Overview of reproductive health, women sexual and rights


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Overview of reproductive health, women sexual and rights

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Concept of reproductive health – relatively new. Emerged following ICPD Cairo Egypt, 1994. ICPD also heralded women’s sexual and reproductive rights, and constituted the framework for the development of the UN MDGs in 2000. WHAT IS REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH? Defined in relation to the positive definition of health in WHO constitution as: a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or disorder of the reproductive process.
  3. 3. 2/26/2014 RH also adopts a life-cycle approach to women’s health:  Anticipating and meeting women’s health needs from infancy through old age,  Emphasizing health-seeking behavior and appropriate services to meet women’s health needs throughout their lives, and  Recognizes the right of all women to make informed decisions about their health. 3
  4. 4. 2/26/2014 Life-Cycle approach to reproductive health 4
  5. 5. 2/26/2014 The components of reproductive health:  Safe Motherhood  Family planning  Infertility — prevention and management.  Infant and child survival, growth and development.  Prevention and management of STIs & HIV/AIDS.  Abortion — including the prevention and management of unsafe abortion. 5
  6. 6. The components of reproductive health contd  Management of Reproductive tract malignancies, and other non- infectious conditions of the reproductive system such as genital fistula, cervical cancers and complications of female genital mutilation.  Adolescent reproductive health and sexuality.  Human sexuality.  Traditional practices harmful to women  Gender discrimination — gender inequity and inequality.  Reproductive health problems associated with menopause & andropause.
  7. 7. WOMEN’S SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS Right- based approach adopted as a universal policy consensus, at ICPD Cairo, 1994, representing a paradigm shift in emphasis from family planning and demography to the right of the individual. The Concept of Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Right (WSRR) emerged and became recognized as an integral aspect of universal human right.
  8. 8. 2/26/2014 The rights based approach to reproductive health includes: Place of the health and well being of individuals at the centre of programme policy design,  Recognition of the importance of gender equity and equality, and  Building on the existing international human rights agreements. 8
  9. 9. Reproductive Rights: 2/26/2014 • This implies the right of • couples to decide freely and responsibly on the number of children • timing, and spacing of their children •have the information, education and means to do so •attain the highest standards of reproductive health • •make decisions about reproduction discrimination, coercion and violence. free 9 of
  10. 10. Sexual Right: •This implies the right of all people to decide freely and responsibly on all aspects of their sexuality • be free of discrimination, coercion and •violence in their sexual lives and decisions; •and expect and demand equality, • full consent •mutual respect •shared responsibility in sexual relationships
  11. 11. Components of Women’s Sexual & Rep. Rights: 2/26/2014 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The right to Life. The right to liberty and security of the person. The right to equality and to be free from all forms of discrimination. The right to privacy. Right to freedom of thought. Right to information and education. Right to choose whether or not to marry and to found and plan a family. 11
  12. 12. 8. Right to decide whether and when to have children. 9. Right to healthcare and protection. 10. Right to benefits of scientific progress. 11. Right to freedom of assembly and political participation 12. Right to be free from torture and ill treatment
  13. 13. AREAS OF SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS ABUSE OF WOMEN IN NIGERIA. • Unsafe motherhood: evident from high maternal mortality. Approximately 515,000 women die annually from pregnancy and child birth 99% occur in sub-Saharan Africa. - Morbidities occur in as high as 50 million women - Nigerian accounts for approximately 10% of maternal deaths. - Maternal mortality violates women’s right to life
  14. 14. UNSAFE ABORTION: • Definition (WHO) -procedure for terminating an unwanted pregnancy either by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment lacking the minimal medical standards or both. -Approximately 20 million induced abortions occur annually (95% of which occur in developing countries), causing the death of about 80,000 women.
  15. 15. - Unsafe abortion and its complication can violate the following sexual and reproductive right of women : – Right to life; – right to information and education; – the right to decide whether or when to have children; – right to health care and protection and – right to benefits of scientific progress.
  16. 16. TRADITIONAL HARMFUL PRACTICES • • • • • • • CULTURAL Female genital mutilation Early marriage Widowhood rites and widows right infringement Female disinheritance. SOCIAL Gender inequality Violence against women Women trafficking.
  17. 17. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION - Any procedure which involves partial or total removal of the external genitalia and/or injury to the female genital organs, whether for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons – WHO. • FGM violates women’s right – to health care and protection – right to be free from ill treatment and torture.
  18. 18. EARLY MARRIAGE: • Simply means when a child(below 14yrs) or young person(up to 17yrs) willingly or unwillingly goes into marriage. • Early marriage violates the following rights of the girl child – to equality and all forms discrimination – to information and education – choose whether or when to marry and plan a family – healthcare and protection – freedom from ill treatment and torture.
  19. 19. WIDOWHOOD RITES AND WIDOWS RIGHT INFRINGEMENT: - These are cultural practices usually dehumanizing often cultural accompanying human rights infringement carried out on women following the death of their husbands - These practices violates women’s right – to equality and freedom from all forms of discrimination; – choose whether or not to marry or have children – to health care and protection – freedom from torture and ill treatment.
  20. 20. FEMALE DISINHERITANCE • This refers to the cultural practice that forbid female from inheriting properties from their immediate families. • The practice violate women’s rights – to equality and freedom from discrimination, – ill treatment and torture.
  21. 21. GENDER INEQUALITY AND INEQUITY Is unequal visibility, empowerment and distribution of sexes in all spheres of private and public lives. - Inequality and discrimination against the female exist ranging from male child preference to; health and nutrition; education; politics; economy; work and employment; sexually transmitted infection. - Gender inequality violates the women’s rights to – equality and freedom from discrimination; – healthcare and protection – information and education – freedom from ill treatment and torture.
  22. 22. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Any gender based act that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual and psychological harm or suffering to women including threats of such acts,coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. Includes: • Physical violence(battery)including rape, • Domestic or intimate partner violence, and sexual and reproductive right abuse of the women.
  23. 23. It violates women’s right • to liberty and security; • equality and freedom from discrimination; • freedom from torture and ill treatment.
  24. 24. Women trafficking: All acts involved in the recruitment or transportation of women within or across national borders, for work or services, by means of violence or threat of violence, debt bondage, deception or other coercion. - Trafficking violates women’s right to • liberty and security; • equality and freedom from discrimination; • freedom from torture and ill treatment.
  25. 25. RECOMMENDED MEASURES TO PROMOTE WSRR IN NIGERIA. 1. Development of right- based reproductive health policies e.g. Free ANC delivery and family planning services for all. 2. Legislation in favour of safe motherhood and against harmful traditional practices e.g. FGM. 3. Social and economic empowerment of women through free education skills acquisition, small loans schemes. 4. Strengthening primary health services and restructuring secondary and tertiary services to meet RH demands.
  26. 26. 5. Development of rights based code of ethics and incorporation into the curriculum of medical education. 6. Domestication of international conventions e.g CEDAW 7. Reminder to man and boys of their RH responsibilities to women and girls
  27. 27. THANK YOU