Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. Life-Span Development Chapter 1: Introduction
  2. 2. The Life-Span Perspective2  Development: the pattern of growth that begins at conception and continues through the human life span  Involves growth and decline  Traditional Approach: emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, little to no change in adulthood, and decline in old age  Life-Span Approach: emphasizes developmental change throughout childhood and adulthood
  3. 3. The Life-Span Perspective3  Life Span: the maximum number of years a species can live  Currently 122 years  Life Expectancy: average number of years that a person can expect to live  Currently 78 years
  4. 4. The Life-Span Perspective4  Life-Span Perspective views development as:  Lifelong Multidimensional  Multidirectional Plastic  Multidisciplinary Contextual  A life-span theorist believes that developmental changes occur in the early, middle and late years of life.  Development is a process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss  Development is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together
  5. 5. The Life-Span Perspective5  Development is Lifelong  Early adulthood is not the endpoint of development  No age period dominates  Development is Multidimensional  Occurs in three distinct dimensions: biological, cognitive, and socioemotional.  Development is Multidirectional  Some dimensions (or components of a dimension) expand, and others shrink
  6. 6. The Life-Span Perspective6  Development is Plastic  Plasticity: capacity for change  Development is Multidisciplinary  Development is of interest to psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers  Development is Contextual  All development occurs within a context (setting)  Each setting is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors
  7. 7. Some Contemporary Concerns7  Health and Well-Being  Parenting and Education  Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity  Culture: behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation  Ethnicity: cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language  Socioeconomic Status (SES): a person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics  Gender: characteristics of people as males and females
  8. 8. Social Policy Issues8  Older Adults  Number of older adults in the U.S. is growing dramatically  A significant increase will occur in the number of individuals in the 85-and-older group  Access to affordable, adequate health care is a significant issue  Many will need society’s help, as more older adults will be unmarried, childless, and living alone
  9. 9. The Aging of America9  People today are waiting longer to marry and raise children. In the 1950s, it was more common for people to marry and start a family before they were 20 years old. This difference is an example of normative history-graded influence on development.
  10. 10. The Nature of Development10  Development is the product of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes  Biological: changes in an individual’s physical nature  Cognitive: changes in thought, intelligence, and language  Socioemotional: changes in relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality
  11. 11. The Nature of Development11  Developmental Period: a time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain features  Prenatal period: conception to birth (9 months)  Tremendous growth  Infancy: birth to 18-24 months  Dependenceupon adults  Development of many psychological activities  Early childhood: end of infancy to 5-6 years  Preschool years  Self-sufficiency and increased play
  12. 12. The Nature of Development12  Developmental Period (continued)  Middle and late childhood: 6-11 years  Reading, writing, and arithmetic  Focus on achievement and self-control  Adolescence: varying endpoints; from 10-12 to 18-22 years  Rapid physical changes  Pursuit of independence and identity  Early adulthood: late teens to early 30’s  Personal and economic independence  Selecting a mate
  13. 13. The Nature of Development13  Developmental Period (continued)  Middle adulthood: 40-60 years  Social involvement and responsibility  Assisting the next generation  Late adulthood: 60’s-70’s to death  Lifereview  Adjustment to new social roles  Longest developmental span  “youngest old” vs. “oldest old”
  14. 14. The Nature of Development14  Conceptions of Age  How relevant is chronological age to understanding a person’s psychological development?  How should age be conceptualized?  Chronological age: number of years that have elapsed since birth  Biological age: a person’s age in terms of biological health  Psychological age: an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age  Social age: social roles and expectations related to a person’s age
  15. 15. Developmental Issues15  Nature and Nurture: the extent to which development is influenced by biological inheritance and/or environmental experiences  Nature proponents argue that an evolutionary and genetic foundation produces commonalities in growth and development  Nurture proponents emphasize the importance of both the biological and social environment  Life-span psychologists generally agree that nature and nurture both influence development.
  16. 16. Developmental Issues16  Stability and Change: the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change  Stability: traits and characteristics are seen as the result of heredity and early life experiences  Change: traits and characteristics can be altered by later experiences  Role of early and later experiences is hotly debated
  17. 17. Developmental Issues17  Continuity and Discontinuity: focuses on whether development is either:  A process of gradual, cumulative change (continuous)  A set of distinct stages (discontinuous)  Evaluating Developmental Issues:  Most developmentalists acknowledge that development is not all-or-nothing  There is debate regarding how strongly each of these issues influences development
  18. 18. Theories of Development18  Diverse but complementary theories are used for explaining life-span development:  Psychoanalytic theories  Cognitive theories  Behavioral and social cognitive theories  Ethological theory  Ecological theory •Our relationships with others, changes in emotions, and changes in personality are all examples of socioemotional processes.
  19. 19. Psychoanalytic Theories19  Psychoanalytic Theories: describe development as primarily unconscious  Freud’s Theory:  Focus of sexual impulses changes throughout development  Five stages of psychosexual development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital)  Adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflict within each stage  Modern theorists place less emphasis on sexual instincts and more on cultural experiences
  20. 20. Psychoanalytic Theories20  Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory:  Focused on our desire to affiliate with other people  Believed that developmental change occurs throughout the life span  Proposed eight stages of development  Each stage comprises a crisis that must be resolved
  21. 21. Cognitive Theories21  Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory:  Stresses conscious thoughts  Emphasizes the processes of organization and adaptation  Four stages of cognitive development in children  Each stage represents a qualitatively different way of understanding the world
  22. 22. Cognitive Theories22  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory:  Children actively construct their knowledge  Emphasizes how social interaction and culture guide cognitive development  Learning is based upon the inventions of society  Less-skilled persons learn from those who are more skilled
  23. 23. Cognitive Theories23  Information-Processing Theory:  Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it  Individuals develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information  Thinking is information processing  Individuals learn strategies for better information processing
  24. 24. Behavioral & Social Cognitive Theories24  Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories:  Behaviorism: we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured  Development is observable behavior that can be learned through experience  Skinner’s Operant Conditioning:  Consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence  A rewardincreases likelihood of behavior  A punishment decreases likelihood of behavior
  25. 25. Behavioral & Social Cognitive Theories25  Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory:  Behavior, environment, and cognition are key factors in development  Observational learning: learning through observation  People cognitively represent the behavior of others
  26. 26. Ethological Theory26  Ethology: stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology and evolution  Characterized by critical or sensitive periods  Brought to prominence by Konrad Lorenz  Studied imprinting in geese  Bowlby stressed the importance of human attachment during the first year of life
  27. 27. Ecological Theory27  Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory: development reflects the influence of five environmental systems:  Microsystem: setting in which the individual lives  Mesosystem: relations between microsystems  Exosystem: links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context  Macrosystem: culture in which individuals live  Chronosystem: patterning of environmental events and transitions; sociohistorical circumstances
  28. 28. Eclectic Theoretical Orientation28  Eclectic Theoretical Orientation:  No single theory can explain all of development  Every theory has contributed to our understanding  Eclectic orientation does not follow any one theoretical approach  Instead, it selects from each theory whatever is considered its best features