Verbal report: problems of questioning, conceptualization - goal problem. Memory-recall. Need to standardize questionnaire, allow for more cumulativeness of different research projects - issues e.g. legitimacy, fairness, novelty, etc. - agree on operationalization by comparable questions. Need to focus respondents on preocess - Edwards results Expression as index - given theoretical postulat of component process model should be able to use expressive and physio indeces some results by work of Smith - facial EMG TRANS other possibility synthesis - FACE Schmidt study Experimental: computer game study TRANS details of channels following event, mulimodal time series, coupled oscillators Banse results Natural situations: early Ellsworth and Lazarus exam recent Swissair Need to integrate BLENDS - example field study starting from standard situation rather than emo labels - Swissair. Like Tannebaum many blends TRANS Swissair emos - while generally good prediction, difficulty of blends
Klaus Scherer - Heavenly Voices - The expression of emotion in operatic singing - KLaus Scherer
Swissnex San FranciscoFeel the Music – Sound and emotionKlaus R. SchererSwiss Center forAffective SciencesKlaus R. SchererSwiss Center forAffective SciencesHeavenly VoicesThe expression of emotion inoperatic singingHeavenly VoicesThe expression of emotion inoperatic singing
Diderot on singing emotions effectivelyBut they say that an actor is all the better for beingexcited, for being angry. I deny it. He is best whenhe imitates anger. Actors impress the public notwhen they are furious, but when they play furywell. In tribunals, in assemblies, everywhere wherea man wishes to make himself master of others’minds, he feigns now anger, now fear, now pity,now love, to bring others into these diverse statesof feeling. What passion itself fails to do, passionwell imitated accomplishes.
Thomas Moser, tenoron controlled emotionOf course, the emotion in the music has an influencebut it’s not ruling me. It’s not taking me over.I try to feel it, it’s there, but I know that I have toknow what it is I’m trying to express. I had a studentonce who came to me and said “I just assumed thatif the emotion is right the singingwill be OK.” But you can’t sing with emotion. Youhave to express emotion but you can’t sing withemotion.For instance, I used to sing the Lied “Guten Abend,gut Nacht” [Brahms] at the end of recitals. It tookme years before I could sing that without crying.
Lucy Schaufer, Mezzosopranoon Stanislavski/Method techniquesMemory and imagination inform, then your voiceand body will follow suit creating specific colorsand shapes which result in a personal andindividual performance …Develop your toolbox to include memories,observations, and a playfulness in rehearsal andperformance which allows your brain to imagineall the possibilities. Embrace the leaping offpoint: it is exactly where the personal and theimagined merge, where the voice and the bodycombine to make a fully integrated performance,one in which it is not just sound for sound-sake,but a beautifully fully human story tellingsoundscape.
Defining authenticityAuthenticity = credibility of the emotional expressiongiven the character, the plot, and the music – andone’s own personalityRequirements for the singer:(1) choosing appropriate expressive elements in voice,face, and body(2) combining these to achieve dynamic coordinationand synchronization of the different elements andmodalities(3) regulating the dynamic flow of emotional expressionin terms of situational and technical constraints
Lucia: Ratings for 5 sopranos on fourdifferent types of emotional interpretation00.511.522.53del Monte Scotto Gruberova Callas SutherlandSopranosRatingstender passion fear of death madness sadness
Lucia: Location of the 5 sopranos in atwo-dimensional acoustic factor space-0.5-0.4-0.3-0.2-0.100.10.20.30.40.5-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5Singers formant/High frequencyF0BandGruberovaSutherland CallasScotto MonteF0 Band factor: Low and stable F0, with strong energy in the F0 band, and littletotal energy variation.Singer’s formant/High frequency factor: High energy in the singer’s formant band(~2.5kHz) and low energy in the higher frequency ranges (3.5-10 kHz)
Singing emotions studyFollowing the colloquium "EmotionalPower of Music", Geneva 2009, werecorded world class singers to recordfor us standard scales as well as anonsense sentence ("Nec kalibam soudmolen") in melodic phrases to express9 emotions:AdmirationAngerAnxietyDespairJoyFearPrideSadnessTenderness
Five markers of voice quality Spectral balance = mean level difference between partialsabove and below 1 kHz; strongly influenced by vocalloudness Perturbation = composite measure of aperiodicity,regulated by glottal adjustment, subglottal pressure, vocaltract constriction. Low Partial dominance = mean level difference between thelowest and the higher spectrum partials; depending onglottal adduction, forceful adduction attenuating the lowestpartials. Loudness, vocal effort Tempo