Swazi Nontobeko
Mhlongo
Grade 10
Cell unit structure of life
2
What is Biology?
Biology is the study of all
living things
 Living things are called
organisms
Organisms include bacter...
All Living Things Share
Common Characteristics
1. Basic Unit is the Cell
2. They Reproduce
3. All Based On Universal
Genet...
Characteristics of
Organisms
5
All Organisms are made
of Cells
6
Facts About Cells
Cells are the smallest living
unit of an organism
All cells contain living
material called cytoplasm
...
More Cell Facts
 More complex cells are called Eukaryotes
 These cells DO have a nucleus and
membrane-bound organelles
...
Number of Cells
9
Organisms may be:
• Unicellular –
composed of one cell
• Multicellular-
composed of many
cells that may
...
Types of CellsTypes of Cells
Prokaryotes - Bacteria
Eukaryotes – Animals, plants, fungi, and
protists.
10
Eukaryotic CellP...
Prokaryotes
11
Nucleoid region
contains the DNA
•Cell membrane &
cell wall
• Contain ribosomes
(no membrane) to
make prote...
Two Types of
Reproduction
 Sexual
Reproduct
ion
 Involves 2 parents
 Egg fertilized by
sperm to make a
ZYGOTE
 Offspri...
Cells Have a Genetic Code
13
Genetic Code
DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid)
carries the genetic code for all
organisms
All organisms contain DNA
DNA co...
Cells Require Food & Energy
15
Food Requirements
Autotrophs can make
their own food
Photoautotrophs use
sunlight to make food
(photosynthesis)
Chemoau...
Food Requirements
Heterotrophs can NOT make
their own food
They must consume other
organisms
Herbivores eat plants
Car...
Basic Structure of a Cell
18
Eukaryotic Cell
Contain 3 basic cell
structures:
Nucleus
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm with
organelles
19
Golgi Bodies
 Stacks ofStacks of flattenedflattened
sacssacs
 Have a shipping side &Have a shipping side &
a receiving s...
Lysosome
 Contain digestiveContain digestive
enzymesenzymes
 Break down food andBreak down food and
worn out cell parts ...
Nucleolus
 Cell may haveCell may have 1 to 31 to 3
nucleolinucleoli
 Inside nucleusInside nucleus
 Disappears when cell...
Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
copyright cmassengale 23
Smooth ER lacks
ribosomes &
makes proteins
USED In the cell
...
In Animal Cells:In Animal Cells:
copyright cmassengale 24
Active cells like
muscles have more
mitochondria
Burn sugars to
...
Cell or Plasma MembraneCell or Plasma Membrane
copyright cmassengale 25
Living layer
Controls the movement of
materials in...
Cell WallCell Wall
26
Nonliving layer
Gives structure and
shape to plant and
bacterial cells
Cell wall
Cytoplasm of a CellCytoplasm of a Cell
copyright cmassengale 27
Jelly-like substance
enclosed by cell
membrane
Provides a ...
Control Organelle
copyright cmassengale 28
Controls the normal
activities of the cell
Contain the DNA
Bounded by a
nuclear...
Plant CellPlant Cell
29
Dead layer
Large empty spaces
present between
cellulose fibers
Freely permeable
Cell wall
Plant CellPlant Cell
copyright cmassengale 30
Protect and support
the enclosed
substances
(protoplasm)
Resist entry of exc...
Plant Cell OrganellesPlant Cell Organelles
31
Have a large central
vacuole
Surrounded by tonoplast
Contains cell sap
Sugar...
Animal cellAnimal cell
copyright cmassengale 32
mitochondrion
nucleus
glycogen
granule
cell
membrane
cytoplasm
No cell wal...
Animal Cell Organelles
 Near the nucleus
 Paired structures
 Help cell divide
33
There are different kinds ofThere are different kinds of
plant cellsplant cells
34
Onion Epidermal Cells
Root Hair Cell
ro...
Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization
CELLS (muscle cells,nerve cells)
TISSUES (muscle, epithelium)
ORGANS (hear...
There are different kinds of “animal”There are different kinds of “animal”
cellscells
36
white blood cell
red blood cell
c...
TissueTissue
A group of similar cells to
perform a particular function
Animals : epithelial tissue,
muscular tissue, ner...
Similarities between plant cells andSimilarities between plant cells and
animal cellsanimal cells
Both have a cell membran...
More Differences between Plant CellsMore Differences between Plant Cells
and Animal Cellsand Animal Cells
39
Animal cells ...
The Structures of a Leaf (Plant
Organ)
40
Stoma
Air Space
Spongy Mesophyll
Cell
Chloroplast
Palisade Mesophyll
Cell
The Structures of a Heart (Animal Organ)
copyright cmassengale 41
OrganOrgan
Different tissues group together
to carry out specialized functions
Heart : consists of muscles,
nervous tiss...
References
 This presentation is a mashup of 3 different sources. They are:
 Nardella .M.(2010) Cell structure
http://ww...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Cell Structures

849 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
849
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cell Structures

  1. 1. Swazi Nontobeko Mhlongo Grade 10
  2. 2. Cell unit structure of life 2
  3. 3. What is Biology? Biology is the study of all living things  Living things are called organisms Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals 3
  4. 4. All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 1. Basic Unit is the Cell 2. They Reproduce 3. All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA) 4. Grow & Develop 4
  5. 5. Characteristics of Organisms 5
  6. 6. All Organisms are made of Cells 6
  7. 7. Facts About Cells Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism All cells contain living material called cytoplasm All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell 7
  8. 8. More Cell Facts  More complex cells are called Eukaryotes  These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles  Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples 8
  9. 9. Number of Cells 9 Organisms may be: • Unicellular – composed of one cell • Multicellular- composed of many cells that may organize
  10. 10. Types of CellsTypes of Cells Prokaryotes - Bacteria Eukaryotes – Animals, plants, fungi, and protists. 10 Eukaryotic CellProkaryotic Cell
  11. 11. Prokaryotes 11 Nucleoid region contains the DNA •Cell membrane & cell wall • Contain ribosomes (no membrane) to make proteins in their cytoplasm
  12. 12. Two Types of Reproduction  Sexual Reproduct ion  Involves 2 parents  Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE  Offspring DIFFERENT from parents 12
  13. 13. Cells Have a Genetic Code 13
  14. 14. Genetic Code DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) carries the genetic code for all organisms All organisms contain DNA DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work 14
  15. 15. Cells Require Food & Energy 15
  16. 16. Food Requirements Autotrophs can make their own food Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis) Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy 16
  17. 17. Food Requirements Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food They must consume other organisms Herbivores eat plants Carnivores eat meat Omnivores eat plants & animals 17
  18. 18. Basic Structure of a Cell 18
  19. 19. Eukaryotic Cell Contain 3 basic cell structures: Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm with organelles 19
  20. 20. Golgi Bodies  Stacks ofStacks of flattenedflattened sacssacs  Have a shipping side &Have a shipping side & a receiving sidea receiving side  Receive &Receive & modifymodify proteinsproteins made by ERmade by ER  Transport vesiclesTransport vesicles with modified proteinswith modified proteins pinch off the endspinch off the ends 20 Transport vesicle
  21. 21. Lysosome  Contain digestiveContain digestive enzymesenzymes  Break down food andBreak down food and worn out cell parts forworn out cell parts for cellscells  Programmed for cellProgrammed for cell death (lyse & releasedeath (lyse & release enzymes to break downenzymes to break down & recycle cell parts)& recycle cell parts) 21
  22. 22. Nucleolus  Cell may haveCell may have 1 to 31 to 3 nucleolinucleoli  Inside nucleusInside nucleus  Disappears when cellDisappears when cell dividesdivides  Makes ribosomesMakes ribosomes thatthat make proteinsmake proteins 22
  23. 23. Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum copyright cmassengale 23 Smooth ER lacks ribosomes & makes proteins USED In the cell Rough ER has ribosomes on its surface & makes proteins to EXPORt
  24. 24. In Animal Cells:In Animal Cells: copyright cmassengale 24 Active cells like muscles have more mitochondria Burn sugars to produce energy ATP Mitochondria
  25. 25. Cell or Plasma MembraneCell or Plasma Membrane copyright cmassengale 25 Living layer Controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell Selectively permeable Cell membrane
  26. 26. Cell WallCell Wall 26 Nonliving layer Gives structure and shape to plant and bacterial cells Cell wall
  27. 27. Cytoplasm of a CellCytoplasm of a Cell copyright cmassengale 27 Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place Cytoplasm
  28. 28. Control Organelle copyright cmassengale 28 Controls the normal activities of the cell Contain the DNA Bounded by a nuclear membrane Contains chromosomes Nucleus
  29. 29. Plant CellPlant Cell 29 Dead layer Large empty spaces present between cellulose fibers Freely permeable Cell wall
  30. 30. Plant CellPlant Cell copyright cmassengale 30 Protect and support the enclosed substances (protoplasm) Resist entry of excess water into the cell Give shape to the cell Cell wall
  31. 31. Plant Cell OrganellesPlant Cell Organelles 31 Have a large central vacuole Surrounded by tonoplast Contains cell sap Sugars, proteins, minerals, wastes, & pigments Vacuole
  32. 32. Animal cellAnimal cell copyright cmassengale 32 mitochondrion nucleus glycogen granule cell membrane cytoplasm No cell wall or chloroplast Stores glycogen in the cytoplasm for food energy vacuole
  33. 33. Animal Cell Organelles  Near the nucleus  Paired structures  Help cell divide 33
  34. 34. There are different kinds ofThere are different kinds of plant cellsplant cells 34 Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells
  35. 35. Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization CELLS (muscle cells,nerve cells) TISSUES (muscle, epithelium) ORGANS (heart, lungs, stomach) SYSTEMS (circulatory system) ORGANISM (human) 35
  36. 36. There are different kinds of “animal”There are different kinds of “animal” cellscells 36 white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium
  37. 37. TissueTissue A group of similar cells to perform a particular function Animals : epithelial tissue, muscular tissue, nervous tissue, and connective tissue 37
  38. 38. Similarities between plant cells andSimilarities between plant cells and animal cellsanimal cells Both have a cell membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA 38 Both share many organelles, including mitochondria
  39. 39. More Differences between Plant CellsMore Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cellsand Animal Cells 39 Animal cells Plant cells Vacuoles small or absent Glycogen as food storage Nucleus at the center Large central vacuole Starch as food storage Nucleus near cell wall
  40. 40. The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) 40 Stoma Air Space Spongy Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast Palisade Mesophyll Cell
  41. 41. The Structures of a Heart (Animal Organ) copyright cmassengale 41
  42. 42. OrganOrgan Different tissues group together to carry out specialized functions Heart : consists of muscles, nervous tissue and blood vessels Leaf : consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular tissue 42
  43. 43. References  This presentation is a mashup of 3 different sources. They are:  Nardella .M.(2010) Cell structure http://www.slideshare.net/mnardell103/cell-structure-5702506 Accessed 05 March 2014  Mcnewbold. S. (2012) Cell structure http://www.slideshare.net/mcnewbold/cell-structure-11143207 Accessed 05 March 2014  Tas11244 .v. (2011) Characteristics of lifeii http://www.slideshare.net/tas11244/characteristics-of-life-ii Accessed 05 March 2014 43

×