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Have students been trained toHave students been trained to
mimic learning machines?mimic learning machines?
by Jennifer Sw...
Stu-botsStu-bots
You've read about TuringYou've read about Turing
Machines impersonatingMachines impersonating
humans.huma...
Student: I had/read that [once]Student: I had/read that [once]
already.already.
"Incremental decision tree"Incremental dec...
Student: All our readings this weekStudent: All our readings this week
were about the same thing - [topic].were about the ...
Student: I didn’t know you wantedStudent: I didn’t know you wanted
the source of my search result.the source of my search ...
te;dr = Too easy; didn't read?te;dr = Too easy; didn't read?
A robograded, machine learningA robograded, machine learning
...
Automating MOOC GradingAutomating MOOC Grading
Diagram source:Diagram source:
https://www.ukp.tu-darmstadt.de/research/cur...
Inge Ignatia De WaardInge Ignatia De Waard
"One of the biggest challenges seems"One of the biggest challenges seems
to be ...
Dummy TextDummy Text
37Signals'37Signals' Getting RealGetting Real
definesdefines lorem ipsumlorem ipsum as “aas “a
shape ...
Dummy Text, cont.Dummy Text, cont.
The robograded, recall-oriented,The robograded, recall-oriented,
natural language essay...
More Dummy TextMore Dummy Text
Such a concatenation ofSuch a concatenation of
statements is a step abovestatements is a st...
Boolean RhetoricBoolean Rhetoric
A Statement isA Statement is
unprovable.unprovable.
A Proposition isA Proposition is
unam...
Boolean Rhetoric, cont.Boolean Rhetoric, cont.
Propositions combined inPropositions combined in
Conjunctions or Disjunctio...
Professionals Against Machine Scoring OfProfessionals Against Machine Scoring Of
Student Essays In High-Stakes AssessmentS...
Learning Materials?Learning Materials?
Are today’s machinesAre today’s machines
providing learningproviding learning
oppor...
Automation = ConvenienceAutomation = Convenience
Automation is always going to be moreAutomation is always going to be mor...
Products?Products?
Are today’s K12Are today’s K12
graduates thegraduates the
byproducts of anbyproducts of an
essentially ...
Audrey WattersAudrey Watters
[T]elling a bunch of college students that they need[T]elling a bunch of college students tha...
Mark D. ShermisMark D. Shermis
With increasingly large classes, it isWith increasingly large classes, it is
impossible for...
Mark D. Shermis, cont.Mark D. Shermis, cont.
““Often they come from very prestigiousOften they come from very prestigious
...
A Tale of Two Worlds?A Tale of Two Worlds?
The “real world” is populated by theThe “real world” is populated by the
underp...
““Higher” Education?Higher” Education?
What makes higherWhat makes higher
education “higher” if it iseducation “higher” if...
Communication or Concatenation?Communication or Concatenation?
How is our cultureHow is our culture
compromised whencompro...
Student: What about my opinion?Student: What about my opinion?
Are students overlyAre students overly
attached to theiratt...
The Failure of ImaginationThe Failure of Imagination
Carr discusses integrated developmentCarr discusses integrated develo...
Dave PerrinDave Perrin
"Students must be taught"Students must be taught
to read and write ....forto read and write ....for...
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Have students been trained to mimic learning machines?

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  1. 1. Have students been trained toHave students been trained to mimic learning machines?mimic learning machines? by Jennifer Swift-Kramer, WPUNJby Jennifer Swift-Kramer, WPUNJ
  2. 2. Stu-botsStu-bots You've read about TuringYou've read about Turing Machines impersonatingMachines impersonating humans.humans. What about humansWhat about humans impersonating Turingimpersonating Turing Machines?Machines?
  3. 3. Student: I had/read that [once]Student: I had/read that [once] already.already. "Incremental decision tree"Incremental decision tree methods allow an existingmethods allow an existing tree to be updated usingtree to be updated using only new individual dataonly new individual data instances, without having toinstances, without having to re-process past instances."re-process past instances." (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incremental_decision_tree)(source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incremental_decision_tree)
  4. 4. Student: All our readings this weekStudent: All our readings this week were about the same thing - [topic].were about the same thing - [topic]. "Empirical Learning is the process of"Empirical Learning is the process of examining and comparing a number ofexamining and comparing a number of different informations, selecting theirdifferent informations, selecting their common observable characteristics, and,common observable characteristics, and, based on this, deriving a general patternbased on this, deriving a general pattern of this class of information…. often usedof this class of information…. often used for Natural Language Processing (NLP)for Natural Language Processing (NLP) problems."problems." (source: http://gagne.homedns.org/~tgagne/contrib/machine-learning-(source: http://gagne.homedns.org/~tgagne/contrib/machine-learning- in-the-laboratory.html)in-the-laboratory.html)
  5. 5. Student: I didn’t know you wantedStudent: I didn’t know you wanted the source of my search result.the source of my search result. "A Neuron is the smallest atom"A Neuron is the smallest atom in a Neuronal Network.in a Neuronal Network. Spoken in InformationSpoken in Information Technology (IT) terms it has aTechnology (IT) terms it has a couple of input channels, acouple of input channels, a threshold value, and an outputthreshold value, and an output channel."channel." (source: http://gagne.homedns.org/~tgagne/contrib/machine-learning-(source: http://gagne.homedns.org/~tgagne/contrib/machine-learning- in-the-laboratory.html)in-the-laboratory.html)
  6. 6. te;dr = Too easy; didn't read?te;dr = Too easy; didn't read? A robograded, machine learningA robograded, machine learning natural language essay can benatural language essay can be considered ideal as at least 25considered ideal as at least 25 pages, with paragraphs atpages, with paragraphs at least a half page long andleast a half page long and median word length 16 letters?median word length 16 letters?
  7. 7. Automating MOOC GradingAutomating MOOC Grading Diagram source:Diagram source: https://www.ukp.tu-darmstadt.de/research/current-projects/educational-text-analytics/https://www.ukp.tu-darmstadt.de/research/current-projects/educational-text-analytics/ (highlights added)(highlights added)
  8. 8. Inge Ignatia De WaardInge Ignatia De Waard "One of the biggest challenges seems"One of the biggest challenges seems to be the standardization of languageto be the standardization of language use in assignments. Indeed, if anuse in assignments. Indeed, if an algorithm is set up, it complies withalgorithm is set up, it complies with certain boundaries. This means thatcertain boundaries. This means that 'only' one specified set (however'only' one specified set (however diverse) will lead to a good feedback."diverse) will lead to a good feedback." (source: http://ignatiawebs.blogspot.com/2015/01/robo-readers-(source: http://ignatiawebs.blogspot.com/2015/01/robo-readers- towards-automated-mooc.html)towards-automated-mooc.html)
  9. 9. Dummy TextDummy Text 37Signals'37Signals' Getting RealGetting Real definesdefines lorem ipsumlorem ipsum as “aas “a shape of text" that does notshape of text" that does not present "valuablepresent "valuable information" for an intendedinformation" for an intended recipient.recipient. (See https://(See https://37signals37signals.com/).com/)
  10. 10. Dummy Text, cont.Dummy Text, cont. The robograded, recall-oriented,The robograded, recall-oriented, natural language essay is alsonatural language essay is also a "shape of text" derived froma "shape of text" derived from a collection of "shapes of text"a collection of "shapes of text" arranged to indicate title,arranged to indicate title, summary, thesis, support andsummary, thesis, support and conclusion statements.conclusion statements.
  11. 11. More Dummy TextMore Dummy Text Such a concatenation ofSuch a concatenation of statements is a step abovestatements is a step above lorem ipsumlorem ipsum (or dummy text),(or dummy text), but not by much.but not by much. What makes up these textualWhat makes up these textual shapes?shapes?
  12. 12. Boolean RhetoricBoolean Rhetoric A Statement isA Statement is unprovable.unprovable. A Proposition isA Proposition is unambiguous.unambiguous.
  13. 13. Boolean Rhetoric, cont.Boolean Rhetoric, cont. Propositions combined inPropositions combined in Conjunctions or DisjunctionsConjunctions or Disjunctions *could* be subject to a truth*could* be subject to a truth table (but statements can justtable (but statements can just be combined ad infinitum).be combined ad infinitum). (definition source: C. Maxwell, Bebop to the Boolean Boogie 2(definition source: C. Maxwell, Bebop to the Boolean Boogie 2ndnd ed., pp.ed., pp. 80-1)80-1)
  14. 14. Professionals Against Machine Scoring OfProfessionals Against Machine Scoring Of Student Essays In High-Stakes AssessmentStudent Essays In High-Stakes Assessment "[M]achine scoring does not measure, and"[M]achine scoring does not measure, and therefore does not promote, authentic actstherefore does not promote, authentic acts of writing:of writing: "....students who know that they are writing"....students who know that they are writing only for a machine may be tempted to turnonly for a machine may be tempted to turn their writing into a game, trying to fool thetheir writing into a game, trying to fool the machine into producing a higher score,machine into producing a higher score, which is easily done."which is easily done." (source: http://humanreaders.org/petition/research_findings.htm)(source: http://humanreaders.org/petition/research_findings.htm)
  15. 15. Learning Materials?Learning Materials? Are today’s machinesAre today’s machines providing learningproviding learning opportunities foropportunities for students, or vicestudents, or vice versa?versa?
  16. 16. Automation = ConvenienceAutomation = Convenience Automation is always going to be moreAutomation is always going to be more convenient than what came before it—forconvenient than what came before it—for someone. And while it’s often pitched assomeone. And while it’s often pitched as being most convenient for the end user—being most convenient for the end user— the patient on the operating table, say, orthe patient on the operating table, say, or the Amazon shopper, or the Googlethe Amazon shopper, or the Google searcher, in fact the rewards ofsearcher, in fact the rewards of convenience flow most directly to thoseconvenience flow most directly to those who own the automated system (Jeffwho own the automated system (Jeff Bezos, for example, not the AmazonBezos, for example, not the Amazon Prime member).Prime member). (Sue Halpern at(Sue Halpern at http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2015/apr/02/how-http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2015/apr/02/how- robots-algorithms-are-taking-over/)robots-algorithms-are-taking-over/)
  17. 17. Products?Products? Are today’s K12Are today’s K12 graduates thegraduates the byproducts of anbyproducts of an essentially industrialessentially industrial process of refiningprocess of refining robotic algorithms?robotic algorithms?
  18. 18. Audrey WattersAudrey Watters [T]elling a bunch of college students that they need[T]elling a bunch of college students that they need to unlearn much of what they think they knowto unlearn much of what they think they know about essay-writing – particularly if thoseabout essay-writing – particularly if those students have been ones to earn “high marks”students have been ones to earn “high marks” with that comfortably banal five-paragraphwith that comfortably banal five-paragraph formula – doesn’t go over well. It means thatformula – doesn’t go over well. It means that often, composition class is full of skeptical – ifoften, composition class is full of skeptical – if not hostile – students who must tackle thenot hostile – students who must tackle the reasoning behind, not just the mechanics of theirreasoning behind, not just the mechanics of their essay writing. They must learn again to write.essay writing. They must learn again to write. They must learn -- often for the very first time --They must learn -- often for the very first time -- to really think.to really think. (Tossing Sabots into the Automated Essay Grading Machine, 15 Apr(Tossing Sabots into the Automated Essay Grading Machine, 15 Apr 2012, http://hackeducation.com/2012/04/15/robot-essay-graders/)2012, http://hackeducation.com/2012/04/15/robot-essay-graders/)
  19. 19. Mark D. ShermisMark D. Shermis With increasingly large classes, it isWith increasingly large classes, it is impossible for most teachers to giveimpossible for most teachers to give students meaningful feedback on writingstudents meaningful feedback on writing assignments, he said. Plus, he noted,assignments, he said. Plus, he noted, critics of the technology have tended tocritics of the technology have tended to come from the nation’s best universities,come from the nation’s best universities, where the level of pedagogy is muchwhere the level of pedagogy is much better than at most schools.better than at most schools. Passage above from: Essay-Grading Software Offers Professors a Break byPassage above from: Essay-Grading Software Offers Professors a Break by John Markoff, April 4, 2013John Markoff, April 4, 2013 http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/05/science/new-test-for-computers-http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/05/science/new-test-for-computers- grading-essays-at-college-level.htmlgrading-essays-at-college-level.html
  20. 20. Mark D. Shermis, cont.Mark D. Shermis, cont. ““Often they come from very prestigiousOften they come from very prestigious institutions where, in fact, they do ainstitutions where, in fact, they do a much better job of providing feedbackmuch better job of providing feedback than a machine ever could,” Dr.than a machine ever could,” Dr. Shermis said. “There seems to be aShermis said. “There seems to be a lack of appreciation of what is actuallylack of appreciation of what is actually going on in the real world.”going on in the real world.” Passage above from: Essay-Grading Software Offers Professors a Break byPassage above from: Essay-Grading Software Offers Professors a Break by John Markoff, April 4, 2013John Markoff, April 4, 2013 http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/05/science/new-test-for-computers-http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/05/science/new-test-for-computers- grading-essays-at-college-level.htmlgrading-essays-at-college-level.html
  21. 21. A Tale of Two Worlds?A Tale of Two Worlds? The “real world” is populated by theThe “real world” is populated by the underprivileged, best herded in theunderprivileged, best herded in the hundreds by robots?hundreds by robots? What do we call the world of prestigiousWhat do we call the world of prestigious institutions, manned by humans who couldinstitutions, manned by humans who could never be outperformed by machines –never be outperformed by machines – unreal?unreal? Who formulated this dichotomy?Who formulated this dichotomy? Who is willing to wonder if it is false?Who is willing to wonder if it is false?
  22. 22. ““Higher” Education?Higher” Education? What makes higherWhat makes higher education “higher” if it iseducation “higher” if it is treated as an extensiontreated as an extension of the grade productionof the grade production industry we now callindustry we now call K12?K12?
  23. 23. Communication or Concatenation?Communication or Concatenation? How is our cultureHow is our culture compromised whencompromised when “storification” is“storification” is defined as adefined as a mechanical process?mechanical process?
  24. 24. Student: What about my opinion?Student: What about my opinion? Are students overlyAre students overly attached to theirattached to their opinionsopinions becausebecause forming newforming new ideasideas has been treatedhas been treated as “monkeywrenching”?as “monkeywrenching”?
  25. 25. The Failure of ImaginationThe Failure of Imagination Carr discusses integrated developmentCarr discusses integrated development environments (IDEs) which programmersenvironments (IDEs) which programmers use to check their code, and quotes Vivekuse to check their code, and quotes Vivek Haldar, a veteran Google developer: “‘TheHaldar, a veteran Google developer: “‘The behavior all these tools encourage is notbehavior all these tools encourage is not ‘think deeply about your code and write it‘think deeply about your code and write it carefully,’ but ‘just write a crappy first draftcarefully,’ but ‘just write a crappy first draft of your code, and then the tools will tellof your code, and then the tools will tell you not just what’s wrong with it, but alsoyou not just what’s wrong with it, but also how to make it better.’”how to make it better.’” (Starred endnote to Halpern’s How Robots & Algorithms Are Taking(Starred endnote to Halpern’s How Robots & Algorithms Are Taking Over, The New York Review of Books April 2, 2015, cited prev.)Over, The New York Review of Books April 2, 2015, cited prev.)
  26. 26. Dave PerrinDave Perrin "Students must be taught"Students must be taught to read and write ....forto read and write ....for diverse audiences, notdiverse audiences, not algorithms."algorithms." (source: Speaking My Mind/Robo-Grading and Writing Instruction,(source: Speaking My Mind/Robo-Grading and Writing Instruction, English Journal July 2013, p 106,English Journal July 2013, p 106, http://www.ncte.org/library/nctefiles/resources/journals/ej/1026-http://www.ncte.org/library/nctefiles/resources/journals/ej/1026- jul2013/ej1026robo.pdf)jul2013/ej1026robo.pdf)

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