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  1. 1. Vietnam War, 1800s-1975 US History American Flag at Vietnam Veterans Memorial
  2. 2. Basics Where is Vietnam?
  3. 3. 1800’s to WWII <ul><li>Vietnam was a colony of France </li></ul><ul><li>The Vietnamese elites went to school in France and were Catholic (but 90% of Vietnam was Buddhist) </li></ul>Illuminated Eiffel Tower at Bicentennial
  4. 4. During WWII <ul><li>1940 Japan takes over Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>The US supports those fighting the Japanese, including their leader Ho Chi Minh (a Communist) </li></ul>Ho Chi Minh
  5. 5. After WWII: 1945 <ul><li>European colonies in Asia ask for independence (like) Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>France refuses to give up its Asian colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam declares its independence and Ho Chi Minh as its leader </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1945-1953 <ul><li>Vietnam begins to fight its own war for independence </li></ul>French Foreign Legionnaire Heads for Battle <ul><li>By 1954: (don’t write) </li></ul><ul><li>92,000 French troops died </li></ul><ul><li>21,000 Frenchmen (rest from other colonial possessions) </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1950 <ul><li>U.S assumes 80% of the war’s cost </li></ul><ul><li>US pushes France to give Vietnam independence </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1954 <ul><li>France loses at battle of Dien Bien Phu </li></ul><ul><li>Geneva Accords - Divided Vietnam into two parts </li></ul><ul><li>Elections in 2 years </li></ul>Battle Of Dien Bien Phu
  9. 9. 1956 <ul><li>Communist North Vietnam is run by Ho Chi Minh </li></ul>Portrait of Ho Chi Minh 1957
  10. 10. 1956 <ul><li>Democratic South is run by Ngo Dinh Diem </li></ul><ul><li>Diem is a rules as a corrupt dictator </li></ul><ul><li>Has a terrible human rights record </li></ul>President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam seated at desk in 1958
  11. 11. 1956 <ul><li>Diem cancels elections in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Viet Cong formed (South Vietnamese fighters against Diem) </li></ul>South Vietnamese Combat Viet Cong
  12. 12. 1957-1959 <ul><li>Ho Chi Minh Trail - supply route from North to South (warning for next) </li></ul>760 US “Advisors” in Vietnam Aerial View of Ho Chi Minh Trail
  13. 13. 1963 <ul><li>Buddhist monks set themselves on fire to protest Diem’s anti-Buddhism </li></ul>16,000 US “Advisors” in Vietnam Ho Dinh Van Sacrificing his Life
  14. 14. 1963 <ul><li>JFK Assassinated </li></ul>16,000 US “Advisors” in Vietnam <ul><li>Diem Assassinated (probably with US support) </li></ul>Kennedy’s in Dallas Motorcade on November 22, 1963
  15. 15. 1964 <ul><li>Gulf of Tonkin Resolution </li></ul>23,300 US “Advisors” in Vietnam <ul><li>North Vietnam sends missiles across bow of US boat in Vietnamese waters </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1964 <ul><li>Gulf of Tonkin Resolution </li></ul>23,300 US “Advisors” in Vietnam <ul><li>Congress votes gives the President a blank check to wage war in Vietnam </li></ul>President Johnson Announces Retaliation for Gulf of Tonkin Incident <ul><li>No formal declaration of war is made </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1965 Developments <ul><li>Search and Destroy Mission </li></ul><ul><li>No front line in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Marines are sent into forests & villages to find the enemy </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is separating “the enemy” from the civilians </li></ul>Camouflaged Marines on Reconnaissance in Vietnam 200,000 US troops in Vietnam
  18. 18. 1965 Developments <ul><li>Napalm </li></ul><ul><li>Ignites organic things (people, plants) </li></ul>Fire From a Napalm Explosion Demonstration 200,000 US troops in Vietnam
  19. 19. 1965+ Developments <ul><li>Agent Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical defoliant (gets rid of plant leaves) </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to destroy the “cover” of the jungle used by Communists </li></ul>Spraying Agent Orange over Vietnam 200,000 US troops in Vietnam
  20. 20. 1968 - Tet Offensive <ul><li>Turning Point - Vietcong launch attack on Vietnamese new Year </li></ul><ul><li>US troops win after struggle </li></ul>Troops Fighting During Tet Offensive Troops on foot and in personnel carriers trek along a street in northern Saigon which is engulfed in smoke from fierce fighting during the Tet Offensive. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: May 6, 1968 Location Information: Saigon, South Vietnam 550,000 US troops in Vietnam
  21. 21. 1968 - Tet Offensive <ul><li>Despite victory, turns Americans against what many see as an “unwinnable” war </li></ul><ul><li>Protests increase </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson announces he will not run for reelection </li></ul>Close-Up of President Lyndon Johnson President Johnson looks serious just before he announces his decision to neither seek nor accept the renomination for the presidency. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: March 31, 1968 Location Information: Washington, DC, USA 550,000 US troops in Vietnam
  22. 22. 1969-1973 - Nixon <ul><li>Vietnamization - Turn the war gradually over to the Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>“ Peace with honor” </li></ul>A CIA employee (probably O.B. Harnage) helps Vietnamese evacuees onto an Air America helicopter from the top of 22 Gia Long Street, a half mile from the U.S. Embassy. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS Date Photographed: April 29, 1975 Location Information: Saigon, South Vietnam <ul><li>1975- South Vietnam falls to communists </li></ul>