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 India has been divided into five regions for power system planning and
operation. These regions are the Northern region, Western region, Eastern region
and North-eastern region.
 Present almost 70% of the population is enjoying the fruitsof electricity.
 The present day electricity power system is AC i.e. electric power is generated,
transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current.
 The electric power is produced at the power station, which are located at
favourable place, generally quite away from the consumers
SITE INTRODUCTION-
Location-
 The Training site is located about 1.5 Km NE of ALLAHABAD town in UTTAR PRADESH state, location
being latitude- 25.4563o N & Longitude- 81.8361o E.
 The plant and township are located near Anglobangali Inter College.
Environment Impacts on Sub-station-
 Transmission requirements and Transmission lie routing.
Temporary Construction Impacts-
 Prior to the construction of a substation the entire area is cleared of vegetation and regarded. If non-suitable
soils are encountered they are excavated and replaced.
Permanent Construction Impacts-
 The permanent impacts related to construction and operation of a new sub-station may be substantial
depending on the location of the new site and its proximity to residences.
SOME KEY DATA
 Sub-station Capacity - 132/33KV (2X63MVA)
The equipment’s shall be suitable for the system whose are as below-
 Nominal System Voltage - 132/33 KV
 Highest System Voltage - 145KV/36KV
 Frequency - 50 Hz
 Number of phases - 3
 Neutral Earthing - Solidly effectively earthing
A Single Line Diagram (SLD) of an Electrical System isthe Line Diagram of the concerned Electrical
System which includes all the required Electrical Equipment connection sequence wise from the
point of entrance of Power up to the end of the scope of the mentioned Work.
 The diagram made on the control panel is
known as mimic diagram. Colors of signals
are synchronized as follows: -
 Red – For circuit breaker or isolator
switch is in closed position.
 Green - For circuit breaker is in open
condition.
 Amber – Indicates spring is charged.
 A transformer is an electrical device that
transfers energy between two or more
circuits through electromagnetic
induction.
 In 132/33 KV Sub-station at Allahabad
(U.P), two types of transformers are
provided-
- Inter Connecting transformer
- Miscellaneous Transformer
SequenceOfEquipmentsforan incomingoranoutgoingfeeder-
L. A.
P.T. / C.V.T
C. T.
C. B.
LIGHTNINGARRESTOR
POTENTIALX-MER/CVT
ISOLATOR
CURRENTTRANSFORMER
CIRCUITBREAKER
ISOLATOR
BUSBAR
 They are commonly used in metering and
protective relaying in the electrical power
industry where they facilitate the safety
measurement of large currents, often in the
presence of high voltages.
 The current transformer safely isolates
measurement and control circuitry from high
voltage typically present on the circuit being
measured.
 The CT acts as constant current series device
with an apparent power burden a fraction of
that of high voltage primary circuit.
 Potential transformer is designed for
monitoring single-phase and three-
phase line voltages in power metering
application.
 A Potential Transformer is a special
type of transformer that allows
meters to take reading from electrical
service connections with higher
voltage.
 Potential Transformer has an
accuracy of ± 5% from 0 to 130% of
.their rated voltage
 An Isolator is a manually operated
mechanical switch which separates a
part of the electrical power system
normally at off load condition.
 While opening the circuit, circuit
breaker opens first and then isolator
& while closing the circuit the
isolator closed first and then circuit
breaker.
Following are the main protections used in substation:
 Distance protection
 Differential Protection
 Overvoltage protection
 Overcurrent protection
 Earth fault protection
 Breaker lock-out protection
 It is a protective device that
reduces excessive voltage
resulting from lightning to a
safe level by grounding the
discharge.
 It shows dual characteristics.
 During Lightning it works as
super conductor whereas
normally it works as insulator.
 CVT in a substation is used for
measurement, protection and as coupling
device in PLCC.
 In its basic form the device consists of
three parts: -
 Two capacitors across which the
transmission line signal is split, an
inductive element to tune the device
to line frequency; and
 A transformer to isolate and further
step down the voltage for
instrumentation or protective relay.
 A Circuit Breaker is an
automatically operated electrical
switch designed to protect an
electrical circuit from damage
caused by excess current from an
overload or short circuit.
 Its basic function is to interrupt
current flow after a fault is
detected.
Oil Circuit Breaker
Air-Blast Circuit Breaker
SF6 Circuit Breaker
Vacuum Circuit Breaker
 It is an electrically operated switch.
 Major types of Relay are
Electromagnetic & Static type.
 It controls High Voltage Electrical
Circuits with low voltage signal
 In GSS control panels consisting of
Relay operates at 110V DC.
Relay working
Over Current Relay
Earth Fault Relay
Differential Protection
Relay
Distance Protection Relay
 It provides a surface under
the substation which has
uniform potential nearly equal
to zero or Absolute Earth
Potential.
 It is of two types –
 Neutral Earthing
 Equipment Body
Earthing
 Battery Bank forms the heart of
GSS
 It is responsible of supplying all
the relay panels which are
situated in control room
 Typically room containing the
battery bank is dark in color to
avoid the evaporation of solution
inside the battery
 The training at grid substation has improved my understanding of the subject
electrical power transmission and distribution. During the training period, I
came to know that, there is a much difference between theoretical
understanding and practical approach to the subject.
 If we see the transformer it is shown in textbooks two windings changing the
voltage level which seems very easy concept.
 But practically it is a huge machine with a no. of parts and fittings,
protection devices each of which is designed with a very specific purpose.
 But of course to design new technology, theoretical knowledge has its own
importance but without practical touch, it is of no use.
Power System Components and Their Functions

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Power System Components and Their Functions

  • 1.
  • 2.  India has been divided into five regions for power system planning and operation. These regions are the Northern region, Western region, Eastern region and North-eastern region.  Present almost 70% of the population is enjoying the fruitsof electricity.  The present day electricity power system is AC i.e. electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current.  The electric power is produced at the power station, which are located at favourable place, generally quite away from the consumers
  • 3. SITE INTRODUCTION- Location-  The Training site is located about 1.5 Km NE of ALLAHABAD town in UTTAR PRADESH state, location being latitude- 25.4563o N & Longitude- 81.8361o E.  The plant and township are located near Anglobangali Inter College. Environment Impacts on Sub-station-  Transmission requirements and Transmission lie routing. Temporary Construction Impacts-  Prior to the construction of a substation the entire area is cleared of vegetation and regarded. If non-suitable soils are encountered they are excavated and replaced. Permanent Construction Impacts-  The permanent impacts related to construction and operation of a new sub-station may be substantial depending on the location of the new site and its proximity to residences.
  • 4. SOME KEY DATA  Sub-station Capacity - 132/33KV (2X63MVA) The equipment’s shall be suitable for the system whose are as below-  Nominal System Voltage - 132/33 KV  Highest System Voltage - 145KV/36KV  Frequency - 50 Hz  Number of phases - 3  Neutral Earthing - Solidly effectively earthing
  • 5. A Single Line Diagram (SLD) of an Electrical System isthe Line Diagram of the concerned Electrical System which includes all the required Electrical Equipment connection sequence wise from the point of entrance of Power up to the end of the scope of the mentioned Work.
  • 6.  The diagram made on the control panel is known as mimic diagram. Colors of signals are synchronized as follows: -  Red – For circuit breaker or isolator switch is in closed position.  Green - For circuit breaker is in open condition.  Amber – Indicates spring is charged.
  • 7.  A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.  In 132/33 KV Sub-station at Allahabad (U.P), two types of transformers are provided- - Inter Connecting transformer - Miscellaneous Transformer
  • 8. SequenceOfEquipmentsforan incomingoranoutgoingfeeder- L. A. P.T. / C.V.T C. T. C. B. LIGHTNINGARRESTOR POTENTIALX-MER/CVT ISOLATOR CURRENTTRANSFORMER CIRCUITBREAKER ISOLATOR BUSBAR
  • 9.  They are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safety measurement of large currents, often in the presence of high voltages.  The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from high voltage typically present on the circuit being measured.  The CT acts as constant current series device with an apparent power burden a fraction of that of high voltage primary circuit.
  • 10.  Potential transformer is designed for monitoring single-phase and three- phase line voltages in power metering application.  A Potential Transformer is a special type of transformer that allows meters to take reading from electrical service connections with higher voltage.  Potential Transformer has an accuracy of ± 5% from 0 to 130% of .their rated voltage
  • 11.  An Isolator is a manually operated mechanical switch which separates a part of the electrical power system normally at off load condition.  While opening the circuit, circuit breaker opens first and then isolator & while closing the circuit the isolator closed first and then circuit breaker.
  • 12. Following are the main protections used in substation:  Distance protection  Differential Protection  Overvoltage protection  Overcurrent protection  Earth fault protection  Breaker lock-out protection
  • 13.  It is a protective device that reduces excessive voltage resulting from lightning to a safe level by grounding the discharge.  It shows dual characteristics.  During Lightning it works as super conductor whereas normally it works as insulator.
  • 14.  CVT in a substation is used for measurement, protection and as coupling device in PLCC.  In its basic form the device consists of three parts: -  Two capacitors across which the transmission line signal is split, an inductive element to tune the device to line frequency; and  A transformer to isolate and further step down the voltage for instrumentation or protective relay.
  • 15.  A Circuit Breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit.  Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected.
  • 16. Oil Circuit Breaker Air-Blast Circuit Breaker SF6 Circuit Breaker Vacuum Circuit Breaker
  • 17.  It is an electrically operated switch.  Major types of Relay are Electromagnetic & Static type.  It controls High Voltage Electrical Circuits with low voltage signal  In GSS control panels consisting of Relay operates at 110V DC. Relay working
  • 18. Over Current Relay Earth Fault Relay Differential Protection Relay Distance Protection Relay
  • 19.  It provides a surface under the substation which has uniform potential nearly equal to zero or Absolute Earth Potential.  It is of two types –  Neutral Earthing  Equipment Body Earthing
  • 20.  Battery Bank forms the heart of GSS  It is responsible of supplying all the relay panels which are situated in control room  Typically room containing the battery bank is dark in color to avoid the evaporation of solution inside the battery
  • 21.  The training at grid substation has improved my understanding of the subject electrical power transmission and distribution. During the training period, I came to know that, there is a much difference between theoretical understanding and practical approach to the subject.  If we see the transformer it is shown in textbooks two windings changing the voltage level which seems very easy concept.  But practically it is a huge machine with a no. of parts and fittings, protection devices each of which is designed with a very specific purpose.  But of course to design new technology, theoretical knowledge has its own importance but without practical touch, it is of no use.