EDUC 5385 Presentation

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  • Good evening everyone, thank you for your time today. Robyn and I will be presenting on using music in learning beyond playing and reading music, you’ll notice the ironic background throughout the presentation. I just wanted to note that all of the content we’re presenting today will be in our final submission project, which will be posted online, Robyn and I wanted to avoid photocopying sheets upon sheets to hand out so whatever we do today, including lesson plans, we’ll pass on via our site.
  • So our agenda today is to do a little introduction into music, then discuss musical intelligence and the theory related to music and learning. Robyn will ground that theory by doing a few activities with you so get your singing voices ready. Tonight, this is a safe and non-judging place, so belt it out. Then I’ll discuss a little of how music can be used in the virtual classroom. Finally, we’ll leave a bit of time for discussion on this topic with some leading questions.
  • So a lot of learning style theories have multiple categories, for example, everyone knows of is the visual-spatial, oratory or audio and kinesthetic or tactile. And having read a lot of the literature, often the one thing that does come up is that a person isn’t just under one category. The one learning theory that inspires me is Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory because it touches on so many different types of intelligences. The one intelligence that he brings up is musical intelligence, he outlines a lot of the basic abilities of a musical learner such as reading pitch and rhythm, but many of these characteristics can be evident in learners who may not play instruments. So ask yourself these questions and I’ll give you a minute, with a raise of hands, how many of you would call yourself a strong musical learner? How many of you think you’re a weaker musical learner?
  • Whether you play an instrument or can’t sing at all, to some extent we have an affinity for music. Southgate and Roscigno indicated that pythagoras emphasized a relationship between music and math. So much that they indicated that recent excavations of clay tablets from 2000 BCE showed math ratios of stringed instruments, also known as tunings. Schoen-Nazzaro wrote an article examining Plato’s writings on music and the Greek philosophers believed strongly in incorporating music in education. Aristotle goes as far to say music is even more powerful than mathematics, where music has the power to effect our emotions and mathematics cannot. Gardner writes that Socrates recognized the impact of rhythm and tones in achieving different atmospheric music that provoked certain emotions.
  • So before we do activities, I’ll do a literature review so that you can think about your experience with learning with music afterwards.
  • Researchers in psychology, education, linguistics and even marketing show the impact of music and learning. It’s not just Gardner emphasizing the importance of using music in learning. Musicking is explored where the researchers learn how people use music to construct themselves such as using jazz musci to relax, or sleep or up tempo pop music to work out to create an atmosphere. In their study, they found that participants who recorded their music choices for particular activities, were able to reflect on the experience more vividly and learn about themselves. For one participant (p. 297), he was very ill during the study, he suffered from chronic fatigue and stated that he recovered quickly because of the music he incorporated into his everyday life.
  • 3 experiments were conducted, the first one, had 34 Students, both men and women (in Germany) were asked to listen to songs with neutral lyrics, their prosocial behaviour remained the same, in the second one (38), prosocial songs were played and students had empathy towards a character who described their break up in an essay. IN the third one (90), two groups formed where one had neutral songs and the other had prosocial songs, those who listened to prosocial songs were more likely to donate.
  • Rainey and Larsen (2002): Experiment 1: 79 students men and women (19 years old – mean age) – asked to memorize baseball players names from clevelandindians and boston braves (for those who are into baseball, the boston braves eventually became the atlanta braves). The names of the players were shown and sung or spoken. Those who heard the sung version, were more likely to recall the list a week later. Generally, the studies that championed music, did mention that SES play an important role, and that their method of testing was too simple in just addressing recall. Of course, those who found otherwise, often cited various factors affecting the outcome such as asking participants to say the answers rather than sing it. Or learning times were shorter or using music that participants did not enjoy or prefer. Alright, so now that we’ve reviewed the literature, it’s time to experience music and learning. Here’s Robyn.
  • EDUC 5385 Presentation

    1. 1. Beyond playing and reading musical notes:Incorporating music into the social sciences and sciences Robyn Levine-Shapiro & Silvia Vong November 28, 2011
    2. 2. ReferencesBalch, W. R., Bowman, K., & Mohler, L. A. (1992). Music-dependent memory in immediate and delayed word recall. Memory & Cognition, 20(1), 21-28.Batt-Rawden, K., & Denora, T. (2005). Music and informal learning in everyday life. Music Education Research, 7(3), 289-304.Dunlap, J. C., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2010). Hot for teacher: Using digital music to enhance students’ experience in online courses. TechTrends, 54(4), 58-73.Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Greitemeyer, T. (2009). Effects of songs with prosocial lyrics on prosocial thoughts, affect, and behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Pscyhology, 45, 186-190.Jancke, L., & Sandmann, P. (2010). Music listening while you learn: No influence of background music on verbal learning. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6(3), 1 14.Kellaris, J. J., Cox, A. D., & Cox, D. (1993). The effect of background music on ad processing: A contingency explaination. Journal of Marketing, 57(4), 114-125.
    3. 3. Kraus, N., & Chandrasekaran, B. (2010). Music training for the development of auditory skills. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 599-605.Lewis, G. H. (1999). Traps, troubles, and social issues: Country music in the social science classroom. Popular Music and Society, 23(4), 61-82.Moore, K. S., Peterson, D. A., O’Shea, G., McIntosh, G. C., & Thaut, M. H. (2008). The effectiveness of music as a mnemonic device on recognition memory for people with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Music Therapy, 45(3), 307-329.Musacchia, G., Sam, M., Skoe, E., & Kraus, N. (2007). Musicians have enhanced subcortical auditory and audiovisual processing of speech and music. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(40), 15894-15898.Paquette, K. R., & Rieg, S. A. (2008). Using music to support the literacy development of young English language learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36, 227- 232.Purnell-Webb, P., & Speelman, C. P. (2008). Effects of music on memory for text. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 106, 927-957.Rainey, D. W., & Larsen, J. D. (2002). The effect of familiar melodies on initial learning and long-term memory for unconnected text. Music Perception, 20(2), 173- 186.
    4. 4. Schoen-Nazzaro, M. B. (1978). Plato and Aristotle on the ends of music. Laval Theologique et Philosophique, 34(3), 261-273.Southgate, D. E., & Roscigno, V. J. (2009). The impact of music on childhood and adolescent achievement. Social Science Quarterly, 90(1), 4-21.Strean, W. B. (2011). Creating student engagement? HMM: Teaching and learning with humour, music, and movement. Creative Education, 2(3), 189-192.

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