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osteology of head and neck and its applied aspects

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knowing the correct anatomy and applied aspect of osteology helps in accurate diagnosis.this ppt provides insight into different bones of head and neck and their applied aspects through images.

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osteology of head and neck and its applied aspects

  1. 1. OSTEOLOGY OF HEAD AND NECK
  2. 2. SKULL JOINTS
  3. 3. SERRATE SUTURE (SAGITTAL) Present between two parietal bones
  4. 4. Between parietal bones and occipital bone DENTICULATE SUTURE
  5. 5. PLANE SUTUTRE Between two palatine bones
  6. 6. ANATOMIC POSITION OF SKULL
  7. 7. METHODS OF STUDY OF SKULL
  8. 8. SUPERIOR VIEW OR NORMA VERTICALIS POSTERIOR VIEW OR NORMA OCCIPITALIS ANTERIOR VIEW OR NORMA FRONTALIS LATERAL VIEW OR NORMA LATERALIS INFERIOR VIEW OR NORMA BASALIS EXTERNALLY INTERNALLY CRANIAL VAULT CRANIAL BASE DIVIDED INTO 3 CRANIAL FOSSAS ANTERIOR MIDDLE POSTERIOR
  9. 9. NORMA VERTICALIS
  10. 10. BRACHYCEPHALY- FLATTENED HEAD PREMATURE BILATERAL FUSION OF CORONALSUTURES ASSOSIATEDWITH SYNDROMES SUCH AS APERT SYNDROME CARPENTER SYNDROME CLEIDOCRANIAL DYSOSTOSIS. DOWNS SYNDROME.
  11. 11. PLAGIOCEPHALY- SKEW HEAD. DUE TO UNILATERAL FUSION OF CORONAL SUTURE
  12. 12. SCAPHOCEPHALY OR DOLICOCEPHALY – ELONGATED HEAD DUE TO PREMATURE CLOSURE OF SAGGITAL SUTURE. ASSOCIATED WITH SYNDROMES LIKE CROUZON SYNDROME AND MARFAN SYDROME
  13. 13. TRIGONOCEPHALY- TRIANGULAR HEAD DUE TO PREMATURE FUSION OF METOPIC SUTURE.
  14. 14. OXYCEPHALY-HIGH HEAD DUE TO PREMATURE CLOSURE OF CORONAL SUTURE, PLUS LAMBDOID SUTURE
  15. 15. NORMA OCCIPITALIS
  16. 16. NORMA FRONTALIS
  17. 17. The metopic suture is always present at birth but usually disappears at 6-7 yrs. ( metopon= forehead) The metopic suture may persist throughout life and be mistaken for a fracture
  18. 18.  The paired frontal sinuses are posterior to the superciliary arches, between the upper and inner tables of the frontal bone.  Each usually underlies a triangular area on the surface of the face, its angles formed by the nasion, a point 3 cm above the nasion and the medial one- third and lateral two-thirds of the supraorbital margins.  They are rarely symmetrical  The average dimensions of an adult frontal sinus are height 3.2 cm, breadth 2.6 cm , depth 1.8 cm.  They open into anterior part of corresponding middle meatus or medial to hiatus semilunaris.  They are rudimentary or absent at birth , generally well developed between the seventh and eigth years, but reach full size after puberty. Frontal air sinuses
  19. 19. Frontal bossing
  20. 20. Blow out fracture of the orbit
  21. 21.  Maxilla ossifies in membrane from three centres One from maxilla proper and Two from premaxilla.  The centre for maxilla proper appears above canine fossa during the sixth week of intrauterine life.  Of the two premaxillary centres, the main centre appears above the incisive fossa during seventh week of intrauterine life.  The second centre appears at the ventral margin of nasal septum during tenth week and soon fuses with the palatal process of maxilla. Ossification of maxilla
  22. 22. a) Fronto-nasal buttress b)Malar-zygomatic buttress c) Pterygoid buttress Vertical trajectories of force
  23. 23.  The largest of the paranasal sinuses and completely fills the bodies of maxillae  Pyramidal in shape  Innervated by infra-orbital and alveolar branches of maxillary nerve  Drains in middle meatus through hiatus semilunaries  The size of the sinus is variable. Average measurements are Height- 3.5 cm Width-2.5 cm anterioposterior depth- 3.5 cm  Clinical note: Extraction of upper teeth might lead to fistula formation and sinusitis Maxillary sinus
  24. 24. The mandible is the second bone , next to the clavicle , to ossify in the body. Its greater part ossifies in membrane. The parts ossifying in the cartilage include the incisive part below the incisor teeth, the coronoid and the condyloid processes, and the upper half of the ramus above the level of the mandibular foramen. Each half of the mandible ossifies from only one centre which appears at about 6th week of the intrauterine life in the mesenchymal sheath of Merckel’s cartilage near the future mental foramen. Ossification of mandible
  25. 25. •From beneath the teeth trajectories join together in common pillar- ends at condyle. •Mandibular nerve and canal are protected •Trajectories from sympysis, gonial angle and coronoid process join this main pillar.
  26. 26. Mandibular fractures
  27. 27. Facial bone fractures result from direct trauma and usually follow one of only a small number of patterns. Some search patterns can aid in the interpretation.The eye follows these lines to check these common fracture patterns.
  28. 28. McGrigor-Campbell lines
  29. 29. Campbell's and Trapnell's lines
  30. 30. NORMA LATERALIS
  31. 31. keens Transoral approach
  32. 32. Elongation of styloid process in eagles syndrome
  33. 33. Gilles Temporal approach
  34. 34. NORMA BASALIS
  35. 35. Pharyngeal tubercle
  36. 36. Anterior part of norma basalis
  37. 37. GUERIN’S SIGN
  38. 38. TREATMENT SCHEDULE
  39. 39. Latham appliance
  40. 40. Vanderwoude syndrome
  41. 41. Middle part of norma basalis
  42. 42. posterior part of norma basalis
  43. 43. Foramen magnum
  44. 44. Jugular foramen
  45. 45. INTERNAL SURFACE OF CRANIAL VAULT
  46. 46. INTERNAL SURFACE OF BASE OF THE SKULL
  47. 47. Anterior fossa
  48. 48. Cibriform plate of ethmoid
  49. 49. Racoon eyes Rhinorrhea ANTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA
  50. 50. Middle cranial fossa
  51. 51. Sphenoid bone
  52. 52. Foramen Lacerum Structures passing whole length: 1. Meningeal branch of Ascending pharyngeal artery 2. Emissary vein 3. Internal carotid artery 4. Greater petrosal nerve
  53. 53. Sphenoidal air sinus  The sphenoidal sinuses are two large irregular cavities within the body of the sphenoid and therefore lie posterior to the upper part of nasal cavity.  At birth the sinuses are minute cavities, and their main development occurs after puberty.  The average adult dimensions are vertical height 2cm, Transverse breadth 1.8 cm , anterioposterior depth 2.1 cm.
  54. 54. MIDDLE CRANIAL FOSSA Hemotympanum CSF leak ottorhea
  55. 55. Foramen magnum
  56. 56. Jugular foramen
  57. 57. Posterior cranial fossa Battle’s sign
  58. 58.  Bruising over sub-occipital region  Cranial nerve injuries Double ring sign- Fluid from ear or nose placed on filter paper and a halo of double ring may be seen.
  59. 59. HYOID BONE
  60. 60. Attachments to hyoid bone
  61. 61. CERVICAL VERTEBRAE
  62. 62. Typical cervical vertibrae
  63. 63. Atlas
  64. 64. Axis
  65. 65. Seventh cervical vertebra

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