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GIS software

  1. 1. Esri is a software development and services company providing Geographic Information System (GIS) software and geodatabase management applications. The headquarters of Esri is in Redlands, California. Jack and Laura Dangermond founded Esri in 1969. Jack Dangermond is the current president of Esri The company was founded as Environmental Systems Research Institute in 1969 as a land-use consulting firm. Esri products (particularly ArcGIS Desktop) have one-third of the global market share In 2009 Esri had approximately a 30 percent share of the GIS software market worldwide, more than any other vendor Other sources estimate that about seventy percent of the current GIS users make use of Esri products In the 1990s, Esri experienced a period of rapid growth spurred by faster and cheaper computers, network processing, electronic data publishing, and new data capture techniques such as remote sensing and GPS. Esri's first desktop solution, ArcView, had a major impact on the industry by opening up the possibilities of GIS to more users. In addition, Esri's growing business partner and developer programs allowed further expansion and the advent of customized solutions. Esri also increased its support for GIS education at the university level and introduced a comprehensive K-12 program. In addition, the company expanded its own training programs and facilities. Today, Esri offers hundreds of courses at various training sites around the world as well as online courses, live training seminars, and podcasts. Esri Press was launched, which now has nearly 100 titles. While most organizations choose to implement the software on their own, Esri continues to offer project-, implementation-, and industry-focused services. GIS and the Enterprise During the late 1990s, Esri reengineered ARC/INFO to develop a modular and scalable GIS platform that would work both on the desktop and across the enterprise. The result was ArcGIS. Next, Esri released ArcGIS Server, the corresponding data management component for Esri's ArcGIS software family. It allows GIS capabilities to be delivered to large numbers of users over existing networks. Analysts can author maps, globes, and geoprocessing tasks on their desktops and publish them online using integrated tools. GIS functions can be delivered as services throughout the enterprise. Users can connect to central servers using traditional desktop GIS as well as Web browsers, mobile computing devices, and digital appliances. They can also connect to services via Amazon Cloud. This server technology provides broad support for interoperability standards and allows integration with other enterprise software. Esri has also actively participated in the development of GIS standards. During this time, it became increasingly evident that the GIS community needed a means to increase awareness of GIS. Prompted by an idea from consumer advocate Ralph Nader, Esri launched GIS Day in 1999 in coordination with the National Geographic Society. Now, GIS Day is held every year during Geography Awareness Week. Each stage in Esri's evolution has involved major technology changes. Today it's the Web and Web GIS. The power of the Web promises to support more GIS collaboration. Applications already possible include sharing commercial services, mashups, and data replication services. The Web is also making GIS more distributed, multiparticipant, and open. This means that more and more people are engaged in activities such as creating and interacting with maps online, so Esri has steadily integrated the online experience into ArcGIS technology. Software such as ArcGIS Desktop and ArcGIS Explorer provide instant access to a host of
  2. 2. online services, including maps and tools. Esri is also taking advantage of cloud computing opportunities to help make GIS available to anyone, is Esri's newest online experience that brings content, tools, and the growing GIS community together in one Web portal. Prior to the ArcGIS suite, Esri had focused its software development on the command line Arc/INFO workstation program and several Graphical User Interface-based products such as the ArcView GIS 3.x desktop program. Other Esri products included MapObjects, a programming library for developers, and ArcSDE as a relational database management system. The various products had branched out into multiple source trees and did not integrate well with one another. In January 1997, Esri decided to revamp its GIS software platform, creating a single integrated software architecture. ArcGIS 8.x In late 1999, Esri released ArcGIS 8.0, which ran on the Microsoft Windows operating system.[1] ArcGIS combined the visual user-interface aspect of ArcView GIS 3.x interface with some of the power from the Arc/INFO version 7.2 workstation. This pairing resulted in a new software suite called ArcGIS, which included the command-line ArcInfo workstation (v8.0) and a new graphical user interface application called ArcMap(v8.0) incorporating some of the functionality of ArcInfo with a more intuitive interface, as well as an ArcGIS file management application called ArcCatalog (v8.0). The release of the ArcGIS suite constituted a major change in Esri's software offerings, aligning all their client and server products under one software architecture known as ArcGIS, developed using Microsoft Windows COM standards.[2] One major difference is the programming (scripting) languages available to customize or extend the software to suit particular user needs. In the transition to ArcGIS, Esri dropped support of its application-specific scripting languages, Avenue and the ARC Macro Language (AML), in favour of Visual Basic for Applications scripting and open access to ArcGIS components using the Microsoft COM standards.[3] ArcGIS is designed to store data in a proprietary RDBMS format, known as geodatabase. ArcGIS 8.x introduced other new features, including on-the- flymap projections, and annotation in the database.[4] Updates of ArcView 3.x extensions, including 3D Analyst and Spatial Analyst, came later with release of ArcGIS 8.1, which was unveiled at the Esri International User Conference in 2000.[5] ArcGIS 8.1 was officially released on April 24, 2001. Other new extensions were made available with ArcGIS 8.1, including GeoStatistical Analyst. ArcGIS 8.1 also added the ability to access data online, directly from the Geography Network site or other ArcIMS map services.[3] ArcGIS 8.3 was introduced in 2002, adding topology to geodatabases, which was a feature originally available only with ArcInfo coverages.[6] ArcGIS 9.x ArcGIS 9 was released in May 2004, which included ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Engine for developers.[1] The ArcGIS 9 release includes ageoprocessing environment that allows execution of traditional GIS processing tools (such as clipping, overlay, and spatial analysis) interactively or from any scripting language that supports COM standards. Although the most popular of these is Python, others have been used, especially Perl and VBScript. ArcGIS 9 includes a visual programming environment, similar to ERDAS IMAGINE's Model Maker (released in 1994, v8.0.2). The Esri version is called ModelBuilder and as does the ERDAS IMAGINE version allows users to graphically link geoprocessing tools into new tools called models. These models can be executed directly or exported to scripting languages which can then execute in batch
  3. 3. mode (launched from a command line), or they can undergo further editing to add branching or looping. On June 26, 2008, Esri released ArcGIS 9.3. The new version of ArcGIS Desktop has new modeling tools and geostatistical error tracking features, while ArcGIS Server has improved performance, and support for role-based security. There also are new JavaScript APIs that can be used to create mashups, and integrated with either Google Maps or Microsoft Virtual Earth. At the 2008 Esri Developers Summit, there was little emphasis on ArcIMS, except for one session on transitioning from ArcIMS to ArcGIS Server-based applications, indicating a change in focus for Esri with ArcGIS 9.3 for web-based mapping applications. In May 2009, Esri released ArcGIS 9.3.1, which improved the performance of dynamic map publishing and introduced better sharing of geographic information. ArcGIS 10.x In 2010, Esri announced what had previously been thought of as version 9.4 would be version 10 and would be shipped in the second quarter of 2010. The current version is 10.0. as of September 2010. Desktop GIS As of September 2010 Esri's current desktop GIS suite is version 10.0. ArcGIS Desktop software products allow users to author, analyze, map, manage, share, and publish geographic information. ArcGIS Desktop ships in three levels of licensing: ArcView, ArcEditor and ArcInfo. ArcView provides a robust set of GIS capabilities suitable for many GIS applications. ArcEditor, at added cost, expands the desktop capabilities to allow more extensive data editing and manipulation, including server geodatabase editing. ArcInfo is at the high end and provides full, advanced analysis and data management capabilities, including geostatistical and topological analysis tools. At all levels of licensing, ArcMap, ArcCatalog and ArcToolbox are the names of the applications comprising the desktop package. ArcGIS Explorer, ArcReader, and ArcExplorer are basic freeware applications for viewing GIS data. ArcGIS Desktop Extensions are available, including Spatial Analyst which allows raster analysis, and 3D Analyst which allows terrain mapping and analysis. Other more specialized extensions are available from Esri and third parties for specific GIS needs. Esri's original product, ARC/INFO, was a command line GIS product available initially on minicomputers, then on UNIX workstations. In 1992, a GUI GIS, ArcView GIS, was introduced. Over time, both of those products were offered in Windows versions and ArcView was offered as a Macintosh product. The names ArcView and ArcInfo are now used to name different levels of licensing in ArcGIS Desktop, and less often refer to these original software products. The Windows version of ArcGIS is now the only ArcGIS Desktop platform that is undergoing new development for future product releases. Server GIS
  4. 4. Server GIS products allow GIS functionality and data to be deployed from a central environment. ArcIMS (Internet Mapping Server) provides browser based access to GIS. ArcSDE (Spatial Database Engine) is used as an RDBMS connector for other Esri software to store and retrieve GIS data within a commercially available RDBMS. Currently ArcSDE can be used with Oracle, DB2, Informix and Microsoft SQL Server databases. It supports its native SDE binary data format, Oracle Spatial, and ST_geometry. ArcGIS Server is an internet application service, used to extend the functionality of ArcGIS Desktop software to a browser based environment... ArcGIS Server is available on Solaris and Linux as well as Windows and will eventually phase out ArcIMS. Other server based products include Geoportal Extension, ArcGIS Image Server and Tracking Server as well as several others. Mobile GIS Mobile GIS conflates GIS, GPS, location-based services, handheld computing, and the growing availability of geographic data. ArcGIS technology can be deployed on a range of mobile systems from lightweight devices to PDAs, laptops, and Tablet PCs. Products: ArcPad, Mobile ArcGIS Desktop Systems, ArcGIS Server (Server-oriented APIs), ArcWeb Services (Web- oriented APIs), hosted geographic databases, ArcGIS mobile. ArcGIS mobile ADF is an API to develop applications on windows mobile platform of different flavors (pocketpc, smartphone). Developer GIS Developer GIS products enable building custom desktop or server GIS applications or embed GIS functionality in existing applications. These focused solutions can then be easily deployed throughout an organization. Products: Esri Developer Network or EDN, ArcEngine (Desktop- oriented APIs), ArcGIS Server (Server-oriented APIs and a web development ADF which is part of ArcGIS Server), ArcWeb Services (Web-oriented APIs) Online GIS (ArcGIS Online) ArcGIS includes online, or internet, capabilities in all Esri software products. Online capabilities are centrally located at These include web API’s, hosted map and geoprocessing services, and a user sharing program. A variety of basemaps is a signature feature of The Esri Community Maps program compiles detailed user basemap information into a common cartographic format called Topographic Basemap. ArcGIS consists of Desktop GIS products, as well as GIS products that run on a server, or on a mobile device. ArcGIS Desktop is available at different product levels, with increasing functionality.  ArcReader (freeware, viewer) is a basic data viewer for maps and GIS data published in the proprietary Esri format using ArcGIS Publisher. The software also provides some basic tools for map viewing, printing and querying of spatial data. ArcReader is included with any of the
  5. 5. ArcGIS suite of products, and is also available for free to download. ArcReader only works with preauthored published map files, created with ArcGIS Publisher.  ArcView is the entry level of ArcGIS licensing offered. With ArcView, one is able to view and edit GIS data held in flat files, or view data stored in a relational database management system by accessing it through ArcSDE.  ArcEditor is the midlevel software suite designed for advanced editing of spatial data published in the proprietary Esri format. It provides tools for the creation of map and spatial data used in GIS, including the ability of editing geodatabase files and data, multiuser geodatabase editing, versioning, raster data editing and vectorization, advanced vector data editing, managing coverages, coordinate geometry (COGO), and editing geometric networks. ArcEditor is not intended for advanced spatial analysis.  ArcInfo allows users the most flexibility and control in all aspects of data building, modeling, analysis, and map display. ArcInfo includes increased capability in the areas of spatial analysis, geoprocessing, data management, and others. Other desktop GIS software include ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Engine. ArcGIS Explorer is a GIS viewer which can work as a client forArcGIS Server, ArcIMS, ArcWeb Services and Web Map Service (WMS).  ArcGIS Online is a free web application currently in public beta, allowing sharing and search of geographic information, as well as content published by Esri, ArcGIS users, and other authoritative data providers. It allows users to create and join groups, and control access to items shared publicly or within groups.  ArcGIS Web Mapping APIs are APIs for several languages, allowing users to build and deploy applications that include GIS functionality and Web services from ArcGIS Online and ArcGIS Server. Adobe Flex, JavaScript and Microsoft Silverlight are supported for applications that can be embedded in web pages or launched as stand-alone Web applications. Flex, Adobe Air and Windows Presentation Foundation(WPF) are supported for desktop applications. Components ArcGIS Desktop consists of several integrated applications, including ArcMap, ArcCatalog, ArcToolbox, and ArcGlobe. ArcCatalog is the data management application, used to browse datasets and files on one's computer, database, or other sources. In addition to showing what data is available, ArcCatalog also allows users to preview the data on a map. ArcCatalog also provides the ability to view and manage metadata for spatial datasets.[21] ArcMap is the application used to view, edit and query geospatial data, and create maps. The ArcMap inferface has two main sections, including a table of contents on the left and the data frame(s) which display the map. Items in the table of contents correspond with layers on the map.[22] ArcToolbox contains geoprocessing, data conversion, and analysis tools, along with much of the functionality in ArcInfo. It is also possible to use batch processing with ArcToolbox, for frequently repeated tasks. Extensions
  6. 6. There are a number of software extensions for ArcGIS Desktop to provide added functionality, including 3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst, Network Analyst, Survey Analyst, Tracking Analyst, and Geostatistical Analyst.[24] Advanced map labeling is available with the Maplex extension, as an add-on to ArcView and ArcEditor and is bundled with ArcInfo.[19] Numerous extensions have also been developed by third-parties, such as XTools and MAP2PDF for creating georeferenced pdfs (GeoPDF),[25] ERDAS' Image Analysis and Stereo Analyst for ArcGIS, and ISM'sPurVIEW, which converts Arc- desktops into precise stereo-viewing windows to work with geo-referenced stereoscopic image models for accurate geodatabase-direct editing or feature digitizing. Mobile Products ArcGIS Mobile and ArcPad are products designed for mobile devices. ArcGIS Mobile is a software development kit for developers to use to create applications for mobile devices, such as smartphones or tablet PCs. If connected to the Internet, mobile applications can connect to ArcGIS Server to access or update data. ArcGIS Mobile is only available at the Enterprise level[26] Server GIS products include ArcIMS (web mapping server), ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Image Server. As with ArcGIS Desktop, ArcGIS Server is available at different product levels, including Basic, Standard, and Advanced Editions. ArcGIS Server comes with SQL Server ExpressDBMS embedded, and can work with enterprise DBMS such as SQL Server Enterprise and Oracle.[27] The Esri Developer Network (EDN) includes ArcObjects and other tools for building custom software applications, and ArcGIS Engine provides a programming interface for developers.
  7. 7. ArcCatalog • Browse-Text or Graphics • Manage-Copy, Delete, Rename,Coordinate System, Add attributes,Build Indexes,Symbology Search Metadata-Create,View,XML Storage Three ways to view dataContents,Preview,Metadata 2map view—Pagelayout,Data view
  8. 8. ArcView is full-featured geographic information system (GIS) software for visualizing, managing, creating, and analyzing geographic data. Using ArcView, you can understand the geographic context of your data, allowing you to see relationships and identify patterns in new ways. ArcView helps tens of thousands of organizations make better decisions and solve problems faster. Key Features Quality Mapping o Author maps using simple wizards and an extensive suite of map elements. o Use predefined map templates that save you time and make it easy to create a consistent style in your maps. o Create interactive maps from file, database, and online sources. o Create interactive maps that link nonspatial data to specific locations. o Create interactive maps that allow you to access a wide variety of digital data. o Create street-level maps that incorporate GPS locations. o View CAD data or satellite images. o Generate reports and charts. o Save, print, export, or embed completed maps in other documents or applications. Spatial Analysis o Analyze spatial data and derive answers from data of a location-dependent nature. o Visually model and spatially analyze a process or workflow. o Use a geoprocessing framework that includes ready-to-use analysis tools as well as the ability to build process models, scripts, and complete workflows. Data Use and Integration o Create and manage geographic data, tabular data, and metadata. o Use a wide variety of data types including demographics, facilities, CAD drawings, imagery, Web services, and multimedia. o Directly read or import more than 70 different formats in ArcView. Ready-to-Use Datasets Begin your visualization and analysis right away with the included ESRI Data & Maps Media Kit, which is updated annually and preconfigured to work specifically with ESRI software. The ESRI Data & Maps Media Kit contains more than 24 GB of data including o Basemap and thematic MXDs for Canada, Europe, Mexico, the United States, and the world o Commercial data from Tele Atlas, AND Mapping, DMTI Spatial, WorldSat, EarthSat, EuroGeographics, Michael Bauer Research, World Wildlife Fund, SIGSA, and ESRI o Ninety-meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset
  9. 9. o All levels of U.S. Census geography and ZIP Codes o TIGER 2000-based StreetMap USA data ArcGIS Online includes optimized, ready-to-use content and capabilities such as 2D maps, 3D globes, and reference layers. ArcGIS Online services are always available on the Web so that users with Internet access can use these services at any time. GIS Deployment o View, navigate, and print published ArcGIS maps using ArcReader (.pmf files). o Deploy your GIS data—share and deliver interactive maps based on dynamic content. o Offer novices and professionals alike a way to view and query your published maps. Map Viewing and Navigation o Perform basic map navigation such as zooming and panning and switching between map and page layout view. o Communicate more efficiently with the ability to graphically mark up maps. o Utilize ArcWeb Services in ArcReader including route, nearby place, and address finding. Data Query and Exploration o Use ArcReader tools such as Find and Identify to explore a variety of geographic data including raster and vector data. o Use tools such as Identify, Find, Measure, Hyperlink, and Magnifier Window to discover information not available when working with static paper maps. Map Printing o Print published map documents and published globe documents including all layer symbology and cartographic map elements on any supported printer. Configurable and Customizable o Using the ArcGIS Publisher wizard, you can control the appearance of the ArcReader application when it opens a map. o Create custom ArcReader applications or embed ArcReader capabilities into existing applications using the ArcGIS Publisher developer controls. Menus and Functionalities of ArcGIS: ArcMap is the main component of Esri's ArcGIS suite of geospatial processing programs, and is used primarily to view, edit, create, and analyze geospatial data. ArcMap allows the user to explore data within a data set, symbolize features accordingly, and create maps. Functionality
  10. 10. ArcMap users can create and manipulate data sets to include a variety of information. For example, the maps produced in ArcMap generally include features such as north arrows, scale bars, titles, legends, etc. The software package include a style-set of these features. The ArcGIS suite is available at three license levels: ArcEditor, ArcView, and ArcInfo. Each step up in the license provides the user with more extensions that allow a variety of querying to be performed on a data set. ArcInfo is the highest level of licensing, and allows the user to use such extensions as 3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst, and the Geostatistical Analyst. Maps created and saved within ArcMap will create a file on the hard drive with an .mxd extension. Once an .mxd file is opened in ArcMap, the user can display a variety of information, as long as it exists within the data set. At this time the user will create an entirely new map output and use the customization and design features to create a unique product. Upon completion of the map, ArcMap has the ability to save, print, and export files to PDF. The geographic information that is loaded into ArcMap can be viewed in two ways: data view and layout view. In data view, the user can interact with the geographic information presented, and the map elements are hidden from view. Most projects begin in this view, and continue to the layout view for final editing and production. While in the layout view, the user can incorporate a number of useful features such as scale bars and north arrows. These elements are crucial to map-making, and provide clients with appropriate reference information. Editing in ArcMap ArcCatalog is a geodatabase administration application in ESRI's ArcGIS suite. It provides an integrated and unified view of all the data files, databases, and ArcGIS documents, integrating information that exists in many forms, including relational databases, files, ArcGIS documents, and remote GIS web services. Specifically, ArcCatalog allows an ArcGIS user to:  Browse and find geographic information  Record, view, and manage metadata  Define, export, and import geodatabase data models and datasets  Search for and discover GIS data on local networks and the Web  Create and manage the schemas of geodatabases  Administer ArcSDE geodatabases  Administer an ArcGIS server A central place to access GIS information What is a model? • An abstraction of reality. • A model is structured as a set of rules and procedures to derive new information that can be analyzed to aid in problem solving and planning.
  11. 11. A procedure run on a database to derive a measure or a set of measures. A set of clearly defined analytical procedures used to derive new information. A model is structured as a set of rules and procedures to derive new information that can be analyzed to aid in problem solving and planning. Analytical tools in a geographic information system (GIS) are used for building spatial models. Models can include a combination of logical expressions, mathematical procedures and criteria, which are applied for the purpose of simulating a process, predicting an outcome, or characterizing a phenomenon. The terms modeling and analysis are often used interchangeably. Analysis is the process of identifying a question or issue to be addressed, modeling, investigating model results, and making interpretations about the results including a recommendation about the issue being addressed. Modeling is more limited in scope; it is the process of simulation, prediction, or description. What is modeling? To produce a representation or simulation of a problem.A procedure run on a database to derive a measure or set of measures.A set of clearly defined procedures used to derive new information. What is analysis? The process of modeling, examining and interpreting model results. Analysis is the process of extracting or creating new information about a set of geographic features. Spatial analysis is useful for suitability and capability evaluation, for estimation and prediction, and for interpretation and understanding. Analysis is often referred to as modeling. In GIS, there are four traditional types of spatial analysis: spatial overlay and contiguity analysis, surface analysis, network analysis (pathfinding and linear feature modeling), and raster, cell-based analysis. 2. Data representation of reality; for example, spatial data models include the arc-node, georelational model, rasters or grids, and tins. See also spatial modeling and analysis ModelBuilder is an application in which you create, edit, and manage models ModelBuilder for building generic tools In this mode, you use ModelBuilder to build a tool that will be used as a system tool; opened and run from ArcToolbox, entered as a command in the Command Line window, called in scripts, or embedded in other models. The expectation is that these types of tools will be shared with others. Models built in this way expose variables as model parameters and should have meaningful variable names and full documentation. Below is an example of a generic tool model. Note that none of the processes are ready-to-run, since all parameters will be supplied by the user at run time.
  12. 12. With ArcIMS, you can Deliver dynamic maps and data via the Web. Share data with others to accomplish tasks. Implementation The core of ArcIMS is a spatial server where most of the map related services are processed. On the server side, ArcIMS connector sits on top of web server and ArcIMS component and Application server works behind the scene. On the client side, the viewers can be thin client, custom clients or Esri desktop application like ArcMap, ArcExplorer, or ArcPad. ArcIMS uses Esri's ArcXML to receive and respond to requests from the client. The data behind ArcIMS is usually stored in Shapefile format (an open specification) or an ArcSDE RDBMS database.
  13. 13. The Data Delivery Extension (DDE) is an extension to the ArcIMS product that delivers data to users in a data format and coordinate system of their own choosing, in order to have access to data in a format compatible with their local GIS applications. Metadata Services ArcIMS metadata services can be used to create a central, online metadata repository that allows you to easily publish and efficiently browse metadata over the Internet. You can author your metadata through the ArcGIS ArcCatalog™ application using industry-standard and user- definable style templates, then publish your metadata by simply dragging and dropping it into the ArcIMS Metadata Server. asily Create and Share Your Web Mapping Application You can build and customize viewers by using the ArcIMS Web Manager or the ArcIMS Application Developer Framework (ADF). Users without developer experience can benefit from the step-by-step workflow in ArcIMS Web Manager, which lets you choose the function¬ality and services you want to use in the application. Multiple map ser¬vices can be integrated into a single Web application. Once published to the Web, you can still edit the application in ArcIMS Web Manager. The ADF provides developers with additional flexibility to easily create customized viewers from scratch or edit the output from ArcIMS Web Manager. Two versions of the ADF can be used—one for the Microsoft .NET Framework and one for the Java platform. On the client side, the custom viewer provides visitors to your Web site with the ability to view high-quality, interactive maps that feature tools including seamless pan, dynamic zoom, MapTips, and keyboard shortcuts. Maintain Standards and Security ArcIMS supports Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) capabilities that adhere to Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC), specifications. For more information on ESRI’s commitment to interoperability and standards, visit To manage the security of your Web site, ArcIMS also supports Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol and Secure Sockets Layer Protocol. In addi¬tion, ArcIMS performs user authentication for map services, allowing you to define which users have access to GIS data ArcIMS Route Server—Put routing capabilities on your Website by adding the ArcIMS Route Server extension to your application. Users can quickly obtain point-to-point directions, locate optimal routes based on time and distance, account for multiple stops along a route, and create drive-time rings around a point. ArcIMS Data Delivery—The ArcIMS Data Delivery extension enables users to easily select, export, and deliver data in multiple formats and projections from a centralized Internet server.
  14. 14. This extension allows users and administrators to publish data in a wide variety of standard spatial formats used within the industry. With ArcIMS Data Delivery, you can download data in 20 different formats using a simple browser-based application, project features to more than 4,000 projections, and download extracted features in ZIP files. Geodata services A geodata service allows you to access a geodatabase through a local area network (LAN) or the Internet using ArcGIS Server. The service exposes the ability to perform geodatabase replication operations, make copies using data extraction and execute queries in the geodatabase. A geodata service may be added for any type of geodatabase including ArcSDE geodatabases, personal geodatabases and file geodatabases. Geodata services are useful in situations where you need to access geodatabases in remote locations. For example, a company may want to set up ArcSDE geodatabases to manage data in its Los Angeles and New York offices. Once created, each office can publish its ArcSDE geodatabase on the Internet using a geodata service. The geodata services can then be used to create replicas for the ArcSDE geodatabases. With geodatabase replication, the geodata services can be also used to periodically synchronize the changes in each geodatabase over the Internet. Before working with geodata services, you should have a basic understanding of how geodatabases, geodatabase replication, and data extraction work. The topic Understanding distributed data in the ArcGIS Desktop Help is a good starting point. Additionally, it's helpful to have some experience performing replication and data extraction in the ArcGIS Desktop environment before attempting these operations with ArcGIS Server The following
  15. 15. diagram and examples describe how geodata services are consumed: 1. Enterprise geodatabase: In the diagram above, a replica exists between an enterprise geodatabase in New York and an enterprise geodatabase in Los Angeles. The replica was created by first publishing the Los Angeles geodatabase as a geodata service with the Replication operation enabled in ArcGIS Server. An administrator in New York then accessed this geodata service over the Internet and used the ArcGIS Desktop tools to create a replica. (See the preceding section for information on how you can replicas from geodata services.) Once replicated, editors perform updates to each enterprise geodatase locally. The administrator in New York periodically runs a geoprocessing model to connect to the geodata service in Los Angeles and synchronize changes in both directions. This keeps the geodatabases synchronized, allowing users to access the same information at either location. 2. Single User Geodatabases: There are also replicas between the Los Angeles enterprise geodatabase and local geodatabases running on field workers' laptops. The field workers disconnect from the network, make updates to their local geodatabases during the day and then synchronize with the Los Angeles database at the end of each day. In this case, field workers can use check-out replicas to personal or file geodatabases. At the end of each day the laptops are connected to the Los Angeles geodatabase and changes are checked in. Once check in completes, new check-outs needs to be created for the next days work. This can be done using a geoprocessing model that is scheduled to run overnight. To avoid having to run the check out process each night, two way replicas can be used instead of check-out replicas. A two way replica allows multiple synchronizations which can both send and receive changes. Therefore, at the end of the day, each laptop can run through a synchronization process to both upload changes and get the latest modifications from the Los Angeles geodatabase. Personal
  16. 16. ArcSDE geodatabases running on each laptop can be used to create the two way replicas. These processes can be run locally in the office by plugging the field laptops into the LAN each night. In cases where the field workers are too remote to make it back to the office each night, they can also run the processes on the Internet. Here, instead of accessing the geodatabase directly, they connect to the geodata service published for the Los Angeles geodatabase over the Internet. Once integrated, the changes from the field workers are also shared with the New York office when the enterprise offices synchronize. Service type GIS resource Map service Map document (.mxd, .pmf) Geocode service Address locator (.loc, .mxs, SDE batch locator) Geodata service Database connection file (.sde) or Personal Geodatabase or File Geodatabase or Map document with a layer that references a layer from a versioned geodatabase Geoprocessing service Map document with a tool layer or Toolbox (.tbx) Globe service Globe document (.3dd, .pmf) Pooling You can modify a service's properties to make it either pooled or non-pooled. Pooled services can be shared between multiple application sessions. Therefore, pooled services should only be used with stateless operations. In contrast, non-pooled services are dedicated to one application session and are used when the application requires stateful operations, such as editing. Non-pooled services should generally only be created for editing data, connecting through an ArcGIS Server Local connection. Both pooled and non-pooled configurations require you to specify a minimum and maximum number of instances when you add the service. When you start the service configuration, the GIS server pre-creates and initializes the minimum number of instances. When an application asks the server object manager (SOM) for an instance of that service, it gets a reference to one of the pre-created services. If all of the pre-created services are in use, the server creates a new instance, and will do this for each subsequent request until the maximum allowable number of instances for the configuration has been reached, or the capacity of all container machines has been reached, whichever comes first. Pooled services An application that uses a pooled service instance only uses it for the amount of time it takes to complete one request (for example, draw a map or geocode an address). After the request is completed, the application releases its reference to the service and returns it directly to the
  17. 17. pool. Users of such an application may be working with a number of different instances of a service in the pool as they interact with the application. This fact is transparent to the users, since the state of all the instances in the pool is the same. For example, a stateless application that wants to draw a certain extent of a map will get a reference to an instance of a map service from the pool, execute a method on the map service to draw the map, then release it back to the pool. The next time the application needs to draw the map, this is repeated. Each draw of the map may use a different instance of the pooled service; therefore, each pooled service must be the same (have the same set of layers, the same renderer for each layer, and so on). If a user changes the state of a pooled service by, for example, adding a layer or changing a layer's renderer, he or she will see inconsistent results while panning and zooming around the map. This is because the instance whose state was changed was returned to the pool, and the user is not guaranteed to receive that particular instance from the pool every time he or she requests a service. It's the developer's responsibility to make sure that the application does not change the state of the instance and that the instance is returned to the pool in a timely manner. Pooling services allows the GIS server to support more users with fewer resources allocated to a particular service. Because applications can share a pool of services, the number of concurrent users on the system can be greater than that which would be possible if each user held a reference to a dedicated service. Pooled services can support more users because application sessions share a collection of services in the pool. Non-pooled services An application that makes use of a non-pooled service typically holds its reference to the service for the duration of the application's session. When the application releases the instance, it is destroyed and the GIS server creates a new one to maintain the number of available instances. For this reason, the user of a non-pooled service can make changes to the service's underlying data. With non-pooled services, the number of users on the system can have no more than a 1:1 correlation with the number of running service instances. Therefore, the number of
  18. 18. concurrent users the GIS server can support is equal to the number of non-pooled services that it can support effectively at any one time. With non-pooled services, the number of users on the system can have no more than a 1:1 correlation with the number of running service instances. Recycling Service recycling allows services that have become unusable to be destroyed and replaced with fresh services; recycling also reclaims resources taken up by stale services. Pooled services are typically shared between multiple applications and users of those applications. Through reuse, a number of things can happen to a service to make it unavailable for use by applications. For example, an application may incorrectly modify a service's state, or an application may incorrectly hold a reference to a service, making it unavailable to other applications or sessions. In some cases, services may become corrupted and unusable. Recycling allows you to keep the pool of services fresh and cycle out stale or unusable services. Note that recycling does not apply to non-pooled services because non- pooled services are created explicitly for use by a particular client and destroyed after use. During recycling, the server destroys, then re-creates each instance in a pooled service configuration. Recycling occurs as a background process on the server. Although you will not see anything on your screen notifying you that recycling is occurring, you can see the events associated with recycling in the log files. After recycling occurs, you will also notice that the number of running instances has returned to the minimum allowed. The time between recycling events is called the recycling interval. The default recycling interval is 24 hours, which you can change in the Service Properties dialog. You can also select the time that the configuration will initially be recycled. From that time forward, recycling will occur each time the recycling interval is reached. Services are recycled one instance at a time to ensure that instances remain available and to spread out the performance hits caused by creating a new instance of each service. Recycling occurs in random order; however, instances of services in use by clients are not recycled until released. In this way, recycling occurs without interrupting the user of a service. If there are not enough services available during recycling, a request will be queued until an instance becomes available. If the MaximumWaitTime is reached during this time, the log files will record the same message that they normally would. If you change the underlying data of a service, this change will automatically be reflected after recycling. For example, if you have a service of type MapServer running and you change its associated map document, you will be able to see the change after recycling occurs. (To see the changes immediately, you can manually stop and start the service.)
  19. 19. Isolation When you create a service, you specify the minimum and maximum number of instances you want to make available. These instances run on the container machines within processes. The isolation level determines whether these instances run in separate processes or share processes. Services with high isolation run in dedicated processes on the GIS server. In general, you should use the default setting of high isolation so that each instance runs in its own process. With this setting, if something causes the process to fail, it will only affect the single instance running in it. A low isolation setting allows up to four instances of a service configuration to share a single process; thus, allowing the execution of four concurrent, independent requests. This is often referred to as multi-threading. The advantage of low isolation is that it increases the number of concurrent instances supported by a single process. However, if that process should fail, all instances running inside it will also fail. Services with low isolation can share processes with other services of the same type. Prior to the 9.2 release, using low isolation consumed less memory on the container machines. At 9.2, memory consumption has been optimized such that now there is only a small difference between low and high isolation. Thus, high isolation is the recommended setting. ArcGIS Server extensions
  20. 20. The ArcGIS Server optional extensions allow you to add capabilities to your system and create applications leveraging advanced features 3D extension The ArcGIS Server 3D extension includes a set of 3D GIS functions to create and analyze surfaces. These functions include slope, aspect, and hillshade analysis. Spatial extension The ArcGIS Server Spatial extension provides a powerful set of functions that allows you to create, query, and analyze cell-based raster data. You can use the Spatial extension to derive information about your data, identify spatial relationships, find suitable locations, calculate travel cost surfaces, and perform a wide range of additional raster geoprocessing operations. Geostatistical extension The ArcGIS Server Geostatistical Extension turns your advanced geostatistical analytics produced in ArcGIS Desktop into Web services. These Web services give you the tools you need to generate statistically valid surfaces and use these surfaces in GIS modeling and visualization with other ArcGIS extensions such as Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst across the Web. Network extension The ArcGIS Server Network extension provides network-based spatial analysis capabilities including routing, travel directions, closest facility, and service area analysis. Developers can use it to build and deploy custom network applications. Geoportal extension The ArcGIS Server Geoportal extension allows you to manage and publish metadata for your geospatial resources. It also gives users the ability to discover and connect to these resources. It supports standards-based clearing house and metadata/service directory applications. Image extension The image extension allows you to process large volumes of raster data and serve them throughout your enterprise. Image services can include datasets with different formats, projections, and resolutions. One of the key features of the image extension is that it supports image data in its native format and does not require a special format to be created. Data Interoperability extension Available as a separate install, the ArcGIS Server Data Interoperability extension enables you to easily use and distribute data in many formats.
  21. 21. You can use the Data Interoperability extension to directly read more than 70 spatial data formats and export to more than 50 spatial data formats. ArcGIS Server complements the Data Interoperability extension by allowing you to author maps and geoprocessing tasks that support nonnative data sources on your desktop and publish them to ArcGIS Server. You can publish maps that contain nonnative data sources using the Data Interoperability extension's direct-read capabilities and Interoperability Connections. You can also publish geoprocessing tasks that contain conversion functions such as Quick Import, Quick Export, and the Spatial ETL tool. Workflow Manager extension The Workflow Manager extension for ArcGIS Server allows you to organize, centralize, and standardize project workflows. Schematics extension The ArcGIS Server Schematics extension provides a set of functions to allow diagram generations and updates within a Web application, along with the ability to share your schematic diagrams across your enterprise and across the Web within ArcGIS Server. ArcPad extension The ArcGIS Server ArcPad Extension allows you to author and publish ArcPad projects to ArcGIS Server and synchronize data between ArcPad to ArcGIS Server via any Internet connection. The ArcGIS Server ArcPad extension was introduced at the ArcPad 8.0 release. About ArcGIS Engine ArcGIS Engine is a complete library of embeddable geographic information system (GIS) components for developers to build custom applications. Using ArcGIS Engine, you can embed GIS functions into existing applications and build focused custom applications that deliver advanced GIS systems to many users. ArcGIS Engine consists of a Software Developer Kit (SDK) and a redistributable runtime providing the platform for all ArcGIS applications. Since ArcGIS Engine is supported on Windows, Solaris, and Linux (Intel), developers can create cross- platform custom solutions for a wide range of users. Five parts of ArcGIS Engine The following illustration shows the five parts of ArcGIS Engine: The following outlines the five parts of ArcGIS Engine as shown in the previous illustration: • Base services—The core GIS ArcObjects required for almost any GIS application, such as feature geometry and display. • Data access—ArcGIS Engine provides access to a wide variety of raster and vector formats including the power and flexibility of the geodatabase. • Map presentation—ArcObjects for map creation and display with symbology, labeling, and thematic mapping capabilities including custom applications. • Developer components—High-level user interface controls for rapid application development and a comprehensive help system for effective development.
  22. 22. • Extensions—ArcGIS Engine Runtime is deployable with the standard functionality or with additional extensions for advanced functionality. Each of these parts, including the extension functionality, is available through the ArcGIS Engine SDK. ArcGIS Engine Runtime and its extensions—although integral factors in the development of a custom GIS application—specifically involve application deployment and are therefore considered separately. ArcGIS Engine SDK The ArcGIS Engine SDK is a component-based software development product for building and deploying custom GIS and mapping applications. The ArcGIS Engine SDK for the .NET Framework is not an end user product but rather a toolkit for application developers. It can be used to build basic map viewers or comprehensive and dynamic GIS editing solutions. With the ArcGIS Engine SDK, you, as a developer, have an unprecedented flexibility for creating customized interfaces for maps. You can use Visual Studio with C# or Visual Basic .NET to create unique applications or combine ArcGIS Engine components with other software components to realize a synergistic relationship between maps and the information that users manage. Using ArcGIS Engine, the map itself can be either an incidental element within or the central component of an application. If, for example, the focus of your application is a database with information about businesses, ArcGIS Engine can enable the application to display a form with a map highlighting the business location of interest when your user performs a query on the database. The ArcGIS Engine SDK provides access to a large collection of GIS components, or ArcObjects, that fall into the categories discussed earlier—base services, data access, and map presentation. Another part of ArcGIS Engine, developer components, is also included in the Developer Kit. These are value-added developer controls for creating a high-quality map user interface. The ArcGIS Engine controls are available for use in Visual Studio as .NET Windows controls. The following ArcGIS controls, or visual components, are provided to assist with application development: • MapControl • PageLayoutControl • SceneControl • GlobeControl • ToolbarControl • TOCControl • LicenseControl • SymbologyControl • Collection of commands, tools, and menus for use with the ToolbarControl ArcGIS Engine capabilities The capabilities of ArcGIS Engine are extensive. As an ArcGIS Engine developer, you can implement these and many other functions using its Developer Kit.
  23. 23. If deployed, the following items are included in the standard ArcGIS Engine Runtime functionality and do not require any of the additional extensions: • Display a map with multiple map layers, such as roads, streams, and boundaries • Pan and zoom throughout a map • Identify features on a map • Search for and find features on a map • Display labels with text from field values • Draw images from aerial photography or satellite imagery • Draw graphic features, such as points, lines, circles, and polygons • Draw descriptive text • Select features along lines and inside boxes, areas, polygons, and circles • Select features within a specified distance of other features • Find and select features with a Structured Query Language (SQL) expression • Render features with thematic methods, such as value map, class breaks, and dot density • Dynamically display real-time or time series data • Find locations on a map by geocoding addresses or street intersections • Transform the coordinate system of your map data • Perform geometric operations on shapes to create buffers—calculate differences— and find intersections, unions, or inverse intersections of shapes • Manipulate the shape or rotation of a map • Create and update geographic features and their attributes • Execute a geoprocessing tool ArcGIS Server users
  24. 24. What is Maplex? Well-placed labels can make a map more understandable and useful. Maplex for ArcGIS provides a special set of tools that allows you to improve the quality of the labels on your map. With Maplex for ArcGIS, you can define parameters to control the positioning and size of your labels; Maplex for ArcGIS then uses these parameters to calculate the best placement for all the labels on your map. You can also assign different levels of importance to features to ensure that more important features are labeled before less important ones. Maplex for ArcGIS lets you control how labels should be placed relative to features, how labels can be modified or reduced to allow more label placement when the available space is constrained, and how conflicts between labels are resolved. Maplex for ArcGIS provides the following: Advanced placement styles for polygons including styles that represent land parcels, rivers, and boundaries Special placement for lines that represent street, river, and contour features Ability to offset labels from features Repetition of labels at a specified distance along a line and within a polygon Control of word and character spacing Alignment of labels to projection graticules Control of label placement zones Flexible placement to allow more labels to fit in an area
  25. 25. Fine control of label stacking Label abbreviation and truncation Font reduction parameters for congested areas Control of whether a label may extend beyond a feature Enhanced weighting of features to determine label placement Control over the minimum feature size that will be labeled Placement of labels as background text Search tolerance to remove duplicate labels Ability to control the order in which the label fitting strategies are applied Maplex for ArcGIS seamlessly integrates into the labeling and annotation tools in ArcGIS. Simply selecting the ESRI Maplex Label Engine as the active label engine for your data frame enables Maplex for ArcGIS functionality. Labeling dialog boxes, such as the Label Manager, show Maplex properties for active data frames, and the Labeling toolbar activates the Maplex tools and options. The labels you create using Maplex for ArcGIS can be shared and displayed without a Maplex license or converted to annotation and shared and edited in a geodatabase. Generating annotation from labels placed with Maplex for ArcGIS cuts the time to manually edit annotation on maps, increasing your productivity ArcGIS Engine, ArcGIS Server, ArcGIS Desktop Comparing the three types of geodatabases Key characteristics ArcSDE geodatabase File geodatabase Personal geodatabase Description A collection of various types of GIS datasets held as tables in a relational database (This is the recommended native data format for ArcGIS stored and managed in a A collection of various types of GIS datasets held in a file system folder.(This is the recommended native data format for ArcGIS stored and managed in a file system folder.) Original data format for ArcGIS geodatabases stored and managed in Microsoft Access data files.(This is limited in size and tied to the
  26. 26. relational database.) Windows operating system.) Number of users Multiuser: many readers and many writers Single user and small workgroups:many readers or one writer per feature dataset, stand- alone feature class, or table. Concurrent use of any specific file eventually degrades for large numbers of readers. Single user and small workgroups with smaller datasets: some readers and one writer. Concurrent use eventually degrades for large numbers of readers. Storage format Oracle Microsoft SQL Server IBM DB2 IBM Informix PostgreSQL Each dataset is a separate file on disk. A file geodatabase is a file folder that holds its dataset files. All the contents in each personal geodatabase are held in a single Microsoft Access file (.mdb). Size limits Up to DBMS limits One TB for each dataset. Each file geodatabase can hold many datasets. The 1 TB limit can be raised to 256 TB for extremely large image datasets. Each feature class can scale up to hundreds of millions of vector features per dataset. Two GB per Access database. The effective limit before performance degrades is typically between 250 and 500 MB per Access database file. Versioning support Fully supported across all DBMSs; includes cross- database replication, updates using checkout and check- in, and historical archiving Only supported as a geodatabase for clients who post updates using checkout and check-in and as a client to which updates can be sent using one-way replication. Only supported as a geodatabase for clients who post updates using checkout and check-in and as a client to which updates can be sent using one- way replication. Platforms Windows, UNIX, Linux, and direct connections to DBMSs that can potentially run on Cross-platform. Windows only.
  27. 27. any platform on the user's local network Security and permissions Provided by DBMS Operating file system security. Windows file system security. Database administration tools Full DBMS functions for backup, recovery, replication, SQL support, security, and so on File system management. Windows file system management. Notes Requires the use of ArcSDE technology; ArcSDE for SQL Server Express included with ArcEditor and ArcInfo ArcGIS Engine ArcGIS Server Workgroup ArcSDE for all other DBMSs included with ArcGIS Server Enterprise You can optionally store data in a read-only compressed format to reduce storage requirements. Often used as an attribute table manager (via Microsoft Access). Users like the string handling for text attributes. File geodatabases and personal geodatabases File and personal geodatabases, which are freely available to all users of ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo, are designed to support the full information model of the geodatabase, which comprises topologies, raster catalogs, network datasets, terrain datasets, address locators, and so on. File and personal geodatabases are designed to be edited by a single user and do not support geodatabase versioning. With a file geodatabase, it is possible to have more than one editor at the same time provided they are editing in different feature datasets, stand-alone feature classes, or tables. The file geodatabase was a new geodatabase type released in ArcGIS 9.2. Its goals are to do the following: Provide a widely available, simple, and scalable geodatabase solution for all users. Provide a portable geodatabase that works across operating systems. Scale up to handle very large datasets.
  28. 28. Provide excellent performance and scalability, for example, to support individual datasets containing well over 300 million features and datasets that can scale beyond 500 GB per file with very fast performance. Use an efficient data structure that is optimized for performance and storage. File geodatabases use about one-third of the feature geometry storage required by shapefiles and personal geodatabases. File geodatabases also allow users to compress vector data to a read- only format to reduce storage requirements even further. Outperform shapefiles for operations involving attributes and scale the data size limits way beyond shapefile limits. Personal geodatabases have been used in ArcGIS since their initial release in version 8.0 and have used the Microsoft Access data file structure (the .mdb file). They support geodatabases that are limited in size to 2 GB or less. However, the effective database size is smaller, somewhere between 250 and 500 MB, before the database performance starts to slow down. Personal geodatabases are also only supported on the Microsoft Windows operating system. Users like the table operations they can perform using Microsoft Access on personal geodatabases. Many users really like the text-handling capabilities in Microsoft Access for working with attribute values. ArcGIS will continue to support personal geodatabases for numerous purposes. However, in most cases, ESRI recommends using file geodatabases for their scalability in size, significantly faster performance, and cross-platform use. The file geodatabase is ideal for working with file- based datasets for GIS projects, personal use, and in small workgroups. It has strong performance and scales well to hold extremely large data volumes without requiring the use of a DBMS. Plus, it is portable across operating systems. Typically, users will employ multiple file or personal geodatabases for their data collections and access these simultaneously for their GIS work. ArcSDE geodatabases When you need a large, multiuser geodatabase that can be edited and used simultaneously by many users, the ArcSDE geodatabase provides a good solution. It adds the ability to manage a shared, multiuser geodatabase as well as support for a number of critical version-based GIS workflows. The ability to leverage your organization's enterprise relational databases is a key advantage of the ArcSDE geodatabase. ArcSDE geodatabases work with a variety of DBMS storage models (IBM DB2, Informix, Oracle, PostgreSQL, and SQL Server). ArcSDE geodatabases are primarily used in a wide range of individual, workgroup, department, and enterprise settings. They take full advantage of underlying DBMS architectures to support the following: Extremely large, continuous GIS databases Many simultaneous users Long transactions and versioned workflows Relational database support for GIS data management (providing the benefits of a relational database for scalability, reliability, security, backup, integrity, and so forth) SQL types for Spatial in all supported DBMSs (Oracle, SQL Server, PostgreSQL, Informix, and DB2)
  29. 29. High performance that can scale to a very large number of users Through many large geodatabase implementations, it has been found that DBMSs are efficient at moving in and out of tables the type of large binary objects required for GIS data. In addition, GIS database sizes can be much larger and the number of supported users greater than with file-based GIS datasets.