Preview Question 2: What was Freud’s view of human personality and its development and dynamics?
Preview Question 3: How did Freud think people defended themselves against anxiety?
Preview Question 4: Which of Freud’s ideas did his followers accept or reject? How do Freud’s ideas hold up today?
Preview Question 5: What are projective tests, and what do clinicians in the Freudian tradition hope to learn from them?
Preview Question 6: How do contemporary psychologists view the unconscious?
Preview Question 7: What did humanistic psychologists view as the central feature of personality, and what was their goal in studying personality?
Preview Question 8: How did humanistic psychologists assess a person’s sense of self?
Preview Question 9: How has the humanistic perspective on personality influenced psychology? What criticisms have been leveled against this perspective?
Preview Question 10: How do psychologists use traits to describe personality?
Preview Question 11: What are personality inventories, and what are their strengths and weaknesses as trait-assessment tools?
Preview Question 12: Which traits seem to provide the most useful information about personality variation?
Preview Question 13: Does research support the consistency of personality traits over time and across situations?
Preview Question 14: In the view of social-cognitive psychologists, what mutual influences shape an individual’s personality?
Preview Question 15: What are the causes and consequences of personal control?
Preview Question 16: What underlying principle guides social-cognitive psychologists in their assessment of people’s behavior and beliefs?
Preview Question 17: What has the social-cognitive perspective contributed to the study of personality, and what criticisms have been leveled against it?
Preview Question 18: Are we helped or hindered by high self-esteem?
Chapter 15 personality
2PersonalityThe Psychoanalytic Perspective Exploring the Unconscious The Neo-Freudian andPsychodynamic Theories Assessing Unconscious Processes Evaluating the PsychoanalyticPerspective
3PersonalityThe Humanistic Perspective Abraham Maslow’s Self-ActualizingPerson Carl Roger’s Person-CenteredPerspective Assessing the Self Evaluating the HumanisticPerspective
4PersonalityThe Trait Perspective Exploring Traits Assessing Traits The Big Five Factors Evaluating the Trait Perspective
5PersonalityThe Social-CognitivePerspective Reciprocal Influences Personal Control Assessing Behavior in Situations Evaluating the Social-CognitivePerspective
6PersonalityExploring the Self The Benefits of Self-Esteem Culture and Self-Esteem Self-Serving Bias
7PersonalityAn individual’s characteristic pattern ofthinking, feeling, and acting.Each dwarf has a distinct personality.
8Psychoanalytic PerspectiveIn his clinical practice,Freud encounteredpatients suffering fromnervous disorders.Their complaintscould not be explainedin terms of purelyphysical causes.Sigmund Freud(1856-1939)CulverPictures
9Psychodynamic PerspectiveFreud’s clinicalexperience led him todevelop the firstcomprehensive theoryof personality, whichincluded theunconscious mind,psychosexual stages,and defensemechanisms. Sigmund Freud(1856-1939)CulverPictures
10Exploring the UnconsciousA reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostlyunacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, andmemories. Freud asked patients to say whatevercame to their minds (free association) in order totap the unconscious.http://www.english.upenn.edu
11Dream AnalysisAnother method to analyze the unconsciousmind is through interpreting manifest andlatent contents of dreams.The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)
12PsychoanalysisThe process of freeassociation (chain ofthoughts) leads topainful, embarrassingunconscious memories.Once these memoriesare retrieved andreleased (treatment:psychoanalysis) thepatient feels better.
13Model of MindThe mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden,and below the surface lies the unconsciousmind. The preconscious stores temporarymemories.
14Personality StructurePersonality develops as a result of our efforts toresolve conflicts between our biological impulses(id) and social restraints (superego).
15Id, Ego and SuperegoThe Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basicsexual and aggressive drives, operating on thepleasure principle, demanding immediategratification.The ego functions as the “executive” andmediates the demands of the id and superego.The superego provides standards for judgment(the conscience) and for future aspirations.
16Personality DevelopmentFreud believed that personality formed duringthe first few years of life divided intopsychosexual stages. During these stages theid’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasuresensitive body areas called erogenous zones.
17Psychosexual StagesFreud divided the development of personalityinto five psychosexual stages.
18Oedipus ComplexA boy’s sexual desire for his mother andfeelings of jealousy and hatred for the rivalfather.A girl’s desire for her father is called the Electracomplex.
19IdentificationChildren cope withthreatening feelings byrepressing them andby identifying with therival parent. Throughthis process ofidentification, theirsuperego gainsstrength thatincorporates theirparents’ values.FromtheK.Vanderveldeprivatecollection
20Defense MechanismsThe ego’s protective methods of reducinganxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousingthoughts, feelings, and memories fromconsciousness.2. Regression leads an individual faced withanxiety to retreat to a more infantilepsychosexual stage.
21Defense Mechanisms3. Reaction Formation causes the ego tounconsciously switch unacceptableimpulses into their opposites. People mayexpress feelings of purity when they may besuffering anxiety from unconscious feelingsabout sex.4. Projection leads people to disguise theirown threatening impulses by attributingthem to others.
22Defense Mechanisms5. Rationalization offers self-justifyingexplanations in place of the real, morethreatening, unconscious reasons for one’sactions.6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressiveimpulses toward a more acceptable or lessthreatening object or person, redirectinganger toward a safer outlet.
23The Neo-FreudiansLike Freud, Adlerbelieved in childhoodtensions. However, thesetensions were social innature and not sexual. Achild struggles with aninferiority complexduring growth andstrives for superiorityand power. Alfred Adler (1870-1937)NationalLibraryofMedicine
24The Neo-FreudiansLike Adler, Horneybelieved in the socialaspects of childhoodgrowth anddevelopment. Shecountered Freud’sassumption thatwomen have weaksuperegos and sufferfrom “penis envy.”Karen Horney (1885-1952)TheBettmannArchive/Corbis
25The Neo-FreudiansJung believed in thecollective unconscious,which contained acommon reservoir ofimages derived from ourspecies’ past. This is whymany cultures sharecertain myths and imagessuch as the mother beinga symbol of nurturance. Carl Jung (1875-1961)ArchiveoftheHistoryofAmericanPsychology/UniversityofAkron
26Assessing Unconscious ProcessesEvaluating personality from an unconsciousmind’s perspective would require apsychological instrument (projective tests) thatwould reveal the hidden unconscious mind.Projective tests are largely associated with thepsychoanalytic perspective of personality.
27Thematic Apperception Test(TAT)Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is aprojective test in which people express their innerfeelings and interests through the stories they makeup about ambiguous scenes.LewMerrim/PhotoResearcher,Inc.
29Rorschach Inkblot TestThe most widely used projective test uses a setof 10 inkblots and was designed by HermannRorschach. It seeks to identify people’s innerfeelings by analyzing their interpretations of theblots.LewMerrim/PhotoResearcher,Inc.
30Projective Tests: CriticismsCritics argue that projective tests lack bothreliability (consistency of results) and validity(predicting what it is supposed to).1. When evaluating the same patient, eventrained raters come up with differentinterpretations (reliability).2. Projective tests may misdiagnose a normalindividual as pathological (validity).
31Evaluating the PsychoanalyticPerspective1. Personality develops throughout life and isnot fixed in childhood.2. Freud underemphasized peer influence onthe individual, which may be as powerfulas parental influence.3. Gender identity may develop before 5-6years of age.Modern Research
32Evaluating the PsychoanalyticPerspective4. There may be other reasons for dreamsbesides wish fulfillment.5. Verbal slips can be explained on the basis ofcognitive processing of verbal choices.6. Freud claimed suppressed sexuality leads topsychological disorders. However, sexualinhibition has decreased, but psychologicaldisorders have not.Modern Research
33Evaluating the PsychoanalyticPerspectiveFreuds psychoanalytic theory rests on therepression of painful experiences into theunconscious mind.The majority of children, death camp survivors,and battle-scarred veterans are unable torepress painful experiences into theirunconscious mind.
34The Modern Unconscious MindModern research shows the existence of non-conscious information processing. This involves:1. schemas that automatically control perceptions andinterpretations2. the right-hemisphere activity that enables the split-brain patient’s left hand to carry out an instruction thepatient cannot verbalize3. parallel processing during vision and thinking4. implicit memories5. emotions that activate instantly without consciousness6. self-concept and stereotypes that unconsciouslyinfluence us
35Evaluating the PsychoanalyticPerspectiveThe scientific merits of Freud’s theory havebeen criticized. Psychoanalysis is meagerlytestable. Most of its concepts arise out of clinicalpractice, which are the after-the-factexplanation.
36Humanistic PerspectiveBy the 1960s, psychologists became discontentwith Freud’s negativity and the mechanisticpsychology of the behaviorists.Abraham Maslow(1908-1970)Carl Rogers(1902-1987)http://www.ship.edu
37Self-Actualizing PersonMaslow proposed that we as individuals aremotivated by a hierarchy of needs. Beginningwith physiological needs, we try to reach thestate of self-actualization—fulfilling ourpotential.http://www.ship.eduTedPolumbaum/TimePix/GettyImages
39Assessing the SelfAll of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in ananswer to the question, “Who am I?” refers to Self-Concept.In an effort to assess personality, Rogers askedpeople to describe themselves as they would liketo be (ideal) and as they actually are (real). If thetwo descriptions were close the individual had apositive self-concept.
40Evaluating the HumanisticPerspectiveHumanistic psychology has a pervasiveimpact on counseling, education, child-rearing, and management with itsemphasis on a positive self-concept,empathy, and the thought that people arebasically good and can improve.
41Evaluating the HumanisticPerspective1. Concepts in humanistic psychology are vague andsubjective and lack scientific basis.2. The individualism encouraged can lead to self-indulgence, selfishness, and an erosion of moralrestraints.3. Humanistic psychology fails to appreciate thereality of our human capacity for evil. It lacksadequate balance between realistic optimism anddespair.Criticisms
42The Trait PerspectiveAn individual’s unique constellation of durabledispositions and consistent ways of behaving(traits) constitutes his or her personality.Examples of TraitsHonestDependableMoodyImpulsive
43Exploring TraitsOne way to condense the immense list ofpersonality traits is through factor analysis, astatistical approach used to describe and relatepersonality traits.Each personality is uniquely made up ofmultiple traits.Allport & Odbert (1936), identified almost18,000 words representing traits.
44Factor AnalysisHans and Sybil Eysenck suggested thatpersonality could be reduced down to two polardimensions, extraversion-introversion andemotional stability-instability.
45Biology and PersonalityPersonality dimensions are influenced by genes.1. Brain-imaging procedures show that extravertsseek stimulation because their normal brainarousal is relatively low.2. Genes also influence our temperament andbehavioral style. Differences in children’s shynessand inhibition may be attributed to autonomicnervous system reactivity.
46Assessing TraitsPersonality inventories are questionnaires(often with true-false or agree-disagree items)designed to gauge a wide range of feelings andbehaviors assessing several traits at once.
47MMPIThe Minnesota Multiphasic PersonalityInventory (MMPI) is the most widelyresearched and clinically used of all personalitytests. It was originally developed to identifyemotional disorders.The MMPI was developed by empiricallytesting a pool of items and then selecting thosethat discriminated between diagnostic groups.
49The Big Five FactorsToday’s trait researchers believe that earlier traitdimensions, such as Eysencks’ personality dimensions,fail to tell the whole story. So, an expanded range (fivefactors) of traits does a better job of assessment.ConscientiousnessAgreeablenessNeuroticismOpennessExtraversion
51Questions about the Big FiveThese traits are common acrosscultures.3. How about other cultures?Fifty percent or so for eachtrait.2. How heritable are they?Quite stable in adulthood.However, they change overdevelopment.1. How stable are these traits?
52Evaluating the Trait PerspectiveThe Person-Situation ControversyWalter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points outthat traits may be enduring, but the resultingbehavior in various situations is different.Therefore, traits are not good predictors ofbehavior.
53The Person-Situation ControversyTrait theorists argue that behaviors from asituation may be different, but average behaviorremains the same. Therefore, traits matter.
54The Person-Situation ControversyTraits are socially significant and influence ourhealth, thinking, and performance(Gosling et al., 2000).Samuel GoslingJohnLangfordPhotography
55Consistency of Expressive StyleExpressive styles in speaking and gesturesdemonstrate trait consistency.Observers are able to judge people’s behaviorand feelings in as little as 30 seconds and in oneparticular case as little as 2 seconds.
56Social-Cognitive PerspectiveBandura (1986, 2001,2005) believes thatpersonality is theresult of an interactionthat takes placebetween a person andtheir social context.Albert Bandura
57Individuals & EnvironmentsHow we view and treat peopleinfluences how they treat us.Our personalities shapesituations.Anxious people react tosituations differently thanrelaxed people.Our personalities shape howwe react to events.The school you attend and themusic you listen to are partlybased on your dispositions.Different people choosedifferent environments.Specific ways in which individuals andenvironments interact
58BehaviorBehavior emerges from an interplay of externaland internal influences.
59Personal ControlExternal locus of control refers to the perceptionthat chance or outside forces beyond ourpersonal control determine our fate.Internal locus of control refers to the perceptionthat we can control our own fate.Social-cognitive psychologists emphasize oursense of personal control, whether we controlthe environment or the environment controlsus.
60Learned HelplessnessWhen unable to avoid repeated adverse eventsan animal or human learns helplessness.
61Optimism vs. PessimismAn optimistic or pessimistic attributional style isyour way of explaining positive or negativeevents.Positive psychology aims to discover andpromote conditions that enable individuals andcommunities to thrive.
62Positive Psychology and HumanisticPsychologyPositive psychology, such as humanisticpsychology, attempts to foster humanfulfillment. Positive psychology, in addition,seeks positive subjective well-being, positivecharacter, and positive social groups.Martin SeligmanCourtesyofMartinE.P.Seligman,PhDDirector,PositivePsychologyCenter/UniversityofPennsylvania
63Assessing Behavior in SituationsSocial-cognitive psychologists observe people inrealistic and simulated situations because theyfind that it is the best way to predict the behaviorof others in similar situations.
64Evaluating the Social-CognitivePerspectiveCritics say that social-cognitive psychologistspay a lot of attention to the situation and payless attention to the individual, his unconsciousmind, his emotions, and his genetics.The social-cognitive perspective on personalitysensitizes researchers to the effects of situations onand by individuals. It builds on learning andcognition research.
65Exploring the SelfResearch on the self has a long history because theself organizes thinking, feelings, and actions and is acritical part of our personality.1. Research focuses on the different selves wepossess. Some we dream and others we dread.2. Research studies how we overestimate ourconcern that others evaluate our appearance,performance, and blunders (spotlight effect).
66Benefits of Self-EsteemMaslow and Rogers argued that a successfullife results from a healthy self-image (self-esteem). The following are two reasons whylow self-esteem results in personal problems.1. When self-esteem is deflated, we viewourselves and others critically.2. Low self-esteem reflects reality, our failure inmeeting challenges, or surmountingdifficulties.
67Culture & Self-EsteemPeople maintain their self-esteem even with a low statusby valuing things they achieve and comparingthemselves to people with similar positions.
68Self-Serving BiasWe accept responsibility for good deeds andsuccesses more than for bad deeds andfailures. Defensive self-esteem is fragile andegotistic whereas secure self-esteem is lessfragile and less dependent on externalevaluation.