Great proletarian cultural revolution


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Great proletarian cultural revolution

  1. 1. The Great ProletarianCultural RevolutionChina’s experience with mass movements
  2. 2. Pictures of the Revolution “Long Live the total victory of theRed Guard March Great Proletarian Revolution”
  3. 3. Origins of the Revolution The Great Leap Forward (1957-61)  Movement calling for increases in steel production, electrical and coal output  Purpose – surpass British industrial output by 1972; help China to be industrially self-sufficient  Outcome – destroyed Chinese agriculture resulting in massive famine; 30 million dead  Brought about loss of Soviet economic & military support for China
  4. 4. Mao strikes back! Mao decides to pay back his enemies who supposedly undermined his “Great Leap Forward” Urges youth to rise up in mass movement against two targets:  Party bureaucracy & the Four Olds (old habits, customs, culture, and thinking)  Beginning of Chinese fear of mass movements
  5. 5. Chaos! Hundreds of Red Guard brigades bring chaos to China Attack Confucian heritage Destroy cultural symbols of the country’s past Attack party workers and former Red Army soldiers Were an example to all the student rebellions tearing apart the West
  6. 6. “Protect the grandachievements ofthe GreatProletarian CulturalRevolution”Girl of the Red Guards writingrevolutionary slogans on the sideof a building
  7. 7. Consequences of the CulturalRevolution (part 1) Educational system shattered Ruinous economic losses Loss of much of China’s artistic legacy Mood of fear and uncertainty until Mao’s death Put Mao back in charge of the Chinese Communist Party Confirmed Mao’s maxim  “the Revolution never ends – it just needs constant rectification through mass movements”
  8. 8. Consequences of the CulturalRevolution (part 2) Decimated the Chinese Communist Party Major slow down in agriculture and industrial output In 1981 the CCP under the new leader, Deng Xiaoping, repudiates the Cultural Revolution  Reverses many of Mao’s policies Four major changes occurred:  Return to material incentives  Establishment of privately owned businesses  Farmers selling part of crop for profit  Foreign companies investing in China (cheap labor)
  9. 9. Unintended outcomes of Deng’sreforms Market reforms, greater contact with democracy in foreign countries, and discontent with China’s leaders brought about a mass movement led by the Youth to demand greater freedom of expression and CCP reforms Why did the Tiananmen Square Massacre happen?  Deng had participated in the mass movements which brought Mao to power  He and other CCP leaders had been purged from power and humiliated by the Red Guards for counter-revolutionary activity  Were fearful of the return to chaos  Rebellion had to be suppressed to protect government power and social stability
  10. 10. Conclusion China today is one of the world’s leading economic powers Politically and socially, it is strictly controlled by the Party