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The Psychology of Energy Conservation: Are You Smarter Than A Refrigerator?

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The Psychology of Energy Conservation: Are You Smarter Than A Refrigerator?

  1. 1. Stanford ARPA-E Initiative: Energy Reductions Through Sensors, Feedback, & Information Technology June A. Flora Precourt Energy Efficiency Center Principal Investigator: Byron Reeves Department of Communication Project Director: Carrie Armel Precourt Energy Efficiency Center
  2. 2. <ul><li>Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First FOA: 3,700 applications  37 awards (1 behavioral) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford theme: “Leveraging wireless energy sensors with behavioral science methods to maximize energy savings” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: 2 years beginning April 1, 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 faculty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 departments, 5 schools, 5 centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30+ students </li></ul></ul>Design for Change Lab Stanford ARPA-E Initiative: Energy Reductions Through Sensors, Feedback, & Information Technology Precourt Energy Efficiency Center Stanford Prevention Research Center Center for Integrated Facility Engineering Human Sciences and Technologies Advanced Research Institute
  3. 3. The opportunity <ul><li>A 10% reduction in energy use will lower the quantity of fossil fuels consumed and CO2 emissions produced by an amount roughly equal to a 25-fold increase in wind plus solar power, or a doubling of nuclear power (Sweeney, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the opportunity involves behavior change </li></ul>
  4. 4. The problem <ul><li>Billions spent gathering information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart sensors and infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tons of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But energy efficiency information is often dull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart sensors alone will not change behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex User Interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems are distant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback separated from behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What I get” not obvious (even $) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior change requires user engagement with energy information, skills to change, and motivation to maintain </li></ul>
  5. 5. The behaviors <ul><li>Eliminate wasted energy </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase, install, and properly use technology </li></ul><ul><li>Use settings & controls </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of energy using appliances </li></ul><ul><li>New behaviors that are lower energy </li></ul><ul><li>Increase repeat behaviors </li></ul>
  6. 6. Integration of components Energy sensors (Smart meters Home Area Networks (HAN) + Web enabled computers and mobile devices + Feedback (visualization, informative, interactive, fun, normative) + Behavior Change Interventions (Games, incentives, competitions, curricula) Utility Company Central Server Household Energy Reduction
  7. 7. <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Girl Scouts </li></ul><ul><li>Retrofit Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplayer Game </li></ul><ul><li>Video Vignettes </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop Dashboard Gadget </li></ul><ul><li>Phone apps </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors & Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Computational Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Related Analytics </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Cutting Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Computer infrastructure for prototyping & analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Foundational work to inform interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale engineering & economic modeling </li></ul>The Plan: Complementary Interventions <ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Novel Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Nudges to Purchase </li></ul><ul><li>EE Appliances </li></ul>
  8. 8. The scaleable b enefits <ul><li>Reduce residential & SMB energy use: </li></ul><ul><li>Use quantification to enable: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback – personal and social </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data visualization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Refine sensor hardware and communication protocols </li></ul><ul><li>3. Develop programs: Create best practices with unprecedented speed, ease, cost, and scale </li></ul><ul><li>4. Transform evaluation : Ability to rapidly assess program efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>5. Improve economic and energy models to inform policy </li></ul>

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