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Concentrated Solar Power Technologies (CSP)

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Analysis of Concentrated solar power (CSP) or Solar Thermal (STH) technologies with focus on its technology assessment, financials, challenge areas and solar market scenario

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Concentrated Solar Power Technologies (CSP)

  1. 1. Concentrating Solar Power Technologies Presentation By – Swapnil Gore MS Student 5/16/2011 1 Stony Brook University, NY swapnil.energy9@gmail.com
  2. 2. Overview  Principle: Sunlight – Heat – Electricity Sunlight is concentrated, using mirrors or directly, on to receivers heating the circulating fluid which further generates steam &/or electricity.  Solar Radiation Components: Direct, Diffuse & Global  CSP uses- Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI)  Measuring Instrument: Pyrheliometerswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 2 5/16/2011
  3. 3. Solar Power Potential  Globally:swapnil.energy9@gmail.com 3 5/16/2011
  4. 4.  US:NREL analysis- ‘If only best suited sites are selected, CSP can generate about 26,400,000 GWh/year’(It is many times more than total US consumption of 3,741,000 GWh)swapnil.energy9@gmail.com 4 5/16/2011
  5. 5. Concentrating Solar Technologies Low Temperature Medium Temperature – Line High Temperature- (<100°C) Focusing (≈ 400 C) Point Focusing (>400°C) Flat Plate Collectors Parabolic Central Tower Trough Solar Chimney Fresnel Collectors Parabolic Dish Solar Pondswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 5 5/16/2011
  6. 6. Commercial CSP Parabolic Central Dish Stirling Fresnel Trough Tower Collector • Temp~400°C • Line Focusing • Linear Receiver tube • Water consuming • Conc.: Parabolic Mirrors • Heat Storage feasible • Most Commercialized • Good for Hybrid option • Requires flat land • Good receiver η but low turbine ηswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 6 5/16/2011
  7. 7. Commercial CSP Parabolic Central Dish Stirling Fresnel Trough Tower Collector • Temp~600-800°C • Point Focusing • Flat Conc. Mirrors • Commercially proven • Central Receiver • Water consuming • Heat Storage capability • Feasible on Non Flat sites • Good performance for large capacity & temperatures • Low receiver η but good turbine ηswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 7 5/16/2011
  8. 8. Commercial CSP Parabolic Central Dish Stirling Fresnel Trough Tower Collector • Temp~700-800°C • Point Focusing • Uses Dish concentrator • Stirling Engine • Generally 25 kW units • High Efficiency ~ 30% • Dry cooling • No water requirement • Heat storage difficult • Commercially under development • Dual Axis Trackingswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 8 5/16/2011
  9. 9. Commercial CSPParabolic Central Dish Stirling Fresnel Trough Tower Collector • Temp~400°C • Line Focusing type • Linear receiver • Fixed absorber row shared among mirrors • Flat or curved conc. mirrors • Commercially under development • Less Structures swapnil.energy9@gmail.com 9 • 5 MW operational in CA 5/16/2011
  10. 10. CSP Power - Brief  Good DNI range ≥ 5-6 kWh/sq.m/day  Capital Cost: $ 4-8 Million / MW (Increases with Heat Storage)  Land Required: ~ 6-10 acres / MW  Generation Potential: 25-35 MW / sq.km  Units Generated: 1.81 Million Units / year (Increases with Heat Storage)  Capacity Factor: 20 – 25% (Can be increased to 40% using Heat storage)  COGN: $ 0.10 - 0.20 / kWh  Lifespan: ~ 40 years, PPA’s are generally for 20-25 years  Pay back Period: 5-12 years (Depends on the Tariff, subsidies, incentives)  Installation Period: ~ 2-3 years (Capacity dependent)  Working Cycle: Rankine Cycle, Brayton cycle, Stirling cycleswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 10 5/16/2011
  11. 11. Existing and In-pipeline capacity Source: Estela 2010 (Figures subject to 2009-10 scenario) Current Status: • Operational- ~1.2 GW; Spain 732.4 MW, US 507.5 MW, Iran 17.3 MW, etc. • Under Construction- ~2.2 GW; Spain 1.4 GW, US 650 MW, India 28.5 MW, etc.swapnil.energy9@gmail.com 11 5/16/2011
  12. 12. Commercialized Project Analysis Andasol 1, 2 & 3 Andasol 1- First Project in Europe Capacity: 50 MW Lat- 37°13’ N, Long.- 3°4’ W, 1100m above sea level Location: Granada Province, Southern Spain Andasol 3 Andasol 2 Under Const. - Mid-2011 June 2009 Andasol 1 Nov. 2008swapnil.energy9@gmail.com 12 5/16/2011
  13. 13. Andasol 1- Specifications  Annual DNI: 2,136 kWh / sq.m. A  Technology Used: Parabolic Trough – Skal-ET 150  Land Utilization: ~ 195 Hectares (9.6 Acres/MW)  Construction Period: July 2006 – October 2008  Estimated Lifespan: 40 years  Entire Efficiency: ~28% peak, ~ 15% annual avg.  Capacity Factor: 20%  Units Generated: upto 180 GWh / Year  Uses Heat storage and Wet Cooling systems  Developers: ACS Group (75%) Solar Millennium (25%)swapnil.energy9@gmail.com 13 5/16/2011
  14. 14. Major Component- Specifications Solar Field:  Area: 510,120 m2  209,664 mirrors – 580, 500 sq.m.  ~ 90 km receiver pipes (Schott Solar & Solel Solar)  Field η = ~ 70% peak, 50% annual avg.  Sustains wind speed of 13.6 m/s  Heat Storage: • Nitrate Molten Salt type (60% NaNO3 + 40% kNO3) • Two Tank Indirect: Cold- 292°C, Hot- 386°C • Storage: 28,000t • Back up: 7.5 Hours  Water Cooling Systems: • 870,000 cu.m./year • 1.2 gal/kWhswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 14 5/16/2011
  15. 15. Workingswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 15 5/16/2011
  16. 16. Key Points  Capital Cost: $ 380 Million  Financing: Equity- 20%, Debt- 80% Carbon Emission reduction: 150,000 tonnes/year Electricity Supply Contract: Endesa Feed In Tariff: EUR 0.27 / kWh ($ 0.38 /kWh)  PPA: Date- Sept. 15 / 2008, Tenure- 25 years  Electricity to 200,000 people Annual O & M jobs: 40swapnil.energy9@gmail.com 16 5/16/2011
  17. 17. Generalized Cost Breakup (Source: NREL Report)  Considerations: 103 MW Parabolic trough plant with 6.3 hrs. of thermal storage with wet cooling Particular Total Cost (Including ~ Percent Material & labor cost) Site Improvements $ 32,171,000 3% Solar Field (Includes Mirrors, Support $ 456,202,000 45% structures, etc.) HTF system $ 103,454,000 10% Thermal Energy storage $ 197,236,000 20% Power Block (Turbine, alternator, etc.) $ 121,006,000 12% EPCM Costs (Includes professional $ 29,001,000 3% services) Contingency $ 74,591,000 7% Total Estimate $ 1,015,661,000 Cost per kW $ 9,861swapnil.energy9@gmail.com 17 5/16/2011
  18. 18. Challenges & Alternatives  Heat Storage Options developed • Molten Salt- Most Accepted; research going for single tank storage with two sections • Phase Change Materials- Research stage • Steam Accumulator- Less Duration; large area • Concrete Materials- Research stage  Receiver Heat losses- • Linear Receivers- Developed with 90%+ η • Central Tower receivers- Currently used- Receivers with multiple metallic tubes, Metallic Wire Mesh type, with a coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) which has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8. Research going on in thermal spray & chemical vapor deposition  Working Fluids- For High Temperature circulation (Higher operating temperatures result in high turbine efficiency) • Synthetic aromatic fluid (SAF)- Currently used; Organic benzene based (400°C) • Molten Salt- Developing (550°C); Eliminates HE for storage; In use for solar towerswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 18 5/16/2011
  19. 19. Challenges & Alternatives Water Consumption- Cooling Towers, Steam cycle make-up & Mirror cleaning • Wet cooling: ~ 865gal/MWh; Currently used; Water consumption • Dry cooling: ~78gal/MWh; Developing stage, Costlier, low thermal η • Hybrid cooling: ~338gal/MWh; Developing stage NREL Findings for southwest US: Switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increase of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants, but reduces water consumption by 90 %  Receiver Materials- For Sustaining High Temp and pressure; Research going on for developing high nickel alloy materials  High Capital Costs  Low Capacity Factorsswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 19 5/16/2011
  20. 20. Advantages over Competitive Technologies (Eg. PV & Wind)  Heat Storage option – Electricity Supply after Sunset  Process Heat Generation  Hybrid Option  Good for High temperature regions  Predictable and reliable power (less variable)  Water desalination along with electricity generation (Adv. In Middle east & N. Africa) Other Benefits:  Carbon Emission Reduction- CDM benefits Each square meter of CSP can avoid annual emissions of 200 to 300 kilograms (kg) of carbon dioxide, depending on its configuration.  No Fuel or its transportation cost - Substitutes Fossil Fuel use  Energy Security High share of local contents  Employment Generationswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 20 5/16/2011
  21. 21. Feasible Applications Utility / Commercial Domestic/small Scale scale  Electricity Generation  Hot Water collectors • Stand alone  Solar HVAC • Grid projects  Solar steam Cooking • Hybrid projects  Solar Ovens/cookers  Industrial Process  Solar Food dryers Heat • Boiling • Melting • Sterilizing  Cooling systems SOPOGY Micro-CSP: SopoFlare  Water Desalinationswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 21 5/16/2011
  22. 22. Development Measures  Attractive FiT, SREC and Policy Mechanisms; Eg: SREC Mechanism in NJ, CA  Tax credits /Rebates; Like: ITC of 30% in US  Grid Interconnection with HVDC; Eg: DESERTEC project  Low Interest Loans, RPS and long tenure PPA’s  On-site Resource Assessment Stations- Reliable resource Database  Setting up Demonstration Projects on Emerging Technologies  Combining CSP with existing conventional projects  R & D in major challenge areas; Eg: R&D in NREL, Sandia National Laboratories  Promote Domestic manufacturing - Cheaper equipment costs for developers  Government Land allotments; Forming SEZ’s, Solar farms for large scale installationsswapnil.energy9@gmail.com 22 5/16/2011
  23. 23. Earth receives around 174 Petawatts of energy from sun and only a small part ofit is sufficient to meet the annual world electricity consumption of 20 Trillion kWh We Just need to tap this potential Thank You Thank You Presentation By – Swapnil Gore MS Student 5/16/2011 Stony Brook University, NY swapnil.energy9@gmail.com

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