Time and maps

• Why interested in time?

Time and maps

• What is time and

Menno-Jan Kraak

• How is time perceived?
• H...
128 entries
found in The New Oxford Dictionary of English
• time noun

Past, present, future
• How, then, can these two ki...
Social time

Time
• Time is about change > event

• Time talks with an accent

track

process

battle

- every culture has...
Calendars

Types of time I

Structure of the temporal dimension (multiple
perspectives)

Types of time II

• Time with mul...
Different types of time

Different types of time

Observe / measure time / change

Spatio-temporal data and questions

• C...
Issues of representation

spatio-temporal data

• State (static)
What was / is / will be the spatial distribution of a giv...
How to map events
Information retrieval
Map Appearance

location

attribute

time

plane

graphical
variables

graphical
v...
Dynamic linked views

Map reading and time

Animation

Historical geography
! study through time of human relationships to...
Mapping uncertainty

Compiling change

Cultural geography

Experiencing time

! impact of human culture on natural environ...
Time travel

Time geography

! time as measurement of human activity

what did people do and how long did it take?

! time...
London travel time

Tornado’s in the US

Traffic intensity

Crime over time

http://projects.nytimes.com/crime/homicides/ma...
What, where and when
Troia – valley of scamander coastline changes
trough time

Troia – prehistoric period

Troia

Spatial...
GIScientist and the domain specialist

Planning in Tallinn, Estonia

Problem domain
User

(See Figure5)

Urban
Geographer
...
Location

Attribute

Movements

Networks

Combination
T1

T1

T2

T2

T3
T4

T3
T4

T5
T6
T7

T5
T6
T7

T8

T8

a) Traject...
Explore

Time?
• There is no time
• Time is relative
• Time is absolute
• Its all in your head
• What is time?
[Irena Vasi...
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OGiC - Menno-Jan Kraak - Maps and time

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OGiC - Menno-Jan Kraak - Maps and time

  1. 1. Time and maps • Why interested in time? Time and maps • What is time and Menno-Jan Kraak • How is time perceived? • How is time represented? • Use case: movement data Why interested in time? GIScience perspective: • Better understanding of human influence on the environment at all scales (local and global change) Context: GIScience perspective: • For many (global) challenges reference to location - and time - is the glue that connects disparate, often incomplete data sources of continually changing information about time-critical, evolving real world situations - analysis of changes over time source: new york times - analysis of patterns of change over time • Development of methods / techniques / tools to be able to support problem solving - geospatial data handling - visualization Earthquake & Tsunami Chili 27 Feb 2010 source: New York Times What is time? • Everyone knows what it is, and few can define it • if no one asks me, i know - • What is time? what, then, is time? - • if i wish to explain it to one that asketh, i know not [st. augustine 400] • Time is about change
  2. 2. 128 entries found in The New Oxford Dictionary of English • time noun Past, present, future • How, then, can these two kinds of time, the past and the future be, when the past no longer is and the future as yet does not be? [Saint Augustine, 400] • [mass noun] the indefinite continued progress of existence and events in the past, present, and future regarded as a whole • a point of time as measured in hours and minutes past midnight or noon • [mass noun] time as allotted, available, or used • an instance of something happening or being done; an occasion [Scientific American - A matter of Time, 2006] • ...... • Time as static (the now) versus time as dynamic (as flow) Schools of thought Perception of time (this lecture) • absolute time Influenced by Newton they see time and space as a kind of container in which objects exist and move, guided by the laws of physics. Space and time function as a kind of reference frame. In other words, time is independent of any physical object, but it describes the ‘location’ of objects and events during their existence 45 minutes • relative time Influenced by Aristotle, who said that time is measure of change, which in turn implies that time does not exist when there is no change. Leibniz and Kant were followers of this viewpoint. Space and time describe relations among objects 9 0 Perception and structure of time Sense of time • Time has an inherent semantic structure, which is one source of increased complexity. m i n u t e s • Timetables and rhythms • By convention, time has a hierarchical system of granularities - seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks... (but different calender systems) • Time contains natural cycles and re-occurrences. - regular and relatively predictable: seasons, - less regular: social cycles like holidays or school breaks or economic cycles, hurricane season inter-relation between time and space such as seasons, tides, body, (island-boat) • Social discipline monastery, factory, office, home • Instruments and devices sun dial, vcr, satellite broadcast • Texts (from May, J. and N. Thrift, 2001. Timespace : geographies of temporality. Routledge, London)
  3. 3. Social time Time • Time is about change > event • Time talks with an accent track process battle - every culture has its own unique set of temporal finger prints - to know a people is to know the time values they live by Levine, R. (1997). A geography of time the temporal misadventures of a social psychologist, or how every culture keeps time just a little bit differently. Basic Books, New York 2011 sabbatical trip Berezina River, Belarus Events Change Temporal dimension Temporal scale • Temporal primitives - Time point is an instant in time - Time interval is a temporal primitive with an extent • The choice of appropriate primitives must depend on the properties of the data and the problem at hand. • Temporal structures exist - Ordered time: linear and cyclic time - Branching time - Multiple perspectives. Water Resources, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2005, pp. 200– 203. Translated from Vodnye Resursy, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2005, pp. 223–226. Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Semenchenko, Moroz. Atlas to Alison's History of Europe, 1850; Plaste 78 - Passage of the Beresina, 26, 27 & 28 November 1812.
  4. 4. Calendars Types of time I Structure of the temporal dimension (multiple perspectives) Types of time II • Time with multiple perspectives allows more than one point of view at observed facts (people’s observations about hazard events) D>A>C>B A > B > C> DD Different types of times Types of time? • Valid time linear ordinal multiple experience brancing time time with multiple prespectives continious cyclic continious time ordinal cyclic time continious [Frank, A. U., 1998] • World time • Body time • Database time • Social time • Life time • Sense of time • Web time • Excavation time single experience tekst multiple perspective • Biological time • Historical time branching • Transaction time • Display time partial order • Mechanical time • Observation time total order • .......
  5. 5. Different types of time Different types of time Observe / measure time / change Spatio-temporal data and questions • Change can happen suddenly or gradually • Change of some sort is always happening • Change can be observed after the fact • Change can go unrecorded Temporal questions • When was the last forest fire in the neighborhood? • Which areas were affected by mudflows in the week after the storm? • In which neighbourhoods did the unemployment rise after closing the factories? Temporal questions
  6. 6. Issues of representation spatio-temporal data • State (static) What was / is / will be the spatial distribution of a given phenomena at a given time? • Change (dynamic) Which elements changed / are changing / will change during a given time span? Working environment for visual exploration Location space MAP Working environment for visual exploration Attribute space DIAGRAM TIME GRAPH Time space Evaluation: time graph in its environment What to do? When and where? When and what? DATA • When • Time line - Instant and interval • How long • Time wheel - Absolute and relative • How often • Diagrams - Continuous and discrete ! USER - Linear and cyclic When? • What order • Maps • ..... • ..... - ..... !! TASK VISUALIZATION
  7. 7. How to map events Information retrieval Map Appearance location attribute time plane graphical variables graphical variables plane graphical variables spatial deduction plane graphical variables memory deduction single map I How is time represented? small multiple (series of maps) II animation III memory deduction Single map Series of maps Animation Interactive animation
  8. 8. Dynamic linked views Map reading and time Animation Historical geography ! study through time of human relationships to physical environment and human organization of an area ! time as a line / dating an event: moments when did the conference take place? ! duration: how long and event takes place how long does it take for an event to occur in how much space? (sample: epidemic) Historical situations Reconstructing history
  9. 9. Mapping uncertainty Compiling change Cultural geography Experiencing time ! impact of human culture on natural environment and how space is organized 45 minutes 90 minutes ! internal processes: perceiving time ! external processes: structured time time table time zone Time zones Where is my package? dhl from schiphol to…. morning, afternoon, evening
  10. 10. Time travel Time geography ! time as measurement of human activity what did people do and how long did it take? ! time as a measure of distance isochrones (lines of equal temporal distance) chrono-geographic representation (space time cube) Travelling from enschede (cartogram) Distance time relief in france France and the tgv in 2015 Space-time-cube [L’Hostis]
  11. 11. London travel time Tornado’s in the US Traffic intensity Crime over time http://projects.nytimes.com/crime/homicides/map?hp Map background
  12. 12. What, where and when Troia – valley of scamander coastline changes trough time Troia – prehistoric period Troia Spatial Analysis & Cartography Laboratory (ErGAX) FOUNDATION OF THE HELLENIC WORLD Troia – homeric period Troia – roman period Troia Troia Spatial Analysis & Cartography Laboratory (ErGAX) FOUNDATION OF THE HELLENIC WORLD Spatial Analysis & Cartography Laboratory (ErGAX) FOUNDATION OF THE HELLENIC WORLD Troia – present day situation Troia Movement data Spatial Analysis & Cartography Laboratory (ErGAX) FOUNDATION OF THE HELLENIC WORLD
  13. 13. GIScientist and the domain specialist Planning in Tallinn, Estonia Problem domain User (See Figure5) Urban Geographer Problems Get insight in urban space consumption by suburban dwellers Questions Examples of temporal questions: - Is there a difference in distribution of activities between weekdays and weekends - Are there differences during the day User tasks Visualization environment Data Visualization solutions Visualization strategies The network or the objects Aspects of the networks what? when? where? Network characteristics Challenges Density • nodes & segments Geographical counts (Ahas et al., 2010) Temporal rhythm Individual overview Counts by land-use Software HiDE (http://gicentre.org/hide/) ST overview qualitative quantitative multivariate (Ahas et al., 2010) Software HiDE (http://gicentre.org/hide/) Courtesy of Irma Kveladze
  14. 14. Location Attribute Movements Networks Combination T1 T1 T2 T2 T3 T4 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T5 T6 T7 T8 T8 a) Trajectories d) O O D D D D D D D c) Road network D D D b) Origin - Destination e) Tallinn: Space and time 07:00 09:00 07:00 09:00 Explore D I Time 05:00 D 11:00 Explore
  15. 15. Explore Time? • There is no time • Time is relative • Time is absolute • Its all in your head • What is time? [Irena Vasiliev, (Cartographica vol 34 no 2 1997] d)

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