ul><li>Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate by soaking in water [1] and are then quickly halted from germinating further by drying with hot air. [2] [3] [4] Malting grains develops the enzymes that are required to modify the grain's starches into sugars including monosaccharides such as glucose or fructose , and disaccharides such as sucrose or maltose . It also develops other enzymes, such as proteases, which break down the proteins in the grain into forms which can be utilized by yeast. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. BEER SCIENCE <ul><li>The nitrogen content of a grain refers to the mass fraction of the grain which is made up of protein , and is usually expressed as a percentage ; this fraction is further refined by distinguishing what fraction of the protein is water-soluble , also usually expressed as a percentage; 40% is typical for most beermaking grains. Generally, brewers favor lower-nitrogen grains, while distillers favor high-nitrogen grains. </li></ul><ul><li>The diastatic power (DP), also called the &quot;diastatic activity&quot; or &quot;enzymatic power&quot;, of a grain generally refers only to malts , grains which have begun to germinate ; the act of germination includes the production of a number of enzymes such as amylase which convert starch into sugar; thereby, sugars can be extracted from the barley's own starches simply by soaking the grain in water at a controlled temperature: this is mashing. Other enzymes break long proteins into short ones and accomplish other important tasks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastatic power for a grain is measured in degrees Lintner ( °Lintner or °L, although the latter can conflict with the symbol °L for Lovibond color); or in Europe by Windisch-Kolbach units (°WK). The two measures are related by </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Jon602 on
  12. 12. SWISS BEER <ul><li>Beer-making in the Appenzeller region dates to 1728, and popular local brews include Vollmond (full moon), Weizen (wheat), or Hanfblüte (hempflower). </li></ul><ul><li>Top off the day with some powerful Appenzeller Alpenbitter, with its 29% alcohol content, made with 42 secret herbs. Only 2 people know the secret recipe! </li></ul><ul><li>Also, when you toast be sure to look others in the eye or be considered rude. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 13. SWISS BEER <ul><li>BIRRIFICIO TICINESE BAD ATTITUDE HOBO </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st canned craft beer to be available in Italy and Switzerland. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s produced in Stabio, a small town in Swiss canton of Ticino on the Italian border. </li></ul>“ Cans are more practical and can be carried to places where glass is forbidden. Furthermore, craft beer in cans has also a very strong environmental quality that makes it cheaper, lighter and more easily recyclable, and contributes to reduce our carbon footprint in many ways.” Alessandra Modignani, Bad Attitude
  14. 14. SWISS BEER <ul><li>Schützengarten beer from St Gallen </li></ul>
  15. 15. SWISS BEER <ul><li>Jérôme Rebetez has been making different beers in his small brewery in the Jura hills for 13 years. One of his creations, l'Abbaye de Saint Bon-Chien , now has fans in the United States. In 2009 one New York Times journalist rated it one of the best beers in the world! </li></ul><ul><li>It’s an unfiltered, unpasteurized, limited-edition ale brewed by Brasserie des Franches-Montagnes in Switzerland. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Spuyten Duyvil 359 Metropolitan Ave., at Havemeyer St., Williamsburg 718-963-4140 Story: The place for beer geeks, with an impressive range of imported brews, from Switzerland’s sour, sage-flavored La Meule to a smoky Bavarian Schlenkerla Helles or Belgium’s funky, citrusy Fantôme Saison. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  17. 17. BEER GODDESS <ul><li>Ninkasi was the Sumerian goddess of beer and brew maker to the gods. In those times, beer making was the exclusive domain of women. </li></ul>
  18. 18. HYMN TO BEER <ul><li>You are the one who bakes the bappir </li></ul><ul><li>in the big oven, </li></ul><ul><li>Puts in order the piles of hulled grains, </li></ul><ul><li>Ninkasi, you are the one who bakes </li></ul><ul><li>the bappir in the big oven </li></ul><ul><li>You are the one who soaks the malt in a jar </li></ul><ul><li>The waves rise, the waves fall. </li></ul><ul><li>Ninkasi, you are the one who soaks </li></ul><ul><li>the malt in a jar </li></ul>
  19. 19. BEER HISTORY <ul><li>The earliest known chemical evidence of beer dates to circa 3500–3100 BC from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran . </li></ul><ul><li>^ &quot;Earliest Known Chemical Evidence of Beer&quot; . University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology . . Retrieved 4 November 2007. </li></ul>
  21. 21. BEER TECHNO-HISTORY <ul><li>The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, and greater knowledge of the results. </li></ul>
  22. 22. WORLD'S LARGEST BREWER <ul><li>Anheuser-Busch InBev NV, now based in Belgium, is the world’s largest brewer. </li></ul><ul><li>AB InBev markets more than 200 beer brands worldwide and has about 25% market share. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  23. 23. BEER BREWING SCHOLARSHIP <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The American Brewers Guild is now accepting applications for the Glen Hay Falconer Foundation slot in the Intensive Brewing Science & Engineering course that runs from Jan. (2011) through July 1, with the final week of onsite instruction in Sacramento, Calif. The full application must be received no later than Nov. 11, </li></ul><ul><li>The scholarship is open to professional brewers and homebrewers from the states of Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Hawaii and California’s northern geographic region (San Francisco/Monterey Bay areas and north). The full-tuition scholarship also includes a $500 stipend to help offset travel and lodging expenses for the residential week. Full details and scholarship applications are available at . </li></ul><ul><li>The course is designed for brewers and homebrewers who lack formal training in brewing science and covers all the fundamentals of beer production and quality assurance. </li></ul><ul><li>The scholarship is co-sponsored by ABG and the Glen Hay Falconer Foundation, a non-profit organization created to commemorate and celebrate the life, interests, and good works of a well-loved and leading Northwest brewer who died and untimely death in 2002. </li></ul>
  24. 24. BEER HEALTH <ul><li>Beer contains significant amounts of magnesium , selenium , potassium , phosphorus , biotin , and is chock full of B vitamins . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  25. 25. BEER HEALTH <ul><li>Alcohol destroys Vitamin C and Vitamin B complex. Drinking beer that has not filtered out the Vitamin B (such as English &quot;real ale,&quot; many microbrewed beers and homebrew) will help combat the effects of alcohol — most notably a hangover. </li></ul>
  26. 26. BEER EDUCATION <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>-the video is nice and science-y </li></ul>
  27. 27. BEER DIET <ul><li>1 x = 150 calories </li></ul><ul><li>7 x = 1,000 calories/week </li></ul><ul><li>30 min. x = 150 calories burned </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  28. 28. “ SWISS” BEER IN AMERICA <ul><li>New Glarus Brewing Co. is located in New Glarus, Wisconsin a.k.a. America’s “Little Switzerland.” New Glarus was originally settled by Swiss immigrants from the Canton of Glarus in 1845 and retains a strong Swiss flavor to this day. </li></ul><ul><li>New Glarus Brewing Co. products are available exclusively in Wisconsin, but that didn’t stop them from being honored on the Inc. 500/5000 list – for the 4 th year in a row! </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. “ SWISS” BEER IN AMERICA <ul><li>Minhas Craft Brewery is the 10th largest brewery in America. Located in the quaint Swiss town of Monroe,Wisconsin a.ka. the &quot;Swiss Cheese Capital of the U.S.A.&quot; The brewery has been located downtown since 1845. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  30. 30. SWISS “BEER” IN AMERICA <ul><li>The Swiss businessman and Napa resident Donald Hess is well known for his Hess Collection wines but did you know that he is descended from three generations of beer brewers? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  31. 31. BEER IN SWITZERLAND <ul><li>La Dragone is a Swiss spice ale made to be drunk at 167 degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>La Dragonne does not have any carbonation and is to be enjoyed only hot to enjoy the intensity and balance of all flavors & aromas. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 32. BEER IN SWITZERLAND <ul><li>Monstein, Switzerland is home to the world’s highest altitude brewing. </li></ul><ul><li>Brewing at 1,600 metres above sea level meant installing a special kettle to account for the difference in atmospheric pressure, which makes water boil at a lower temperature, and finding yeast that would work in the thinner air. </li></ul>
  33. 33. BEER IN SWITZERLAND <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  34. 34. BEER LINGUISTICS <ul><li>beer /bɪər/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– noun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. an alcoholic beverage made by brewing and fermentation from cereals, usually malted barley, and flavored with hops and the like for a slightly bitter taste. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. any of various beverages, whether alcoholic or not, made from roots, molasses or sugar, yeast, etc.: root beer; ginger beer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. an individual serving of beer; a glass, can, or bottle of beer: We'll have three beers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>from O.E. beor, from W.Ger. monastic borrowing of V.L. biber &quot;a drink, beverage&quot; (from L. infinitive bibere &quot;to drink;&quot; see imbibe ) </li></ul>
  35. 35. BEER IN TRANSLATION <ul><li>German: bier </li></ul><ul><li>French: bière </li></ul><ul><li>Italian: birra </li></ul><ul><li>Romansch: biera </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish: cerveza </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese: cerveja </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese: 啤酒 </li></ul><ul><li>Hindi: बियर </li></ul><ul><li>Russian: пиво </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic: بيرة </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese: ビール </li></ul>
  36. 36. BEER QUOTES <ul><li>“ You can’t be a real country unless you have a BEER and an airline…It helps if you have some kind of a football team or some nuclear weapons, but at the very least you need a beer.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Frank Zappa </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  37. 37. BEER QUOTES <ul><li>“ [Beer is] proof that God loves us and loves to see us happy.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Benjamin Franklin* </li></ul><ul><li>*he was an atheist and was actually talking about wine though the quote persists… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Behold the rain which descends from heaven upon our vineyards; there it enters the roots of the vines, to be changed into wine; a constant proof that God loves us, and loves to see us happy.” </li></ul>
  38. 38. BEER QUOTES <ul><li>“ A fine beer may be judged with only one sip, but it's better to be thoroughly sure.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Czech proverb </li></ul>
  39. 39. BEER QUOTES <ul><li>“ Beer does not make itself properly by itself. It takes an element of mystery and of things that no one can understand.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Fritz Maytag </li></ul>
  40. 40. BEER QUOTES <ul><li>&quot;Make sure that the beer - four pints a week - goes to the troops under fire before any of the parties in the rear get a drop.&quot; -Winston Churchill to his Secretary of War, 1944 </li></ul>
  41. 41. BEER QUOTES <ul><li>“ Filled with mingled cream and amber I will drain that glass again. Such hilarious visions clamber Through the chambers of my brain –Quaintest thoughts– queerest fancies Come to life and fade away; Who cares how time advances? I am drinking ale today.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Edgar Allen Poe </li></ul>
  42. 42. WORLD’S STRONGEST & MOST EXPENSIVE BEER “ THE END OF HISTORY” by Brewdog 55% alcohol stoat GBP500 grey squirrel GBP700