American colonies prelude to revolution


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American colonies prelude to revolution

  1. 1. American Colonies- Prelude to the Revolution Paige Ellis
  2. 2. Revolutions- Pirates <ul><li>During the 16th and 17th centuries, the British tolerated pirates because they needed all the naval help they could get against the more powerful Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>As British commerce and naval might grew stronger, the pirates started plundering their own country’s vessels as well, causing the British officials to outlaw piracy again. </li></ul><ul><li>The pirates developed a culture that expressed their alienation from authority, and they took pride in their excessive hedonism. </li></ul><ul><li>in 1701, Parliament passed anti-piracy legislation and began executing, and making examples out of convicted pirates. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1730 the campaign virtually wiped out the Pirates threatening British trade, and they brought a new security to colonial shipping. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Atlantic- Poverty <ul><li>While lawyers, merchants, and officials in New England grew wealthier, in the 1750’s and 60’s there was a growing number of poor in the urban seaports. </li></ul><ul><li>The urban poor population grew because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The imperial wars killed and incapacitated many men in the military, leaving widows and orphans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emigration surged to the colonies, flooding the seaports with poor newcomers, depressing wages, and unemployment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonies shared an economy with England, so urban colonists were basically at the mercy of British creditors, who could curtail credit and call for debts at any time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The poor also grew in rural and frontier areas, due to the harsh conditions and lack of of funds needed to acquire livestock and tools. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Atlantic- Africans <ul><li>Most eighteenth-century emigrants to America were enslaved Africans. </li></ul><ul><li>The slave trade crippled West Africa by diminishing its inhabitants, while enriching the European Empires, particularly the British Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The West Indies provided the greatest demand for slaves, because the sugar plantations there were profitable but deadly. </li></ul><ul><li>European shippers almost always obtained slaves through African slave traders, not by capturing the laves themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Most slaves were captives taken in wars or kidnapped by armed gangs. </li></ul><ul><li>The voyage over the Atlantic killed about 20 percent of slaves, due to horrible conditions and lack of </li></ul><ul><li>will to live. </li></ul><ul><li>Some slaves attempted to </li></ul><ul><li>revolt on the ship, but most </li></ul><ul><li>of the times the slavers </li></ul><ul><li>regained control. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Awakenings- Revivals <ul><li>During the early 18th century, there were many evangelical revivals that caused surges in religious fervor and new members. </li></ul><ul><li>Revivals emphasized the emotional process of conversion, especially fear and hope, rather than reason. </li></ul><ul><li>They insisted that God bestowed grace only upon those who admitted their helplessness to save themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>They remained localized </li></ul><ul><li>and episodic until the </li></ul><ul><li>1740’s, when evangelical </li></ul><ul><li>ministers began to interact </li></ul><ul><li>and cooperate over long </li></ul><ul><li>distances, leading to </li></ul><ul><li>intercolonial revivalism. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Awakenings- Race <ul><li>Prior to 1740, no ministers challenged the slave system and few bothered to convert slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Revivalists rendered Christianity more accessible to the illiterate slaves by appealing to the emotions, and longed to convert even people of lowly status in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglican church feared that spirituality would make the slaves believe they were equal to their owners, and imposed penalties on preachers who baptized slaves without owner consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Evangelicals focused more on preparing slaves for the afterlife than freeing them from slavery in this life, and only the Quakers challenged Indian war and African slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Evangelicals had their greatest success </li></ul><ul><li>among Indians because they brought </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity closer to traditional </li></ul><ul><li>shamanism and permitted Indians to </li></ul><ul><li>make Christianity their own. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Great Plains- Texas <ul><li>The French traded guns for slaves with the Pawnee and Wichita, so the tribes began to raid the Apache and Pueblo for captives. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hispanics were allied with the Pueblo, so they viewed this as a French act of hostility toward the Spanish and attacked the Pawnee. </li></ul><ul><li>When they were defeated, the Spanish tried expanding their missions eastward instead of waging war, and founded San Antonio in 1718. </li></ul><ul><li>The surrounding Indians sought safety and food by learning agriculture at the missions, but weren’t very interested in Christianity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Great Plains- Comanche and Apache <ul><li>The horse and gun trade favored some native peoples at the expense of others, making the 18th century of a period of violent flux. </li></ul><ul><li>The Comanche were the most prosperous under this system, and they forced their way into larger hunting grounds. </li></ul><ul><li>This created a deadly competition with the Apache, which the Comanche regularly raided for horses and captives. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Apache migrated to Northwest New Mexico to escape, and adapted to the Pueblo Indians’ way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Apache moved southward and sought Hispanic protection at the missions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Pacific- Islands <ul><li>The Pacific Ocean was hard to reach from Europe and difficult to navigate, so it was largely neglected until the mid-eighteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>After the straight of Magellan was discovered, the Spanish established a few small settlements in the Pacific, but tried to keep their discoveries secret. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1760’s the British and French began probing the Pacific in the name of science. </li></ul><ul><li>Captain James Cook explored the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, and facilitated British colonization of Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>He also discovered the Hawaiian islands, where he was killed in a conflict with the natives. </li></ul>