Remote Sensing AndGIS Applications InGlacier And SnowCover StudiesBySwetha A5WD12CGI15
Introduction•Snow : Atmospheric water vapor frozen into ice crystals andfalling in light white flakes or lying on the ground as a whitelayer.•Glacier : are large masses of snow, recrystallized ice and rockdebris that accumulate in great quantities and begin to flowoutwards and downwards under the pressure of their ownweight•Snow cover : ground covered with snow showing some depth•Sea ice : Sea ice is simply frozen ocean water .Found inremote polar oceans
What is the cryosphere?• Some places on Earth are so cold that water is a solid—ice orsnow. Scientists call these frozen places of our planet the"cryosphere." (snow , ice, glacier, sea ice, ice selves ice bergs,frozen ground)• The Arctic• Antarctica• And In between (snow on Mount Kilimanjaro is inAfrica )
Types of snow cover• New snow• Firn• Névé• Old snow• Seasonal snow• Perennial snow• Powder snow
Distribution of glaciers and ice around the world.• The GLIMSproject (GlobalLand IceMeasurementsfrom Space) iscurrently creatinga unique glacierinventory storingcriticalinformation aboutthe extent andrates of change ofthe worldsestimated 160,000glaciers.
Arctic SeaIceMaps ofSeptember iceextent for 1980,2007, 2008,2009, 2010 and2011
Arctic Sea IceAcquired September14, 1984 Acquired September 13, 2012
• These snow cover maps are madefrom observations collected by theModerate Resolution ImagingSpectroradiometer (MODIS) onNASA’s Terra satellite.• Snow cover values range frommedium blue (greater than 0 percent)to white (100 percent).• Landmasses that do not sustain snowcover and places where MODIS didnot collect data are gray or black.• Because MODIS relies on visible lightto assess snow cover, the sensorcannot collect data over the highestlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphereduring winter when no sunlightreaches those regions.
MODIS ( Moderate Resolution ImagingSpectroradiometer )• Is a key instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites.• Terra was launched on December 18, 1999, and Aqua was launched onMay 4, 2002• Terras orbit around the Earth is timed so that it passes from north to southacross the equator in the morning, while Aqua passes south to north overthe equator in the afternoon.• Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS are viewing the entire Earths surfaceevery 1 to 2 days, acquiring data in 36 spectral bands, or groups ofwavelengths• 1,000-m, 500-m, and 250-m resolution spectral bands• Works in visible region .
• The ModerateResolutionImagingSpectroradiometer(MODIS) onNASA’s Aquasatellite capturethis view of theChesapeake Bayregion
• Lake Michigan,South. The truecolor image (left)while the false colorice cover image(right) is derivedfrom theMODIS/TerraSnow Cover. Imagecourtesy of NSIDC.(National Snow andIce Data Center)
• Patagonian glaciers, including LosGlaciares National Park andthe Moreno Glacier. Chile andArgentina.• The Vatnajokull glacier is thelargest in Iceland.• Glacial moraine near Zermatt,Switzerland.Glaciers on Landsat GeoCover Satellite Images
The Himalayas abut or cross five countries: Bhutan, India, Nepal,China, and Pakistan
Karakoram region, and in the Greater Himalayan Range
Thickening Of Karakoram GlaciersIn Himalayas• Map of Khurdopin Glacier, a surge-type glacier, during2000-2008. The yellow polygon shows the area where thethinning rate (and thus the ablation rate) is averaged.PHOTO: CNES 2008 / Distribution Spot Image
Do glaciers and snow affectpeople?• Glaciers Provide Drinking Water• Glaciers Irrigate Crops• Glaciers Help Generate Hydroelectric Power• Recreation Skiing and snowboarding Snowshoeing Snowmobiling
Are glaciers and snowdangerous?• Flooding Caused By A Glacier• Avalanches From Glaciers• The Threat Of Icebergs• Snow Avalanches• Ice Storm• Blizzard• Thunder Snow
Snow & glacier melting due to• Global warming(0.32° increase)• Greenhouse effect• Climatic change• Land use changes• Deforestation (increase in atmospheric methane )
Conclusion• Polar Satellites• 518A - Preserving Glaciers and Polar Regions(Iceland, Finland and Chile )• Monitoring Of Snow Cover• Instrument development• Seasonal changes monitoring• Microwave Images
References• National Snow And Ice Data Center (NSIDC)• Snow Cover And Glacier Change Study In Nepalese HimalayaUsing Remote Sensing And Geographic Information SystemBy Arun Bhakta Shrestha1 And Sharad Prasad Joshi2• Mapping Glacier Variations From 1990 To 2006in TheCentral Mongolian Altai By Brandon Scott Krumwiede• Monitoring Receding Of Glaciers And In North-easternPakistan Through Geo-informatics Techniques By Umair BinZamir