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English colonies of north america


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English colonies of north america

  1. 1. The English Colonies of North America Paige Ellis
  2. 2. American Colonies 7- Chesapeake Colonies • The first colonists were primarily planters- former indentured servants, who cherished their new independence and land ownership. • Their political hierarchy consisted of: – The king/parliament – The provincial government in the colony – The county court and parish – The family unit- “little commonwealth” • Due to a lack of colonists to share the work force, many suffered from too much labor. • Eventually, the poverty of England and the hope of opportunity drew more colonists.
  3. 3. American Colonies 7- Chesapeake Colonies • At first, the colonists fared well, because land and servants were easily obtained. • By 1665, Chesapeake’s age of opportunity dwindled down and the establishment of prosperous lands turned into a wealthy plantation society, and poverty increased. • The colonists began to suffer a shorter life expectancy, poor prospects of marriage and offspring, intense labor, and insufficient shelter against harsh climates. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  4. 4. American Colonies 7- Chesapeake Colonies • Governor Berkeley was appointed, which further worsened the political state. • Unhappy with Berkeley, the people found relief in Nathaniel Bacon who defeated the Indians, and led Bacon’s rebellion against Berkeley. • The crown intervened and sent a new governor, who soon died from disease, along with most of his troops. • These incidents led to the English power subsiding, and led the colonists to boast of representing all freed Virginian colonists from intrusion of crown power.
  5. 5. American Colonies 9- Puritans and Indians • The the Puritans perceived the pre- colonial landscape as “a hideous and desolate wilderness full of wild beasts and wild men.” • They feared that their people would succumb to the Indian lifestyle, so they labored hard in an effort to preserve their identity as civilized Christians. • The Puritans cultivated crops and constructed buildings in an English fashion, trying their hardest to duplicate the English landscape and lifestyle. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  6. 6. American Colonies 9- Puritans and Indians • The Indian and Puritan lifestyle differed significantly: – The Indians lived a mobile lifestyle, while the English preferred fixed settlements. – The Indians thought the English were stingy with their land and “enslaved” to their properties and belongings. – The Indians demanded less from nature. They put less labor into it and extracted less, while the English relied heavily on cultivating. – For the Indians, the land was not something to claim, until the buying and selling of land began. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  7. 7. American Colonies 9- Puritans and Indians • The first uprising between the New Englanders and the Indians initiated the Pequot war in 1636. – The Connecticut, Plymouth, Massachusetts, and allied Indians went up against the Pequot in an effort to extend the colonists’ territory. • The Indians shrunk to a minority, and by 1670 the 52,000 English colonists outnumbered the surrounding Indians by three to one. • At first, the Puritans did little to evangelize to the Indians, but when they received criticism from their comrades in England, they began to take on more of a missionary role. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  8. 8. American Colonies 11-Carolina • Carolina was established in the 1670’s between Florida and Chesapeake. • It started out with 200 colonists and grew to 6,600 by 1670. • The rulers attracted colonists with the promise of “religious toleration, political representation…a long exemption from quitrents, and large grants of land.” • It was ruled by the Lords Proprietor, 8 political favorites of the king who remained in England and let Sir John Yeamans oversee everything. • The colonists feared that the Indians would unite with the slaves and revolt, so they appeased the Indians by trading and selling them guns. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  9. 9. American Colonies 11-Carolina • The wealthiest colonists, the Goose Creek Men, ignored the Lords Proprietor • They sent an agent to England, requesting that the crown replace them with a provisional government. • The Lords proprietor were bought out and the “great planter elite” solidified their power. • The leaders secured the Carolina frontier and gained mastery over the natives by: – Pushing the gun trade among the Indians – Recruiting slave catchers from the Indians – Forming alliances with the Iroquois and Cherokee, so when the Spanish attacked they were able to save the colony.
  10. 10. American Colonies 11- Carolina • In the 1720’s, Carolina and British imperialists strengthened the southern frontier by creating the colony of Georgia. • It was controlled by the Georgia Trustees, a group of wealthy merchants and Anglican ministers. • They ruled from oversees and elected a court of four officials to govern the Georgia colony. • Slavery was thought to corrode the labor discipline among white men, so they wanted more farms worked by free families. • The Georgia trustees also prohibited rum- drinking and banned lawyers from practicing. • In 1751 the trustees surrendered the colony to the crown, and it was turned into a virtual replica of South Carolina QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.