Marc-André Rappaz - Metaphors, gestures, and emotions in music
GERMMGroupe dÉtude et de Recherche sur les Métaphores MusicalesStudy and Research Groupe on Musical Metaphors
• The “meaning” results of an interaction.• The interaction is correlated with expectation.Metaphors• Conceptual metaphors• Figure of speech
Conceptual metaphorsUnderstanding one idea in term of anotherE. g. understanding quantity in term of directionalityPrices are rising.The melody goes up and downChange of frequency
Target domain Source domain (time, space, body motion)George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s Metaphors We Live By (1980)Love is a journey• We are going nowhere• We can’t turn back now• This relationship is a dead-end street• You will find your wayLove is a journeyConceptual metaphorsUnderstanding one idea in term of another
Conceptual metaphorsUnderstanding one idea in term of anotherMusic is ?A theme ?A musical structure ?
A fugue is a cathedralContrapuntalorganizationStrength, static engineering.Ornamentation Ornamental detailsContained emotion AusteritySecrets (B.A.C.H.) Esotericism, symbolicTarget domain Source domainMusic is architecture
A fugue is a playForm :Exposition – development…Dramatic progression :presentation – complication –denouementSubject A characterAccompaniment Secondary characterEpisodes InterludesTarget domain Source domain
A set of themes is a familyThemes Members of the familyThematicrelationshipsFamily relationshipsA fugue family disputeA fugue is a battleSubject and answer Hunter and targetComposition StrategyVoices in a polyphony Soldiers in an army
Music is an imageA chord ?A theme ?A musical structure ?
Target domain Source domainScore is musicThe score is an imageAnalysis: a cognitive informationThe deformation: affective impactThe power of the Schenkerian analysis results of the interaction of both.
Anamorphosis:• Information: The number ofinternet connections /day.• Affective impact: The deformationof the known shape of the mapThe power of the anamorphosis results of the interaction of both.
A fugue is a speechForm Rhetorical construction of aspeechFormal parts:introduction,exposition, etc.Rhetoric : exhorde,exposition, etc.Ornamentation Rhetorical devicesAffects AffectsMetaphorsFigure of speechMusic is a language
Time (syntax)Speech/musicSource:• Percevoir la musique: Une activité cognitive, Marion Pineau, BarbaraTillmann (ed. LHermattan, 2001)• Influence du contexte sur le traitement en musique et en language,Barbara Tillmann, Lisianne Hoch et Frédéric Marmel, in Musique, Langage,Émotion. Approche neuro-cognitive. (PUR, 2010)MetaphorsFigure of speechE.g. The investigation of the influence of global harmonic structures on primingeffects in music.
is a wonderful placeSan FranciscoNew YorkMetaphorsFigure of speech
• A word acquires a new meaning through acomparison which is in the mind.• Two thoughts of different things work together.• Almost all metaphors cause an emotional response.MetaphorsFigure of speechParis is a wonderful ocean
• Chord 1 induces chord 2• Chord 1 “is” suspended12What about a chord that has two “meanings” ?• VI• A minor1 :• I• C major2:
One suspendedprocess inducessuspensionThreecompletedprocesses thatare the CchordThe “a minor” quality of the chord results of the interaction of both processes.
Beta waves (~15-20 Hz) Gamma waves (~28-48 Hz)Amplitudechanges(%)Amplitudechanges(%)Time (ms) Time (ms)Musical and brain wavesNovelty and expectationsFujioka et al., (2009) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169.
The source domains of conceptual metaphors allow to talkabout music with similarities to the spatial dimension - whichincludes physical dimension - touch, gesture, skin ... – thatis correlated.We would like to understand the links between metaphoricallanguage, conceptuals metaphors and aspects of ourphysical and sensory experience.Music is gestures