Plant Biotechnology Introduction


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brief introduction to cell theory plant tissue culture techniques,concept of totipotecny,callu culture and sterilizatio techniques and media component

Plant Biotechnology Introduction

  2. 2. TOPICS TO BE COVERED<br />Cell Theory <br />Plant Tissue Culture Techniques<br />Callus Tissue & Organogenesis<br />Principles Of Growth<br />Plant Regeneration<br />Concept Of Totipotency Of Cells<br />Plant Tissue Culture Lab<br />Culture Media<br />Media Components<br />Aseptic Techniques<br />Sterilization Techniques<br />Points To Remember <br />
  3. 3. Cell Theory<br />Cell theory states that:<br />All living things or organisms are made of cells & their products.<br />New cells are created by old cells dividing into two.<br />Cells are basic building units of life.<br />
  4. 4. Plant tissue culture techniques<br />
  5. 5. Callus tissue & organogenesis<br />Callus Formation Is Found On Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, pteridophytes& Bryophytes<br />Callus Contains No Organized Meristem<br />Callus Is Somewhat Abnormal Tissue which Has Potentiality To Produce Normal Roots & EmbroidsIn Turn It Develops Into Plantlets.<br />Callus May Be Hard due To Lignifications Of Cell Walls Or Brittle And Sometimes Soft.<br />Callus on a wounded plant parts or on a culture medium is made up of an amorphous , aggregate of loose parenchyma cells which proliferate from mother cells.<br />
  6. 6. Organogenesis is the development adventitious organs or primordia (embroid) from undifferentiated cell mass (callus)in tissue culture.<br />
  7. 7. Principles of growth<br />Growth<br />Self –multiplication of living materials, the protoplasm itself.<br />Increase in size (volume/length) due to cell division and subsequent enlargement.<br />Increase in dry weight.<br />Development<br />Defined as an ordered change or progress, often towards a higher, more ordered or more complex state.<br />
  8. 8. why growth occurs?<br />Expressed as division of a cell to form two cells and the enlargement of newly divided cells.<br />
  9. 9. Growth kinetics<br />First rapid phase.<br />Maximum growth rate phase.<br />Last phase.<br />
  10. 10. Power of regeneration of plants<br />
  11. 11. Concept of totipotency<br />As cell divide mitotically, they do so eqautionally to produce daughters cells.<br />G.Haberlandt’s claimed that one day it could be possible to rear plants from isolated would be rarely surviving cells of flowering plants.<br />He also sated that out of surviving somatic cells artificial embryos would be reared asexually <br />Therefore every cell within the plant has a potential to regenerate into a whole plant.<br />
  12. 12. Plant tissue culture lab<br />Media preparation room<br />Culture media, washing powder/liquid disinfectants.<br />Aseptic transfer chamber area<br />Environmentally controlled culture room<br />Analytical room<br />Acclimatization room<br />Miscellaneous items ( air conditioner, marker, match box, burner, etc.)<br />
  13. 13. Lab instruments<br />pH meter<br />Balances<br />Electronic hot air over<br />Microscopes<br />Centrifuge<br />Filter sterilizing equipment<br />Laminar air flow (LAF) cabinet.<br />
  14. 14. CULTURE MEDIA<br />A Nutrient media generally contains inorganic salts, vitamins, growth regulators, a carbon source & gelling agent.<br />Others include –organic nitrogen, hexitols, amino acids, antibiotics & plant extracts.<br />Nutrition of callus:<br />Chemical factors: minimal & plant growth regulators<br />Environmental factors: light temperature, humidity & genetic constitution or genotype of the plant.<br />
  15. 15. Media components<br />
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  18. 18. B) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS<br />
  19. 19. C) GROWTH REGULATORS<br />
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  23. 23. Aseptic techniques<br />Sterilization : destruction of living matter<br />Disinfectant : chemical agent used to kill pathogens without sterilizing matter to which chemical is applied<br />Sanitation: substantially reducing & then maintaining the micro-organism population in air & on objects in lab to acceptable levels.<br />
  24. 24. Sterilization of plant tissues<br />Sodium hypochloride (NaOCl) : 0.025%-0.25%<br />Calcium hypochloride (CaOCl): <br />Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2): 3% -10 %<br />Bromium water: 1% - 2%<br />Silver nitrate (AgNO3) : 1%<br />Mercuric chloride (MgCl2): 0.1 % - 1.1 %<br />
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  26. 26. Points to remember<br />Cell theory aspects describing the fundamentals of the “CELL”<br />CALLUS tissue<br />Totipotency<br />Growth & development <br />Media components<br />Sterilization technique<br />
  27. 27. Thank you<br />