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Research methology intro_ YL

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Research methology intro_ YL

  1. 1. Overview of Research Yvonne Lee Yin Leng, MPH Clinical Epidemiology Unit, CRC
  2. 2. What is research? <ul><li>A habit of questioning what you do , and empirical examination to find answers , with a view to make changes for more effective professional service </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many patients come to IPR outpatients every day? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the most common conditions they come with? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the causes of these conditions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why only some people suffer from condition X while others do not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are all people with condition X coming to get treatment? If not why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens to patients who get/did not get treatment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For those who come for treatment, are they satisfied with our services? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How effective is the service? Compared with other centres? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can our service be improved? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How to answer the questions? <ul><li>Research is just one of the many ways </li></ul><ul><li>Research study implies 3 things in your process; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within a framework of a set of philosophies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for validity and reliability ; scientific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to be unbiased and objective </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Research is a structured inquiry that </li></ul><ul><li>utilises acceptable scientific methods to </li></ul><ul><li>solve problems and creates new </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge that is generally acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>(Grinell, 1993) </li></ul>Definition
  5. 5. <ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Biomedical research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epidemiological Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health Services Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodological Research </li></ul></ul></ul>Type of research
  6. 6. Basic Biomedical Research <ul><li>Setting : Lab </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of study : Human anatomy, biology and physiology in relation to disease at organ/tissue  cellular/molecular/genetic level. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : Explanatory  generate new knowledge that explains biological phenomena </li></ul>
  7. 7. Epidemiological Research <ul><li>Setting : Population / community (field epidemiology) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of study : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Descriptive: prevalence / incidence study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Aetiology: causal / risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Intervention: community intervention (CIT) for a prevention strategy, screening trial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals : Better control/prevention programmes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Health services research <ul><li>Settings : Health facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of study : Identify health care needs, provisions, utilisation and effectivessness of health services. </li></ul><ul><li> a) Needs assessment study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Health services output: volume, case mix, quality of care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Intervention study: health services organisation trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Evaluation study : eg health care cost study, costs effectiveness study, cost benefit study. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals : To support the decision making process at all levels  more effective health care delivery system. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Methodological Research <ul><li>Settings : Research centre </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of study : Research methodology (study design, sampling, variable measurement, data processing, stats methods) </li></ul><ul><li>Goals : Improve quality of research </li></ul>
  10. 10. Clinical Research / Clinical Epidemiology <ul><li>Settings : Hospital / clinics </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of study: Patient or disease oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: Improve patients’ outcome </li></ul><ul><li>It provides data that clinicians can rely on in making decisions about patients </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Clinical Research Patient comes to see a clinician Task: to make right diagnosis 1.Diagnostic studies 2.Taxonomic study 3. Validation studies Patient given Rx Task: to find most effective Rx ( good outcome) 1.Intervention studies / RCT 2. Outcomes studies Patient told prognosis Task: to predict a prognosis 1.Prognostic studies / prediction rules
  12. 12. Summary of How Research Works (adapted from Hulley et al 2001) RESEARCH QUESTION TARG RESEARCH QUESTION TARG <ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomena of interest </li></ul>Step1
  13. 13. Summary of How Research Works (adapted from Hulley et al 2001) RESEARCH QUESTION TARG TARG STUDY PLAN TARG <ul><li>Intended sample </li></ul><ul><li>Intended variable </li></ul><ul><li>& measurement </li></ul>design RESEARCH QUESTION TARG <ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomena of interest </li></ul>Random & systematic Error Step1 Step2 Step3 Step4
  14. 14. Summary of How Research Works (adapted from Hulley et al 2001) RESEARCH QUESTION TARG TARG TARG STUDY PLAN TARG <ul><li>Intended sample </li></ul><ul><li>Intended variable </li></ul>ACTUAL STUDY TARG <ul><li>Actual subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Actual measurement </li></ul>design RESEARCH QUESTION TARG <ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomena of interest </li></ul>conduct Random & systematic Error Random & systematic Error design Random & systematic Error Step1 Step2 Step3 Step4 Step5
  15. 15. Summary of How Research Works (adapted from Hulley et al 2001) RESEARCH QUESTION TARG TARG TARG STUDY PLAN TARG <ul><li>Intended sample </li></ul><ul><li>Intended variable </li></ul><ul><li>& measurement </li></ul>ACTUAL STUDY TARG FINDINGS IN THE STUDY <ul><li>Actual subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Actual data </li></ul>design RESEARCH QUESTION TARG <ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomena of interest </li></ul>conduct Random & systematic Error Random & systematic Error Data analysis design conduct design Step1 Step3 Step4 Step5 Step6 Step2
  16. 16. Summary of How Research Works (adapted from Hulley et al 2001) <ul><li>Actual subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Actual data </li></ul>ACTUAL STUDY RESEARCH QUESTION TARG TARG TARG STUDY PLAN TARG TRUTH IN THE SAMPLE <ul><li>Intended sample </li></ul><ul><li>Intended variable </li></ul>ACTUAL STUDY TARG FINDINGS IN THE STUDY <ul><li>Actual subject </li></ul><ul><li>Actual measurement </li></ul>design RESEARCH QUESTION TARG <ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomena of interest </li></ul>conduct Infer Random & systematic Error Random & systematic Error Data analysis RESEARCH QUESTION TARG TARG TARG STUDY PLAN TARG <ul><li>Intended sample </li></ul><ul><li>Intended variable </li></ul><ul><li>& measurement </li></ul>TARG design RESEARCH QUESTION TARG <ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomena of interest </li></ul>conduct Random & systematic Error Random & systematic Error design conduct design Step1 Step3 Step4 Step5 Step6 Step2
  17. 17. Summary of How Research Works (adapted from Hulley et al 2001) ACTUAL STUDY ACTUAL STUDY RESEARCH QUESTION TARG TARG TARG TRUTH IN THE POPULATION STUDY PLAN TARG TRUTH IN THE SAMPLE <ul><li>Intended sample </li></ul><ul><li>Intended variable </li></ul>ACTUAL STUDY TARG FINDINGS IN THE STUDY <ul><li>Actual subject </li></ul><ul><li>Actual measurement </li></ul>design RESEARCH QUESTION TARG <ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomena of interest </li></ul>conduct Infer Infer Random & systematic Error Random & systematic Error Data analysis <ul><li>Actual subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Actual data </li></ul>RESEARCH QUESTION TARG TARG TARG STUDY PLAN TARG <ul><li>Intended sample </li></ul><ul><li>Intended variable </li></ul>TARG <ul><li>Actual subject </li></ul><ul><li>Actual measurement </li></ul>design RESEARCH QUESTION TARG <ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomena of interest </li></ul>conduct Random & systematic Error Random & systematic Error RESEARCH QUESTION TARG TARG TARG STUDY PLAN TARG <ul><li>Intended sample </li></ul><ul><li>Intended variable </li></ul><ul><li>& measurement </li></ul>TARG design RESEARCH QUESTION TARG <ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomena of interest </li></ul>conduct Random & systematic Error Random & systematic Error design conduct design Step1 Step3 Step4 Step5 Step6 Step2 Step6

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