Microtechnologies, a unique advantage for Energy
     ‐ production, 
     ‐ transportation  
     ‐ use


G. Kotrotsios
Ge...
…depuis 1984
 d   i




               Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 1
Agenda
A   d

• Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT
    • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday?: examples
        • C f t optimi...
Pourquoi utiliser des micro‐ ,  nano‐,…?
P      i tili d        i               ?

• Axioma I: 
                – The chea...
Agenda
A   d

• Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT
    • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday?: examples
        • C f t optimi...
Intelligent Systems for Comfort control
I t lli   tS t      f C f t        t l




                                Copyrig...
How it works?
How it works?


                                                                                            ...
... lower consumption...with improved comfort
    lower consumption with improved comfort




                            ...
« Wh t’
  What’s good for me »?
            df        ?

• Optimisation of the global consumption
                f h l b ...
Agenda
A   d

• Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT
    • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday: examples?
        • C f t optimi...
Controlling lighting i intelligent sensors
C t lli li hti using i t lli     t




                              Copyright ...
The differences i
Th diff         in sensing and processing
                       i     d        i

Management of electri...
Agenda
A   d

• Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT
    • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday: examples?
        • C f t optimi...
Automatic Metering Reading

• N b tt
  No battery (inductive coupling)
             (i d ti        li )
• Low consumption ...
« Wh t’
  What’s good for me »?
            df        ?

• Real time information for the users
     l        f         f h...
Agenda
A   d

• Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT
    • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday: examples?
        • C f t optimi...
Motivation
M ti ti

• Low power was always the concern of CSEM
• More recently two topics have been developped CSEM
    • ...
Monitoring applied t d i
M it i        li d today in preventive maintenance 
                                  ti     i t
...
The very small for the very big…
Th          ll f th         bi




   Alternative energy production 
              system...
When this ill be
Wh thi will b possible at l
                  ibl t large scale?
                                 l ?

• ...
Agenda
A   d

• Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT
    • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday: examples?
        • C f t optimi...
It will be possible!!
       It ill b       ibl !!




Source: Gene A. Frantz, TI Developer Conf., 2008.

                ...
Energy Scavenging
           Energy Scavenging




Source: MEDEA+ report on “Energy Autonomous Systems: Future Trends in D...
Energy Harvesting – O d
        E      H     ti     Orders of magnitude
                                    f     it d

  ...
Energy storage capacity of batteries
       E       t           it f b tt i

                                             ...
Trends…
            T   d




Source: Paul Wright, “Energy Scavenging/Harvesting,” CITRIS, 2008

                         ...
Energy storage
       E       t




Source: MEDEA+ report on “Energy Autonomous Systems: Future Trends in Devices, Technol...
Agenda
A   d

• Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT
    • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday: examples?
        • C f t optimi...
Last b t
L t but perhaps most i
           h       t important !
                          t t

• E
  Europe’s main challe...
Conclusions
C l i

• Microtechnologies are already used f
          h l            l d       d for energy management


• E...
Thank you for your attention!
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Micro and nano for energy

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Micro and nano for energy

  1. 1. Microtechnologies, a unique advantage for Energy ‐ production,  ‐ transportation   ‐ use G. Kotrotsios Georges.kotrotsios@csem.ch Neuchâtel, 04.05.2010 N hât l 04 05 2010
  2. 2. …depuis 1984 d i Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 1
  3. 3. Agenda A d • Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday?: examples • C f t optimization Comfort ti i ti • Presence detection and lighting control • Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) Reading (AMR) • Tomorrow • Systems: Data decentralization smart grid Systems: Data decentralization, smart grid • Devices: ICT for energy saving and the Next Generation of PV as a   marriage between « traditional » PV and MNT Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 2
  4. 4. Pourquoi utiliser des micro‐ ,  nano‐,…? P i tili d i ? • Axioma I:  – The cheapest KWh is the one that has not been used • A i Axioma II II:  – The next cheapest KWh is the one that intellently used • Beyond ecologic production, there is enormous potential for – economies of consumption of consumption – Intelligent and economic use in ‐Demand Side Demand ‐Supply Side Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 3
  5. 5. Agenda A d • Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday?: examples • C f t optimization Comfort ti i ti • Presence detection and lighting control • Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) Reading (AMR) • Tomorrow • Systems: Data decentralization smart grid Systems: Data decentralization, smart grid • Devices: ICT for energy saving and the Next Generation of PV as a   marriage between « traditional » PV and MNT Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 4
  6. 6. Intelligent Systems for Comfort control I t lli tS t f C f t t l Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 5
  7. 7. How it works? How it works? Internal Temperature External Temperature, Solar Radiation Return Temperature Flow Temperature Climate Prediction + - U T_int Popt 1/Kp Building B ildi Optimal C t l O ti l Control Valve Val e Control Behavior P Prediction T_comfort User Setpoint, Window Opening Heating Power User Adaptation Block Sample Vector • Predictif control • Self‐commissioning adaptive control Self commissioning adaptive control  system Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 6
  8. 8. ... lower consumption...with improved comfort lower consumption with improved comfort Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 7
  9. 9. « Wh t’ What’s good for me »? df ? • Optimisation of the global consumption f h l b l • Electric (light, home appliances, IT, etc..) • H ti C f t Heating, Comfort • Simultaneously:  Electric and Heating • Per house, neighbourhood, district, etc… • Centralised versus decentralised optimisation optimisation of chagre (Demand versus decentralised of chagre (Demand  Side Management) Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 8
  10. 10. Agenda A d • Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday: examples? • C f t optimization Comfort ti i ti • Presence detection and lighting control • Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) Reading (AMR) • Tomorrow • Systems: Data decentralization smart grid Systems: Data decentralization, smart grid • Devices: ICT for energy saving and the Next Generation of PV as a   marriage between « traditional » PV and MNT Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 9
  11. 11. Controlling lighting i intelligent sensors C t lli li hti using i t lli t Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 10
  12. 12. The differences i Th diff in sensing and processing i d i Management of electric d M t f l t i doors, elevators, etc.. l t t Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 11
  13. 13. Agenda A d • Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday: examples? • C f t optimization Comfort ti i ti • Presence detection and lighting control • Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) Reading (AMR) • Tomorrow • Systems: Data decentralization smart grid Systems: Data decentralization, smart grid • Devices: ICT for energy saving and the Next Generation of PV as a   marriage between « traditional » PV and MNT Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 12
  14. 14. Automatic Metering Reading • N b tt No battery (inductive coupling) (i d ti li ) • Low consumption  • ~10 ppm error‐rate OCR in 10 ms • “Low cost” • Compact Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 13
  15. 15. « Wh t’ What’s good for me »? df ? • Real time information for the users l f f h • Reading of consumption of individual appliances • A t t A step towards d • smart home • smart grid smart grid • Security Quality of Life Economy Global optimisation Security, Quality of Life, Economy, Global optimisation Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 14
  16. 16. Agenda A d • Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday: examples? • C f t optimization Comfort ti i ti • Presence detection and lighting control • Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) Reading (AMR) • Tomorrow • Systems: Data decentralization smart grid Systems: Data decentralization, smart grid • Devices: ICT for energy saving and the Next Generation of PV as a   marriage between « traditional » PV and MNT Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 15
  17. 17. Motivation M ti ti • Low power was always the concern of CSEM • More recently two topics have been developped CSEM • Wi l Wireless sensor Networks (order of magnitude below Zigbee)  N t k ( d f it d b l Zi b ) • WiseNET • Solar Energy Solar Energy  • Solar Island: large scale • Organic Photovoltaics Organic Photovoltaics • How to produce a lever effect between the small and the big? Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 16
  18. 18. Monitoring applied t d i M it i li d today in preventive maintenance  ti i t • Example: Hydropower • Dams structural monitoring • Land‐sliding above the dam • Water turbidity • Water pollution in the dam • Generator optimal use (eccentricity and vibrations…) Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 17
  19. 19. The very small for the very big… Th ll f th bi Alternative energy production  system Hundreds of monitoring devices High Density Sensor Network:  Sensor Node Monitoring and Optimisation Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 18
  20. 20. When this ill be Wh thi will b possible at l ibl t large scale? l ? • Large number of sensor nodes: • No power supply • Mi i l Di Minimal Dimensions i • Negligeable costs • Easy Deployment • Environmental compatible • Adequate communication Protocols communication Protocols Exploitation as a system optimisation tool Exploitation as a system optimisation tool Expoitation as energy decrease of a sum of a very large number of  « small » individual energy consumers » individual Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 19
  21. 21. Agenda A d • Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday: examples? • C f t optimization Comfort ti i ti • Presence detection and lighting control • Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) Reading (AMR) • Solar Islands • Tomorrow • Systems: Data decentralization, smart grid • Devices: ICT for energy saving and the Next Generation of PV as a Devices: ICT for energy and the Next of PV as a   marriage between « traditional » PV and MNT Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 20
  22. 22. It will be possible!! It ill b ibl !! Source: Gene A. Frantz, TI Developer Conf., 2008. Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 21
  23. 23. Energy Scavenging Energy Scavenging Source: MEDEA+ report on “Energy Autonomous Systems: Future Trends in Devices, Technology and Systems,” 2008. Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 22
  24. 24. Energy Harvesting – O d E H ti Orders of magnitude f it d Source Caractéristiques Efficacité Puissance (η) collectée Photovoltaïque Intérieur 0.1mW/cm2 10 µW/cm2 10-24% 10 24% 2 Extérieur 100mW/cm 10mW/cm2 Vibration/ Mouvement 0.5m@1Hz 0 5m@1Hz Puissance Home 4 µW/cm3 1m/s2@50Hz maximale 1m@5Hz dépend de Industrie 100 µW/cm3 10m/s2@1kHz la source Energie g Thermique Home 20mW/cm2 0.10% 25 µW/cm2 Industrie 100 mW/cm2 0.30% 1-10mW/cm2 Electromagnétique GSM 900MHz 0.03-0.3 µW/cm2 50% 0.1 µW/cm2 1800MHz 0.01-0.1 3 µW/cm2   Source: Chris van Hoof, ISSCC 2008 Workshop. Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 23
  25. 25. Energy storage capacity of batteries E t it f b tt i • Energy storage density continuously  increases~1.5x/decade (~1.04x/year) • Growth smaller if comparing to wireless Growth smaller if comparing to wireless  (~1.4x/year), speed of microprocessors  (~1.7x/year) hard disc capacity storage  (~2.0x/year) Source: MEDEA+ report on “Energy Autonomous Systems: Future Trends in Devices, Technology and Systems,” 2008. Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 24
  26. 26. Trends… T d Source: Paul Wright, “Energy Scavenging/Harvesting,” CITRIS, 2008 Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 25
  27. 27. Energy storage E t Source: MEDEA+ report on “Energy Autonomous Systems: Future Trends in Devices, Technology and Systems,” 2008. Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 26
  28. 28. Agenda A d • Why use micro‐, nano‐ and ICT • What CSEM is doing today – yesterday: examples? • C f t optimization Comfort ti i ti • Presence detection and lighting control • Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) Reading (AMR) • Tomorrow • Systems: Data decentralization smart grid Systems: Data decentralization, smart grid • Devices: ICT for energy saving and the Next Generation of PV as a   marriage between « traditional » PV and MNT Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 27
  29. 29. Last b t L t but perhaps most i h t important ! t t • E Europe’s main challenges as id tifi d i th ’ i h ll identified in the Strategic Research Agenda of the Photovoltaic (PV) platform ( with considerble contribution by Top Swiss Scientists): • Transit from the PV modules to PV systems: ICT, Smart Grid ICT • Combine MNT with « traditional » PV for the next generation • Rapid « lab to fab » Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 28
  30. 30. Conclusions C l i • Microtechnologies are already used f h l l d d for energy management • E Enormous potentiel  t ti l • Through Optimisation of small sources of entropy • Through the usage of subsystems as tools to optimize systemically the usage of subsystems as tools to optimize • In integrating these tools • Trend towards • Device optimization extensively using Micro‐, Nano and ICT technologies Micro , Nano and ICT technologies  • System integration Copyright 2009 CSEM | Club Ravel , 6 octobre 2009 | G. Kotrotsios | Page 29
  31. 31. Thank you for your attention!

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