Rebuilding After Disaster - Elizabeth Hausler

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  • Build Change draft resource on improved locally available building technology – confined concrete block masonry
  • Rebuilding After Disaster - Elizabeth Hausler

    1. 1. Build ChangeSafe, Satisfactory, and Sustainable Housing Reconstruction After Earthquakes <br />
    2. 2. Build Change <br />US 501(c)3 non-profit social enterprise, HQ in Denver, CO, USA <br />founded in 2004 by Elizabeth Hausler, a brick mason and Ph.D. earthquake engineer from University of California, Berkeley<br />Mission: Greatly reduce deaths, injuries and economic losses caused by housing collapses due to earthquakes in emerging nations<br />Build Earthquake-Resistant Houses<br />Change Construction Practice Permanently <br />
    3. 3. Impacts to Date <br /><ul><li>Programs in Indonesia, China and Haiti
    4. 4. Improved over 6,400 permanent houses and 11,350 transitional houses
    5. 5. 72,000 people living in houses improved by Build Change, unlikely to collapse in the next earthquake
    6. 6. 4,000 builders, homeowners, students, engineers, government officials trained
    7. 7. Building guidelines, implementation models being used in Indonesia and China and adopted by local governments </li></li></ul><li>2001 Gujarat, India<br />Over 20,000 Dead<br />215,229 Houses Destroyed<br />
    8. 8. Safe?<br />Difficult to integrate extension into structural system<br />1993 Killari, Maharashtra, India Earthquake, Donor-Driven<br />
    9. 9. Culturally Appropriate?<br />Dome house has poor air circulation, low natural light, and difficult to divide interior space. Homeowners extended using old methods; opportunity to train on better methods was missed. <br />1993 Killari, Maharashtra, India Earthquake, Donor-Driven<br />
    10. 10. Secure?<br />Homeowners sleep outside house, 10 years after earthquake, because they were not involved in supervising construction, and don’t trust structure is earthquake-resistant<br />1993 Killari, Maharashtra, India Earthquake, Donor-Driven<br />
    11. 11. GUJARAT Homeowner-Driven<br />Homeowners given options <br />Rebuild themselves (usually by hiring local small-scale builders) with a cash grant in installments and third party technical assistance from government (homeowner-driven), or <br />Partner with an NGO to rebuild house (donor-driven) <br />77% chose homeowner-driven approach. <br />
    12. 12. GUJARAT Homeowner-Driven<br />Empowering Homeowner to Choose<br />Structural System<br />Architecture and Layout<br />And Demand<br />Good Construction Quality<br />Leads to <br />Safety and Security<br />Ownership and Buy In<br />Resource Conservation<br />Better Construction Practices<br />
    13. 13. GUJARAT Donor-Driven<br />Healthy & Hygienic?<br />Climate is too hot for home designed with small windows and low floor to ceiling height<br />Appropriate for Climate?<br />Resources Conserved?<br />Award-winning house designs, unoccupied due to lack of infrastructure<br />Homeowner prefers toilet outside, donor put toilet inside <br />
    14. 14. Alternative and Introduced Technologies <br />Cement-stabilized interlocking earth blocks and rammed earth<br />Did not take off in private sector due to<br />High capital cost of equipment <br />Lack of skill among entrepreneurs and builders<br />Lack of demand by homeowners due to cost, cultural appropriateness, familiarity, and quality control issues<br />Pre-cast concrete roofing systems<br />
    15. 15. Housing Reconstruction is Development<br />And like any development challenge, it comes down to money, technology and people<br />TECHNOLOGY<br /> Earthquake-resistant construction will become common if the right technology is widely known, locally available, and culturally accepted. <br />MONEY<br /> If the technology is too expensive, people will not use it. Homeowners need sufficient funds to build a safe house. <br />PEOPLE<br /> Someone has to want the house to be earthquake-resistant: homeowner, government official, relief agency, or donor. <br />
    16. 16. Design Criteria for the House Itself <br />And like any development challenge, it comes down to money, technology and people<br />Technical<br />+Earthquake resistant design<br />+Earthquake resistant construction<br />+Expandable with local materials<br />+Durable<br />+Resistant to other disasters <br />Economic<br />Social<br />+Climatically appropriate<br />+Culturally appropriate<br />+Satisfactory architecture<br />+Satisfactory features<br />+Maintainable<br />+People trust the structure is earthquake-resistant<br />+Resources conserved<br />+Competitive in cost with local, common building methods<br />+Skills and materials available through local private sector<br />
    17. 17. Build Change Programs in Indonesia <br />(1) After 2004 Aceh Tsunami 3/2005 – 12/2007<br />(2) After 2007 West Sumatra and Bengkulu Earthquakes 1/2008 – 9/30/2009<br />(3) After 2009 West Sumatra Earthquakes 9/30/2009 - now<br />2007 Bengkulu EQ<br />2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami<br />2007 West Sumatra EQ<br />
    18. 18. BUILD EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT HOUSES<br />PILOT PROJECTS: built 33 earthquake-resistant houses in partnerships with local builders<br />
    19. 19. Earthquake-Resistant Confined Masonry <br />House for Aceh, Indonesia<br />WINNER<br />2006 Excellence in Structural Engineering Award<br />Structural Engineers Association of Northern California<br />Traditional Acehnese timber in the gable<br />Lightweight roof cover on timber truss connected to the walls<br />Simple, square, symmetric layout<br />Reinforced concrete tie columns and bond beams “confine” the masonry wall together<br />Steel reinforcement in between the bricks, connects the walls to the columns<br />Masonry wall built with locally available, good quality materials and workmanship<br />Good quality steel tied together<br />
    20. 20. Confined Masonry Can Be Dangerous if Designed and Built Poorly <br />TOTAL LOSS <br />2006 Central Java Earthquake <br />Homeowner must tear down and rebuild<br />Heavy masonry gable<br />Heavy clay tiles<br />Very tall, slender walls with gable, with overturning failure<br />Weak masonry without reinforcement , lintel beam, or connection to tie column<br />Poor, weak connections between tie columns and bond beams<br />
    21. 21. SCALE through Implementing Agencies<br />Improved design/construction of over 4,200 homes<br />Design Engineering<br />Construction Supervision<br />Staff and Builder Training<br />
    22. 22. Construction Quality Issues <br />House Built by<br />House Built by Others<br />(RumahKamaruzzaman, IMG_5294)<br />
    23. 23. Construction Quality Issues <br />House Built by<br />House Built by Others<br />(RumahRuslan AB, IMG_5036)<br />
    24. 24. TRAIN LOCAL BUILDERS<br />trained 300 builders to build earthquake-resistant houses using seminars and hands-on training during construction<br />
    25. 25. TRAIN TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS<br />trained 400 technical high school students to design and build earthquake-resistant houses, students increased their test scores by 20-50%<br />
    26. 26. West Sumatra and Bengkulu, After 2007 Earthquakes<br />Build Change provided hands-on technical assistance directly to homeowners and builders – no money or materials (just information and hands-on training) <br />Result: over 655 families built back better using this higher impact, lower cost per impact model <br />Build Change Staff<br />Build Change Staff<br />Mason<br />Carpenter<br />
    27. 27. Another Earthquake In West Sumatra<br />September 30, 2009 <br />Over 1,100 killed<br />Over 135,000 houses collapsed or heavily damaged<br />NO DAMAGE to houses built to Build Change minimum standard<br />SUSTAINABLE CHANGE in CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE – new homeowners built with same techniques Build Change promoted, after Build Change left the village<br />SYSTEM CHANGE – government now using Build Change model of deploying trained technical facilitators to provide hands-on technical assistance <br />
    28. 28. Overall Cost Per House <br />West Sumatra: US$3,000 - $8,000<br />Includes government grant, homeowners own funds, reused materials such as timber, window and door frames, Build Change technical assistance. Theft and loss is less when homeowners control the funds. Plus, they build only what they need. <br />Aceh: US$12,000 - >$20,000<br />Includes donor-funded materials and labor, overheads, warehousing, construction management, quality control, retrofitting and rebuilding. <br />Homeowner-driven model stretches donor dollars further. <br />
    29. 29. Homeowner-Driven Reconstruction Takes Longer, Less Pretty <br />Homeowner-Driven House (Designed and built by home-owner with Build Change inputs)<br />--Less attractive, not always finished and painted <br />--Timeframe less predictable (depends on homeowner’s cash flow, holidays, farming schedule)<br />Donor-Driven House (Designed and built by Build Change in Aceh) <br />++Attractive for photos<br />++Timeframe from construction easier to control<br />
    30. 30. Build Change Partners with Relief Agencies <br />CARE International Indonesia<br />Catholic Relief Services<br />CHF International<br />Mercy Corps<br />Oxfam International GB<br />Save the Children <br />
    31. 31. Simple Messages on Safe Construction <br />
    32. 32. Build Change AWARDS and RECOGNITION<br />2008 Tech Awards Laureate and Winner of the Katherine M. Swanson Foundation Equality Category Cash Prize <br />Excellence in Structural Engineering award from Structural Engineers Association of Northern California, USA<br />ARUP, and international engineering firm, said the Build Change “design…combines seismic resilience with a high degree of buildability”<br />”Best in Aceh” from Indonesian academics and engineers <br />
    33. 33. Build Change in CHINA<br />2008 Sichuan Earthquake <br />
    34. 34. Build Change Six Step Model <br />Learn First  Technical and Market Research <br />Design Earthquake-Resistant Houses for Local Context<br />Build Local Capacity  Builders, Engineers, Construction Professionals <br />Stimulate Local Demand  Homeowners and Government Officials<br />Facilitate Access to Capital <br />Measure the Change <br />Visit www.buildchange.org for more info<br />
    35. 35. Step 1: Learn First  TECHNICAL RESEARCH<br />Why Did Buildings Survive? <br />And Why Did They Collapse?<br />
    36. 36. Step 1: Learn First  MARKET RESEARCH <br />What type of house do rural farmers want to build here, now?<br />Materials? Architecture? Size, layout, lifestyle, climate? Hazards? <br />What codes apply?<br />Who builds? With what skills/tools? <br />How much will it cost? <br />Who pays? How does money flow? <br />
    37. 37. Step 2. Design Earthquake-Resistant Houses<br />What regulations and building codes apply?<br />Seismic hazard? Other hazards (snow, wind)? <br />
    38. 38. Step 2. Design Earthquake-Resistant Houses<br />confined masonry is most common, designed per US and China Codes<br />
    39. 39. Step 2. Design Earthquake-Resistant Houses <br />Shear Wall Density, Maximum Wall Length <br />Locations of Tie Columns<br />Window, Door Locations<br />Roof Options<br />Simple Cost Estimates <br />Simple Rules to Apply to Any Layout<br />
    40. 40. Simple Methods for Checking Quality <br />Sand<br />Bricks<br />Sand with too much mud (just mix with water)<br />Clean Sand<br />Weak Brick<br />Strong Brick<br />
    41. 41. Step 3: Build Local Capacity <br />Hire and Mentor Local Construction Professionals<br />Provide Hands-on Training to Local Builders <br />
    42. 42. Step 4: Stimulate Local Demand (Homeowners) <br />Why Houses Collapse, and Simple Ways to Prevent <br />How To Sign a Good Contract and Read a Drawing<br />How to Check Materials and Construction Quality <br />
    43. 43. Step 4: Stimulate Local Demand (Homeowners) <br />Discuss Structure Type (Timber? Confined Masonry?) <br />Do Preferences Survey and Draw Layouts<br />Estimate Costs <br />Homeowners<br />Homeowners<br />Homeowners<br />Build Change Staff<br />Build Change Staff<br />Homeowner<br />Build Change Staff<br />
    44. 44. Xing Dayan <br />
    45. 45. Step 4: Stimulate Local Demand (Government Officials) <br />Build Change invited by Tumen Party Secretary to oversee/inspect houses, agreed on minimum standard<br />Streamline inspection system, government buy-in <br />
    46. 46. Marketing – Educational Materials <br />
    47. 47. Step 5: Facilitate Access to Capital <br />Not an issue in wealthier areas<br />Same challenge as in West Sumatra for poorer areas<br />
    48. 48. Build Change in HAITI<br />January 12, 2010 Haiti Earthquake<br />
    49. 49. SHIFT in APPROACH Homeowner-Driven Reconstruction Now Used in <br /> INDIA: Homeowner satisfaction, safety and sustainability higher after homeowner-driven reconstruction in Gujarat<br /> INDONESIA: After 2009 earthquake, Indonesian Government asked agencies NOT to rebuild houses using donor-driven model; asked agencies to provide funding directly to government (or homeowners), and provide technical assistance<br /> CHINA: Homeowner-driven dominant model for single family rural reconstruction <br /> HAITI ???<br />
    50. 50. Empower Homeowners with Cash + TA <br />Empower Haitians<br />Builders and residents near Leogane, already rebuilding better with their own funds, but need more information on safe construction.<br />
    51. 51. Build Change in HAITI<br />Learn First <br />Design – Design Criteria, Designs In Partnership with US, Haitian Engineers and MTPTC<br />Build Capacity – Hands-on Builders Training, Vocational Training with Local and Int’l Partners <br />Create Demand – Strategic Communications, Hands-on Technical Assistance <br />Facilitate Access to Capital – Advocating for Homeowner-Driven Reconstruction, with Incentives and Building Standard Enforcement <br />Measure the Change <br />
    52. 52. Use Local Skills, Materials, Tools <br />Much easier to make low or no-cost improvements to existing building methods than to introduce new ones <br />
    53. 53. REBUILD YOUR HOME SAFELY AND KEEP YOUR FAMILY SAFE FROM EARTHQUAKES AND HURRICANES!<br />QUALITY CONCRETE BLOCK CONFINED MASONRY<br />x<br />IN A CONFINED MASONRY HOUSE THE MASONRY WALLS ARE BUILT BEFORE THE REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS AND RING BEAMS ARE POURED.<br />BUILD THE WALL BEFORE POURING THE CONCRETE<br />MIX RATIOS:<br />CONCRETE BLOCK<br />1 PART PORTLAND CEMENT TO 6 PARTS <br />LIMESTONE SAND (AGGREGATE < 3/8”)<br />MORTAR<br />1 PART PORTLAND CEMENT TO 4 PARTS SAND<br />DON’T USE TOO MUCH WATER!<br />THE MASONRY WALLS CARRY LOAD AND ARE A CRITICAL PART OF THE STRUCTURE. THEY MUST BE MADE WITH GOOD WORKMANSHIP FROM HIGH QUALITY CONCRETE BLOCKS!<br />TOOTH THE MASONRY WALL OR USE BED JOINT REINFORCEMENT EVERY 3 LAYERS TO TIE THE MASONRY WALL TO THE COLUMN SO THEY CANNOT SEPARATE.<br />x<br />MAX WALL HEIGHT:<br />FOR 8” BLOCKS (RECOMMENDED), MAX WALL HEIGHT IS 12FT<br />FOR 6” BLOCKS (ONLY FOR SINGLE STORY BUILDING), MAX WALL HEIGHT IS 9FT<br />COVER YOUR WALL WITH PLASTER ON BOTH SIDES FOR ADDITIONAL STRENGTH!<br />A WELL-MADE WALL: GOOD QUALITY BLOCKS, STAGGERED BOND, EVEN AND COMPLETELY FILLED JOINTS, HOLLOW SIDE DOWN<br />DO NOT USE WEATHERED OR CRUMBLING BLOCKS! DO NOT REUSE OLD BLOCKS!<br />x<br />x<br />x<br />x<br />DO NOT ALIGN HEAD JOINTS! <br />USE STAGGERED BOND.<br />DO NOT MAKE MORTAR JOINTS TOO BIG! AVERAGE THICKNESS IS ½”<br />DO NOT USE BROKEN, OLD OR MISSHAPEN CONCRETE BLOCKS!<br />DO NOT LEAVE JOINTS UNFILLED! FILL THEM ENTIRELY WITH MORTAR.<br />
    54. 54. Simple Messages<br />
    55. 55. Homeowner Training Programs <br />
    56. 56. Homeowner Training Programs <br />Steel Reinforcement Detailing <br />
    57. 57. Build Change in HAITI<br />Learn First <br />Design – Design Criteria, Designs In Partnership with US, Haitian Engineers and MTPTC<br />Build Capacity – Hands-on Builders Training, Vocational Training with Local and Int’l Partners <br />Create Demand – Strategic Communications, Hands-on Technical Assistance <br />Facilitate Access to Capital – Advocating for Homeowner-Driven Reconstruction, with Incentives and Building Standard Enforcement <br />Measure the Change <br />
    58. 58. Indonesia (2010 – beyond) <br />Provide hands-on technical assistance during reconstruction following the Sept 30, 2009 earthquake<br />Train government facilitators <br />Train technical high school students <br />China (2010 – beyond) <br />Roll-out inspection system and train government officials<br />Train technical high school students <br /> Improve 50,000 houses in Indonesia, China and Haiti in next 3 years <br />
    59. 59. Thank You - Contact Us <br />Dr. Elizabeth Hausler, Founder + CEO<br />elizabeth@buildchange.org<br />www.buildchange.org<br />US Mobile: 1.415.235.9930<br />Haiti Mobile: +509-3702-8251<br />
    60. 60. Build Change Press <br />National Public Radio, All Things Considered, “Building Safer Homes Before the Next China Quake”<br />BBC Website, “Rebuilding China’s Quake-Hit Zone”<br />Christian Science Monitor, “From Rubble, Civil Society Builds”<br />University of California, Berkeley College of Engineering Magazine, Forefront, Cover Story, Spring 2009 Issue<br />National Geographic Channel Documentary on Sichuan Earthquake, 2010<br />New York Times, “Managing Disasters with Small Steps”<br />
    61. 61. Stimulate Local Demand <br /> Provide Hands-on Technical Assistance During Reconstruction <br /><ul><li>Homeowners
    62. 62. Government
    63. 63. Relief Agencies </li></li></ul><li>Budget Growth<br />
    64. 64. FUNDING SOURCES – Social Entrepreneurs<br /><ul><li>Echoing Green (2004-2006, 2008)
    65. 65. Draper Richards Foundation (2006-2008)
    66. 66. Mulago Foundation (2008-2010+)
    67. 67. Ashoka-Lemelson(2009-2011)</li></ul>FUNDING SOURCES – Foundations<br /><ul><li>Alwaleed Bin Talal Foundation
    68. 68. Asia Foundation
    69. 69. Caterpillar Foundation
    70. 70. Cisco Foundation
    71. 71. Square and Circle Club
    72. 72. Timken Foundation</li></li></ul><li>FUNDING SOURCES – Multi-Laterals and Humanitarian Agency Partners <br /><ul><li>Australian Red Cross
    73. 73. CARE International Indonesia
    74. 74. Catholic Relief Services
    75. 75. CHF International
    76. 76. International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
    77. 77. International Organization for Migration
    78. 78. Mercy Corps
    79. 79. Oxfam International GB
    80. 80. Save the Children
    81. 81. USAID OFDA (through Mercy Corps, Asia Foundation, Habitat for Humanity)</li></li></ul><li>Build Change – Starts Work After Earthquakes, Leaves in Place Sustainable Supply & Demand for Earthquake Resistant Houses<br />Level of Activity & Budget <br />Reconstruction<br />Training & Codes Fully Adopted by Local Government & Private Sector <br />Needs Assessment & Planning <br />Emergency Relief, Search & Rescue <br />Earned Income, <br />Grants & Partnerships<br /> w/ Relief/Development Agencies <br />Local Government <br />& Private Sector<br />On-Going Pre-Earthquake Mitigation <br />Start-up<br />Earned Income, Grants<br /> & Partnerships w/<br /> Local Government <br /> & Private Sector<br />Earthquake<br />Grants<br />CORE Funding - Grants & Earned Income <br />Exit<br />2-6 months<br />6 weeks<br />2-6 years<br />2-6 years<br />West Sumatra<br />China<br />Haiti<br />
    82. 82. Cost Per Impact (SROI)<br />$215-$530 per house (hands-on technical assistance)<br />$40-$100 per person in safe house<br />$25-$100 per house (consulting services)<br />$175 per builder (apprentice-ship type training) <br />$25-50 per student (short course) <br />
    83. 83. 3 Year Strategic Plan <br /> GO BIGGER  scale and impacts<br /><ul><li>50,000 earthquake resistant houses
    84. 84. 4 different developing countries, different models and technologies
    85. 85. Proactive method of prioritizing expansion locations and responding quickly with recon teams</li></ul> CHANGE the way post-earthquake housing reconstruction is done  be the GO TO ORG<br /><ul><li>Develop, maintain, publicize knowledge base
    86. 86. Get at least 2 key organizations changed
    87. 87. Leverage markets and facilitate access to capital</li></li></ul><li>3 Year Strategic Plan (continued)<br />(3) ORGANIZATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY  extensive, diverse funding base<br /><ul><li>Foundations: multi-year commitments
    88. 88. Corporations: at least 1 corporate partnership
    89. 89. Individuals: 3 campaigns/newsletters per year
    90. 90. Earned income via mission-based consulting</li></ul>(4) HIGH IMPACT SOCIAL ENTERPRISE<br /><ul><li>Proven and measurable impacts
    91. 91. Cost-effective impacts
    92. 92. Scaled impacts
    93. 93. Sustainable impacts (other beneficiaries benefit)</li></li></ul><li>HOW HILTI FOUNDATION Can Help<br />Strategic Inputs, Board Membership <br />Funding for Key Hires<br /><ul><li>Finance and Administration, Fund Development, Business Development, Monitoring and Evaluation</li></ul>Funding, Intellectual Capital for R&D<br /><ul><li>Retrofit Solutions for Damaged Buildings
    94. 94. Construction Quality Inspection Techniques
    95. 95. Simple Methods for Testing Materials in Field
    96. 96. Research to Reduce Overall Cost Per House </li></li></ul><li>Build Change Technical Resources <br />Post-Earthquake Reconnaissance Reports – Iran, Indonesia, China <br />Design Guideline for Single Story Confined Masonry for Aceh <br />Simple Construction Booklet for Single Story Confined Masonry for Indonesia <br />Engineering Drawings, Bills of Quantity, Construction Inspection Checklists <br />Design and Construction Guideline for Confined Masonry (in Development)<br />Applied Earthquake Engineering Course (in Development)<br />
    97. 97. Working Together – We Can <br />Develop designs, design resources, design criteria for locally appropriate, easy-to-build, safe houses <br />Develop construction quality checklists, inspection training for ensuring construction quality <br />Build local capacity by training builders, homeowners, relief agency staff, local engineers and architects, trade school students <br />Provide hands-on technical assistance during reconstruction and empower homeowners to lead<br />Partner with financing institutions to facilitate access to capital<br />
    98. 98. What’s Next in INDONESIA<br />Provide Hands-on Technical Assistance<br />Partner with a Financing Institution <br />Provide Checklists, Technical Resources to Government <br />Train Government Facilitators<br />Go On-line with Training Programs <br />
    99. 99. What’s Next in CHINA<br />Training program for technical high school students <br />Training program for government officials <br />
    100. 100. Resources and Training Booklets <br />

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