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Vpn 3


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Vpn 3

  1. 1. Virtual Private Networks Fred Baker
  2. 2. What is a VPN Public networks are used to move information between trusted network segments using shared facilities like frame relay or atm A VIRTUAL Private Network replaces all of the above utilizing the public Internet Performance and availability depend on your ISP and the Internet
  3. 3. Why?
  4. 4. HomeNet to the office.
  5. 5. VPN Types
  6. 6. VPN Implementations
  7. 7. VPN as your Intranet
  8. 8. What a VPN needs <ul><li>VPNs must be encrypted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>so no one can read it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VPNs must be authenticated </li></ul><ul><li>No one outside the VPN can alter the VPN </li></ul><ul><li>All parties to the VPN must agree on the security properties </li></ul>
  9. 9. VPN Components
  10. 10. Parts of a VPN
  11. 11. VPN works via crypto/Encapsulation
  12. 12. Encryption and Decryption Clear-Text Clear-Text Cipher Text 8vyaleh31&d ktu.dtrw8743 $Fie*nP093h Encryption Bob Is a Fink Bob Is a Fink Decryption
  13. 13. Basic Crypto – Keys are key
  14. 14. 2 Kinds Key Systems
  15. 15. Symmetric Key Algorithms <ul><li>DES—56-bit key </li></ul><ul><li>Triple-DES—encrypt, decrypt, encrypt, using either two or three 56-bit keys </li></ul><ul><li>IDEA—128-bit key </li></ul><ul><li>Blowfish—variable-length key, up to 448 bits </li></ul>
  16. 16. Public Key Encryption Example <ul><li>Alice wants to send Bob encrypted data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice gets Bob’s public key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice encrypts the data with Bob’s public key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice sends the encrypted data to Bob </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bob decrypts the data with his private key </li></ul>Message Alice Bob Encrypted Message Message Bob’s Public Key Bob’s Private Key Decrypt Encryption
  17. 17. PKI vs Symmetric Key <ul><li>PKI easier as you don’t have to manage keys on a per user basis </li></ul><ul><li>But MUCH more compute intensive (up to 1000 times faster) </li></ul><ul><li>Many systems do a combination I.e. PGP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use PKI to send a symmetric key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then use the symmetric key to crypto the data </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Using Crypto in real life
  19. 19. PKI to send Private Keys
  20. 20. PKI Certs a way to authenticate
  21. 21. Prove the user cert Certificates of authority
  22. 22. Digital Signature to verify data not changed in transit
  23. 23. PKI the full picture
  24. 24. Where you do Crypto
  25. 25. Technologies
  26. 26. Application Layer: SSL
  27. 27. Transport Layer: IPSEC <ul><li>A standard </li></ul><ul><li>is composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffie-Huffman key exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PKI for the DH exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DES and other bulk encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hash to authenticate packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Certificates to validate keys </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Transport Layer: IPSEC VPNs 3 parts
  29. 29. Tunnel vs Transport <ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented by the end point systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real address to real address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot ‘go through’ other networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tunnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulation of the original IP packet in another packet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can ‘go through’ other networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End systems need not support this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often PC to a box on the ‘inside’ </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (1976) <ul><li>By openly exchanging non-secret numbers, two people can compute a unique shared secret number known only to them </li></ul>
  31. 31. Modular Exponentiation <ul><li>Generator, g </li></ul><ul><li>Modulus (prime), p </li></ul><ul><li>Y = g X mod p </li></ul>2 ^ 237276162930753723 mod 79927397984597926572651 Both g and p Are Shared and Well-Known
  32. 32. Diffie-Hellman Public Key Exchange Private Value, X A Public Value, Y A Private Value, X B Public Value, Y B (shared secret) Alice Bob Y B mod p = g mod p = Y A mod p X B X A X B Y A Y B X A Y B = g mod p X B Y A = g mod p X A
  33. 33. Security Association is the agreement on how to secure
  34. 34. create the ISAKMP SA (Internet Security Association Key Management Protocol)
  35. 35. IPSEC Key Exchange (IKE)
  36. 36. IKE allows scale as I do not need to hard code passwords for each pair
  37. 37. Link Layer: L2TP for VPDN (Vir Pvt Dial Net)
  38. 38. PPTP: Free from Microsoft
  39. 39. PPTP: Security
  40. 40. VPN Comparisons
  41. 41. So why have a private network: QOS not fully cooked <ul><li>Very dependent on your ISP </li></ul><ul><li>Real hard to do across ISPs </li></ul><ul><li>So no guarantee of performance </li></ul>
  42. 42. Other Issues
  43. 43. Like Nat
  44. 44. Wireless: a new big driver, WAS (Work At Starbucks)
  45. 45. Many security protocols, depends on deployer
  46. 46. VPN means I don’t care how you connect
  47. 47. Example
  48. 48. So what could be wrong? <ul><li>VPN clients hit the network stack </li></ul><ul><li>May not play well with personal firewalls </li></ul><ul><li>Or other software </li></ul><ul><li>May not need full access to the target network just encrypted access </li></ul>
  49. 49. One answer: clientless VPN <ul><li>Use SSL as the transport protocol to an appliance </li></ul><ul><li>Can add NT authentication to the appliance </li></ul><ul><li>Clientless mode: Use web enabled applications over the Internet, the appliance SSLifies web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Java Applet: Use an downloadable applet to send traffic over SSL, get more support for applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Can work well if you want to have encrypted web based apps without redoing the application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to use SSL you need certs and have to change EVERY link to HTTPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also big hit on the server cpu </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Summary: VPNs <ul><li>Very big in the work access space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit High speed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public ‘hot spots’ like Borders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replaces direct dial into the work network </li></ul><ul><li>Replace dedicated Business partners </li></ul><ul><li>May replace the corporate WAN </li></ul>