How to Cite Sources: A Fill-in-the-Blanks Guide to MLA
The main purpose of doing research is not to summarize the work of others, but to assimilate and to
build on it and to arrive at your own understanding of the subject (Garibaldi, MLA Handbook, 4). The rea-
sons for citing sources are: 1) to give credit for previous work by others, and 2) show the sources you used
if someone else wants to follow your research.
 First line of each cited work begins at the left margin; all other lines are indented 5 spaces
 Alphabetize entries by the author(s) last name, if given. Otherwise, alphabetize by the article or book title.
 Separate each element of your citation with a period, except for the access date and the URL.
Books/Reference sources/ periodicals
1. Author’s name, or editor’s name and title (if given) Last name, first name, ed.
2. Title of part of book (if given) “In quotation marks.”
3. Title of book Underline or italicize
4. Date of periodical (periodical only) Date Month Year.
5. Name of translator or compiler (if necessary) Translated by/Compiled by first name last name.
6. Edition (if necessary) X ed. (books)
title of edition: section: (newspapers) [E3.]
7. Number(s) of volume(s) (if necessary) X vols.
8. Name of the series (if necessary)
9. Place of publication, publisher’s name, date of publication City, State: Publisher, Year.
10. Page numbers (if necessary, usually for periodicals) :XX-XX.
For online sources, also include the following:
11. Date of electronic publication or latest update Day Month Year
12. Name of sponsoring institution or organization U. of West Virginia
13. Date of access Day Month Year
14. Website address <place in angle brackets>.
(hit back-space to key keep period after brackets)
For subscription databases, 1-10 of the above plus:
15. Name of the database
(like Electric Library or Proquest.) Grove Art. (underlined)
16. Place of access. Kentwood HS (local database)
KCLS from Kentwood HS. (remote database)
17. Date of access Day Month Year.
18. Website address These always go at the end of the of the citation in <angle brackets>.
Book with one author:
Fairbanks, Carol. Prairie Women: Images in American and Canadian Fiction. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1986.
__________ , __________,. ______________________________________. ________ ,___ : ___________ , ____.
(Author last) (Author first) (Title-underlined or italicized ) (Location city, state) (Publisher) (Year)
Book with 2-3 authors:
Landre, Rick, Mike Miller, and Dee Porter. Gangs: A Handbook for Community Awareness. New York, NY: Facts on File, 1997.
_____,_____ , ________ , ____________ . _____________________________________ . _______, ___ : __________ , ___.
(Author A last, first) (Author B first last) (Author C first last) (Title- underlined or italicized) (Location city, state) (Publisher) (Year)
Book with corporate author:
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
__________________________ . ____________________________________ . __________________________ . _______________ , ____ .
(Institution responsible for source) (Title- underlined or italicized) ( Location city, state) (Publisher) (Year)
Book with editor:
Blanco Richard L., ed. The American Revolution, 1775-1783: An Encyclopedia. 2 vols. Hamden, NY: Garland, 1993
_________,___ , ____. ________________________________________________ . ___________ . ______ , ___ .
(Author last, first) (ed.) (Title- underlined or italicized) (Location city, state) (Publisher) (Year)
Article in an encyclopedia: (NOTE: Authors’ names, if given, are usually at the end of the article)
Bergman, P. G. "Relativity." The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1987.
_______,___ . _______ . __________________________ . ____ . ____ .
(Author last, first) (Title of article in quotes)(Title- underlined or italicized) (Edition) (Year)
Article in a printed newspaper: (NOTE: some stories are picked up from international wire services such as Associated Press)
Tucker, Cynthia. “Education Stays on Top of Southerners’ Agenda.” Atlanta Constitution. 21 Mar. 1987: 19A.
______,_____ . _______________________________________ . _______________ . __________ : _____ .
(Author last, first) (Title of article in quotes) (Newspaper title) (Day Month Year) (Section)
Article in a printed magazine:
Prin, Dinah. “Marriage in the ‘90’s.” New Yorker. 2 June 1990: 40-45.
___,_____ . _________________ . _________ . _________ : ____ .
(Author, last, first) (Title of article in quotes) (Magazine title) (Day Month Year) (Pages)
McClain, Deborah. 26 June 2008. “Nile River Research Project Results.”
______,________ . _______________. _____________________________ .
(Author last, first) (Day Month Year received) (Subject title of email in quotes)
Barker, Joe. “Finding Information on the Internet: A Tutorial.” Mar. 2001. UCBerkeley. 3 Mar. 2004.
_____,___ . _____________________________________ . _____________ . _________ . _____________ . _______________ .
(Author last, first) Website title in quotes) (Updated Day Month Year) (Sponsor institute) (Day Month Year of access) (URL in <brackets>)
Database Magazine article:
Weiss, Peter. “Thermonuclear Squeeze.” Science News. 21 Jan. 2006. Proquest. Kentwood HS. 3 Feb. 2006. < http://proquest.umi.com/>.
______,________ . _______________ . _________________________________ . ______________ . ________________ . _________________________________ . _______________ . _____ .
(Author last, first) (Article in quotes) (Title of magazine) (Day Month Year) (Database title) (Location of access) (Date of access) (URL)
Database Newspaper Article: (NOTE: some stories are picked up from international wire services like Associated Press)
Assoc. Press. “Read Finds Possible Cause for Radioactive leak.” Vancouver Columbian. 1 Oct. 1997. Proquest. Kentwood HS. 3 Feb. 2006.
_____,___ . ________________________________________ .___________________ . ________ . ______ . _________ . _________. ___.
(Author last, first) (Title of article in quotes) (Newspaper title) (Day Month Year)(Database title)(Location of access)(Access date)(URL)
Database Video clip:
“War Code: Navajo.” United Learning. 1995. unitedstreaming. Kentwood HS remote access. 4 Feb. 2006. <http:www.unitedstreaming.com/>.
_______________ . _____________ . ___. _____________ . _______________________ . _________ . _____________ .
(Title of video clip) Title of source) (date) (Database title) (Location of access) (Day Month Year of access) (URL in <brackets>)
Database Encyclopedia article: (NOTE: Authors’ names, if given, are usually at the end of the article)
“Aztec.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. King County Library remote access. 4 Feb. 2006.
______ . ___________ . _________________ . __________ . _________ . ____________________________ . ___________ .
(Author last, first)(Title of article ) (Title- underlined or italicized) (Day Month Year) (Database title) (Location of access) (Day Month Year of access)
(URL in <brackets>
Asmundson, Mark. Telephone Interview. 22 July. 1999.
_______,______ . ________________ . ___________ .
(Person interviewed last, first)(Type of interview) (Date- Day Month Year)
Video: (NOTE: identify the format [e.g., DVD] for the source)
“Medicine at the Crossroads.” Prod. 13/WNET and BBC TV. Videocassette. PBS Video, 19993
______________________ . _______________________ . ___________ . ________ , ______ .
(Title of video- underlined or italicized) (Production company) (Format) (Distributor)) (Date)