Motivating  Employees ( Theory  not  covered here, but needed for exam) Strategies Incentive  Schemes Job Enrichment  -  E...
MOTIVATION Revisiting motivation… Why  bother  ??? Attraction Development Contribution  retention employee  engagement...
Employee  Engagement <ul><li>“…  emotional  connection  - an employee feels for organization  that  influences  him or her...
Some  Key  Drivers  of  EE common  to  many  studies <ul><li>Trust and integrity – do  managers communicate and 'walk the ...
MOTIVATION  MUSINGS <ul><li>Role  of  unsatisfied  needs </li></ul><ul><li>Reward  that  satisfies  (need) may  be  Intrin...
Motivation  Musings <ul><li>Importance  of  creating  valencies </li></ul><ul><li>Importance  of  expectancies </li></ul><...
DOES  MONEY  MOTIVATE? <ul><li>Amount  should  be  significant </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating  if  rooted  in  performance <...
The  Problem  with  Money… <ul><li>Can  create  conflicts  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between employees  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
MONEY  INCENTIVES  MAY  BE <ul><li>Individual  or  group </li></ul><ul><li>White  collar  or  blue  collar </li></ul><ul><...
INCENTIVES  FOR  OPERATIONS  EMPLOYEES <ul><li>Straight  piecework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportionate </li></ul></ul><ul>...
PROBLEMS  WITH  INCENTIVES <ul><li>Erosion  of  standards  /  wrong  standards </li></ul><ul><li>allowances </li></ul><ul>...
OTHER  KINDS  OF  INCENTIVES <ul><li>PERFORMANCE  RELATED  PAY </li></ul><ul><li>SALES  INCENTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>EXECU...
SOME  MOTIVATION  STRATEGIES <ul><li>Incentives - cash/kind   </li></ul><ul><li>Status and  benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Lea...
SOME  MOTIVATION  STRATEGIES <ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling  growth </li></ul><ul><li>Training - Developm...
JOB  DESIGN <ul><li>The  specification  of  </li></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Relatio...
JOB  DESIGN <ul><li>Tasks  may  be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide  or  narrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple  or  complex <...
What  makes  a  Job  meaningful? Job Characteristics  Model of  Hackman and Oldman <ul><li>Lead  to  productivity &  quali...
Approaches  to  job  design <ul><li>Job  rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Job  enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment  </l...
Autonomous  Work  Groups  -  Self  Managing  Teams <ul><li>planning  work  /  Scheduling  work </li></ul><ul><li>decide wh...
SMTs <ul><li>Sundaram Fastners Split manufacturing  system  into  smaller  modules -  Zones of Autonomous  Production - AI...
AUTONOMOUS  WORK  GROUPS at  DR  REDDY’S-  Human  Capital – Jan 2003 <ul><li>Experiment at one Formulations  Unit  </li></...
 
Other  Companies  that  use  SMT  Human  Capital – Jan 2003 <ul><li>EID  Parry </li></ul><ul><li>Godrej </li></ul><ul><li>...
Barriers  to  implementing  Autonomous  Work  Groups <ul><li>Training  </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor  resistance </li></ul>...
Intrinsic  Motivation <ul><li>feeling  of  having  accomplished  something worthwhile </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction  from...
EXPECTANCY  THEORY MOTIVATIONAL FORCE  = VALENCE*EXPECTANCY OUTCOME 1 OUTCOME 2 2 B 2 A 1 B 1 A INSTRUMENTALITY EXPECTANCY...
PERFORMANCE  SATISFACTION  MODEL INTRINSIC REWARDS VALUE  OF  REWARD EFFORT PERCEIVED  EFFORT/REWARD  PROBABILITY ROLE  PE...
What Job Enrichment Means  <ul><li>freedom  to  Plan,   Implement  and  evaluate  work </li></ul><ul><li>Direct  feedback ...
EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>Recognising  and  unleashing  power  of  </li></ul><ul><li>individual  Knowledge  and  Internal  motiv...
EMPOWERMENT  REQUIRES … <ul><li>commitment – part  of  a  larger  process </li></ul><ul><li>Role  clarity - so you know wh...
ISSUES  IN  EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>erodes  junior/mid  management  roles  -  hence  resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Employee </l...
 
 
From Dirxions Jan 2008 YES Bank says &quot;Yes&quot; to Red Box Rewards YES Bank has engaged Red Box Rewards to manage rew...
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Motivation

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  • DNA 29/9/06 Sony India has lost a lot of its product managers. The alleged reason (apart from a buoyant job market) isa strong hierarchical culture exacerbated by the influx of Japanese maangers who have been placed in a new top management level. Thus the existing product heads, earlier reporting to the jap head of marketing now reports to a Jap manager who is part of this new level. It has blocked the growth of prospects of middle managers. From BT – 2006/07- Infy again a best place to work in While hr execs such as Maitra may have been able to meet with every employee a decade or more ago (when the workforce numbered just around 1,000), technology now helps them prepare individual career paths for Infoscions. &amp;quot;That&apos;s something that stands out for me about Infosys ,&amp;quot; says Rai. &amp;quot;Employees can choose at what pace they want to run their career. I have chosen not to run at break-neck speed, but the company is okay with that.&amp;quot; – she leaves for home at 6 pm- 32 year old Project Manager
  • Motivation

    1. 1. Motivating Employees ( Theory not covered here, but needed for exam) Strategies Incentive Schemes Job Enrichment - Empowerment
    2. 2. MOTIVATION Revisiting motivation… Why bother ??? Attraction Development Contribution retention employee engagement...
    3. 3. Employee Engagement <ul><li>“… emotional connection - an employee feels for organization that influences him or her to exert greater discretionary effort to work&quot;. </li></ul>Some Key drivers… easier for small companies...
    4. 4. Some Key Drivers of EE common to many studies <ul><li>Trust and integrity – do managers communicate and 'walk the talk'. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of the job – mentally stimulating day-to-day? </li></ul><ul><li>Line of sight between employee and company performance </li></ul><ul><li>Career Growth opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Pride in company – Association with Co a source of Self Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Coworkers/team members </li></ul><ul><li>Employee development </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with one's manager </li></ul>Consequences of EE – one study – highly engaged employees outperform disengaged by 2—28 % - one study Older emp – rewards and recognition
    5. 5. MOTIVATION MUSINGS <ul><li>Role of unsatisfied needs </li></ul><ul><li>Reward that satisfies (need) may be Intrinsic or Extrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals are motivated differently </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Inequity can de-motivate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different forms of inequity </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Motivation Musings <ul><li>Importance of creating valencies </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of expectancies </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of - ability </li></ul><ul><li>- self efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of role, task clarity </li></ul>Different Techniques - importance of money
    7. 7. DOES MONEY MOTIVATE? <ul><li>Amount should be significant </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating if rooted in performance </li></ul>The problem with money… indicates performance indicates appreciation
    8. 8. The Problem with Money… <ul><li>Can create conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between employees and organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between attainment of different goals </li></ul></ul>Types of money incentives
    9. 9. MONEY INCENTIVES MAY BE <ul><li>Individual or group </li></ul><ul><li>White collar or blue collar </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to output, Quality or any parameter that reflects a desired outcome </li></ul>
    10. 10. INCENTIVES FOR OPERATIONS EMPLOYEES <ul><li>Straight piecework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportionate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed piecework </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Hour Plans - incentive on time saved </li></ul>Problems with incentives no details required for exam
    11. 11. PROBLEMS WITH INCENTIVES <ul><li>Erosion of standards / wrong standards </li></ul><ul><li>allowances </li></ul><ul><li>short ‘termism’ </li></ul><ul><li>conflict with other goals </li></ul><ul><li>variability in earnings </li></ul><ul><li>conflicts  lack of team work </li></ul><ul><li>require frequent review </li></ul><ul><li>When not linked to the individual’s performance??? </li></ul>Other types of incentives
    12. 12. OTHER KINDS OF INCENTIVES <ul><li>PERFORMANCE RELATED PAY </li></ul><ul><li>SALES INCENTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>EXECUTIVE BONUSES </li></ul><ul><li>PROFIT SHARING </li></ul><ul><li>GAIN SHARING </li></ul><ul><li>SHARE AWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>REFERAL / RETENTION BONUSES </li></ul><ul><li>SKILL INCENTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>QUALITY INCENTIVES </li></ul>Other motivational strategies
    13. 13. SOME MOTIVATION STRATEGIES <ul><li>Incentives - cash/kind </li></ul><ul><li>Status and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Congenial organisation climate </li></ul><ul><li>Participation / Voice </li></ul>
    14. 14. SOME MOTIVATION STRATEGIES <ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling growth </li></ul><ul><li>Training - Development </li></ul><ul><li>stretch goals </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Missions that motivate </li></ul><ul><li>Job Design and Empowerment … </li></ul>
    15. 15. JOB DESIGN <ul><li>The specification of </li></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships of jobs </li></ul>McJob??? What does job design include…
    16. 16. JOB DESIGN <ul><li>Tasks may be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide or narrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple or complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual or group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Authority - how much freedom? </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions - Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>How to design a job to make it meaningful
    17. 17. What makes a Job meaningful? Job Characteristics Model of Hackman and Oldman <ul><li>Lead to productivity & quality </li></ul><ul><li>Skill variety </li></ul><ul><li>Task Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Task significance </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy - responsibility and authority </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of results </li></ul>Approaches to job design
    18. 18. Approaches to job design <ul><li>Job rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Job enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Self managing teams </li></ul>AUTONOMOUS WORK GROUPS
    19. 19. Autonomous Work Groups - Self Managing Teams <ul><li>planning work / Scheduling work </li></ul><ul><li>decide who will do what </li></ul><ul><li>controlling scrap </li></ul><ul><li>obtaining supplies </li></ul><ul><li>complete an agreed amount of work </li></ul><ul><li>often - responsibility for product quality </li></ul>
    20. 20. SMTs <ul><li>Sundaram Fastners Split manufacturing system into smaller modules - Zones of Autonomous Production - AIM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing worker skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telco - automation has reduced all low end jobs. Workers are now largely operate as self directed teams and need less supervision </li></ul>
    21. 21. AUTONOMOUS WORK GROUPS at DR REDDY’S- Human Capital – Jan 2003 <ul><li>Experiment at one Formulations Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Team of 56 young people (PUC) </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handholding group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executives – SMT members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housekeeping Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsibility of SMT – Maintenance, HR, Safety, Continuous / process improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Was result of BPR </li></ul>Other companies using SMT
    22. 23. Other Companies that use SMT Human Capital – Jan 2003 <ul><li>EID Parry </li></ul><ul><li>Godrej </li></ul><ul><li>Dupont </li></ul><ul><li>Godrej (Mercury) </li></ul><ul><li>Pepsi </li></ul>Barriers to implementing SMTs
    23. 24. Barriers to implementing Autonomous Work Groups <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor resistance </li></ul><ul><li>incompatible systems - lack of planning </li></ul><ul><li>lack of management support </li></ul><ul><li>lack of union support </li></ul>end
    24. 25. Intrinsic Motivation <ul><li>feeling of having accomplished something worthwhile </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction from doing a job well </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training for better job etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. EXPECTANCY THEORY MOTIVATIONAL FORCE = VALENCE*EXPECTANCY OUTCOME 1 OUTCOME 2 2 B 2 A 1 B 1 A INSTRUMENTALITY EXPECTANCY VALENCE - +1 to - 1 EXPECTANCY 0 - 1 INSTRUMENTALITY 0 - 1
    26. 27. PERFORMANCE SATISFACTION MODEL INTRINSIC REWARDS VALUE OF REWARD EFFORT PERCEIVED EFFORT/REWARD PROBABILITY ROLE PERCEPTIONS PERFORMANCE (ACCPMPLISHMENT) ABILITIES AND TRAITS PERCEIVED EQUITABLE REWARDS EXTRINSIC REWARDS SATISFACTION
    27. 28. What Job Enrichment Means <ul><li>freedom to Plan, Implement and evaluate work </li></ul><ul><li>Direct feedback </li></ul><ul><li>client relationships </li></ul><ul><li>new learning </li></ul><ul><li>scheduling own work </li></ul><ul><li>unique experience </li></ul><ul><li>control over resources </li></ul><ul><li>direct communication authority </li></ul><ul><li>personal accountability </li></ul>
    28. 29. EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>Recognising and unleashing power of </li></ul><ul><li>individual Knowledge and Internal motivation </li></ul>Empowerment requires authority to resolve work related problems...
    29. 30. EMPOWERMENT REQUIRES … <ul><li>commitment – part of a larger process </li></ul><ul><li>Role clarity - so you know what to delegate </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable communications and co-ordinating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Huge amounts of training </li></ul>Some issues in empowerment
    30. 31. ISSUES IN EMPOWERMENT <ul><li>erodes junior/mid management roles - hence resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Employee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>can flatten organisation hierarchies, </li></ul><ul><li>IT and empowerment?? </li></ul>
    31. 34. From Dirxions Jan 2008 YES Bank says &quot;Yes&quot; to Red Box Rewards YES Bank has engaged Red Box Rewards to manage rewards to be given to its employees for exceptional sales performance. The program aims to recognize and reward consistently good performance among its sales staff and increase overall productivity. Reward items range from cars to motor-bikes and white goods such as air conditioners and DVD players.

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